Scholarly article on topic 'Converse magnetoelectric effect in laminated composite of Metglas and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 with screen-printed interdigitated electrodes'

Converse magnetoelectric effect in laminated composite of Metglas and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 with screen-printed interdigitated electrodes Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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Academic research paper on topic "Converse magnetoelectric effect in laminated composite of Metglas and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 with screen-printed interdigitated electrodes"

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Converse magnetoelectric effect in laminated composite of Metglas and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 with screen-printed interdigitated electrodes

Yuan Zhang, Guoxi Liu, Huaduo Shi, Meiya Li, and Shuxiang Dong

Citation: AIP Advances 4, 067105 (2014); doi: 10.1063/1.4881726 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4881726

View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/adva/4/6?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing

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Converse magnetoelectric effect in laminated composite of Metglas and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 with screen-printed interdigitated electrodes

Yuan Zhang,1,2,a Guoxi Liu,1,a Huaduo Shi,1 Meiya Li,2 and Shuxiang Dong1,b

1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China

2 School of Physics and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro/Nano Structures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China

(Received 26 March 2014; accepted 25 May 2014; published online 3 June 2014)

In this study, we investigate the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect in a laminated composite consisting of Metglas ribbons and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) plate with screen-printed interdigitated electrodes and operating in longitudinal magnetization and longitudinal polarization (L-L) mode. Large CME coefficients of 0.134 G ■ cm/V at frequency of 1 kHz and 2.75 G ■ cm/V at resonance frequency of 43.5 kHz under a small bias magnetic field of 7 Oe are achieved. The large CME effect can be attributed to the L-L mode and low mechanical loss of the Metglas/PZT laminated composite. © 2014 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/L4881726]

I. INTRODUCTION

Strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in multiferroic magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminated composites has received much attention due to their potential applications in multifunctional devices, such as magnetic sensors,1,2 electric write-magnetic read memory units,3 coil-free magnetic flux control devices,4-7 magnetic energy harvesters,8-11 et al. For ME composites, the direct magnetoelectric (DME) effect is that the generated strain of the magnetostrictive phase responding to an applied magnetic field is transferred to the piezoelectric phase and consequently results in an electric polarization change of the piezoelectric phase; while the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect is that the generated strain of the piezoelectric phase responding to an applied electric field is coupled into the magnetostrictive phase and then induces a magnetization change of the magnetostrictive phase.12,13 The corresponding experiment results have proved that the DME effects in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric ME laminated composites are much higher than those in single-phase ME materials or ME composites using other interphase interconnectivities.14-16 For the past few years, a majority of ME related researches have focused on the DME effect and ideal values of the ME coefficient approaching to requirements for practical applications have been obtained.17,18 However, relatively less attention has been paid on the CME effect which is indeed also both physically interesting and technologically important for designing devices with strong CME effect.

Recently, the CME effects were experimentally observed in hexaferrites.19-23 However, the obtained CME effects in the single-phase ME materials are much weaker than those achieved in some ME laminated composites of magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D and piezoelectric single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT),4 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni43Mn41Co5Sn11 and piezoelectric ceramic Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT),24 et al. Nevertheless, for Terfenol-D based CME laminated

aY. Zhang and G. X. Liu contributed equally to this work

b Author to whom corresponding should be addressed. Electronic mail: sxdong@pku.edu.cn

2158-3226/2014/4(6)/067105/7

4, 067105-1

) Author(s) 2014 i

composites, a fairly large magnetic bias field is required for obtaining strong CME effect, which is one of the main obstacles limiting their wide applications. While for the CME laminated composites using Fe-based amorphous alloy Metglas as the magnetostrictive phase, the required bias magnetic field is markedly reduced. Xuan et al25 and Cho et al,26 respectively, investigated the CME effects in Metglas/PMN-PT and Metglas/Pb(Mni/3Sb2/3)O3-Pb(Zro.52Tio.48)O3 (L-T mode, namely longitudinally magnetized and transversely polarized) laminated composites, but the obtained strength of the CME effects was weak, still far from the expectation. Li et al21 reported a giant CME effect in laminated composite of Metglas/PZT fibers sandwiched by Kapton interdigitated electrodes (IDE) (L-L mode, namely longitudinally magnetized and longitudinally polarized). On the basis of that, Yan et al2& embed IDE inside the piezoelectric ceramics using a low temperature cofiring technique for direct bonding to eliminate the effects of epoxy and Kapton film introduced into the piezoelectric phase on the CME coupling. Unfortunately, the obtained CME coupling of such laminated composite was actually weakened as the complicated processes for the piezoelectric phase reduced its piezoelectric properties. To address these problems, we introduced the screen-printed technique for fabricating the piezoelectric transducers used in ME composites. Thereupon, a large CME effect in a laminated composite consisting of Metglas ribbons and PZT plate with screen-printed IDE and operating in L-L mode was obtained.

II. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The PZT-5H green ceramic plates with no electrodes were commercially supplied by CQ SIPAT Own Core Tech Co. Ltd. Figure i(a) shows the screen-printed silver IDE on the green ceramic plate with sizes of 30 mm in length, 1 mm in width and 0.25 mm in thickness. The IDE pattern is also dimensioned in Fig. i(a). The electrode finger width and electrode finger interspace are o.25 mm and 0.15 mm, respectively. As the PZT plate is sufficiently thin, the IDE could be only coated on one side for effectively poling the PZT plate.29 Such process strategy for fabricating IDE patterned PZT plate not only simplify the technological process but also ensure the surface flatness of the PZT plate for bonding afterward. The Ag electrodes were fired at 650 °C for 30 min. The IDE patterned PZT plate was poled in silicon oil under an electric field of 2 kV/cm for 10 min at 120 °C and then cooled down naturally in silicon oil to room temperature while maintaining the poling electric field. The poled PZT plate was aged for 24 h before the follow-up processes.30 3 layers of 25 ixm thick Metglas (1K101, Advanced Technology & Materials Co., Ltd, China) ribbons with sizes of 60 mm in length and 1 mm in width were symmetrically bonded on the surface with no electrode of the PZT plate using epoxy resin (West system 105/206, USA) and then cured for 24 h at room temperature for strong bonding and good mechanical coupling. That is how to fabricate the L-L mode Metglas/PZT CME laminated composite. For comparison, the PZT plate with planar silver electrodes and poled in thickness was fabricated through the same process for L-T mode homomorphic laminated composite.

For characterizing the strength of the CME effect in Metglas/PZT laminated composites, an AC electric voltage is applied to the PZT plate, which will lead to deformation along the length direction owing to the converse piezoelectric effect. The induced deformation is then transferred to the bonded Metglas ribbons and consequently change their magnetization due to the piezomagnetic effect. In our measurements, the AC electric voltage Vin was generated by a high voltage amplifier (PINTECH 405, Taiwan, China) connected to the signal output port of a lock-in amplifier (Stanford Research 850, USA). For optimizing the piezomagnetic properties of the Metglas ribbons, a bias magnetic field Hbias was applied by placing the laminated composite between the pole gaps of a DC current powered electromagnet, which was measured using a Hall-effect probe connected to a Gaussmeter. To obtain the magnetic flux change of the Metglas ribbons, an induced voltage output Vout in a search coil of 200-turns copper wire wrapped around the laminated composite (see Fig. 1(b)) was measured by the lock-in amplifier. The induced magnetic flux density change Bind is calculated by4

Bind =

AmN to

Unit: mm

■ Jfli J- Fii n i « ii i 1 i « , = =

y il 1 1 I' j- 1 1 1 -

2 0.25

Metglas ribbons

FIG. 1. (a) The IDE patterned PZT plate through screen printing; (b) the configuration of the L-L mode Metgals/PZT laminated composites for CME measurement.

where Am is the cross-sectional area of the Metglas ribbons, N the number of turns of the search coil and m the angle frequency of the induced voltage output Vout. All measurements were conducted at room temperature. The CME coefficient aCME for the Metglas/PZT laminated composite are defined as the ratio of the induced magnetic flux density change Bind in the Metglas ribbons and the applied electric field EPZt across the PZT plate:31

acME = —-• (2)

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figure 2 shows the CME coefficient aCME of the L-L mode Metglas/PZT laminated composite as a function of the bias magnetic field Hbias at frequency of 1 kHz under an applied electric field of 80 V/cm. It can be found that aCME initially increases up rapidly to a maximum value of 0.134 G ■ cm/V at Hbias = 7 Oe which is five orders of magnitude higher than the results reported in Ref. 28 and then slowly decreases with the increasing Hbias. The phenomenon can be understood as the Hbias-induced change of the piezomagnetic coefficient d33m of the Metglas ribbons. That

1-1-■-1-1-1-1-n

0 5 10 15 20

^bias (Oe)

FIG. 2. The CME coefficient acME of the L-L mode Metglas/PZT laminated composite as a function of the bias magnetic field Hbias at frequency of 1 kHz under an applied electric field of 80 V/cm. The inset points out the linear domain of

acME-Hbias curve at the HUas range of 0 ~ 2.5 Oe.

0 ' 20 ' 40 ' 60 * 80

EpzT(V/cm)

FIG. 3. The applied electric field Epzt on the PZT plate dependence of the induced magnetic flux density change Bind in the Metglas ribbons for the L-L mode Metglas/PZT laminated composite under various Hbias at frequency of 1 kHz.

means, as the magnetic field is biased near 1 Oe, the maximum value of d33m can be obtained and hence results in a maximum aCME; while beyond this optimum Hbias, d33m decreases and leads to a decline of aCME. This very low Hbias required for maximum aCME in the Metglas/PZT laminated composite is attributed to the high permeability of Metglas, and it can be easily obtained in practical applications by permanent magnets. It is interesting that the Hbias-aCME curve is almost linear at the range of 0 ~ 2.5 Oe (see the inset of Fig. 2). This linear behavior at low range of Hbias implies a promising application for DC magnetic field detection. The applied electric field EPZt on the PZT plate dependence of the induced magnetic flux density change Bind in the Metglas ribbons for the L-L mode Metglas/PZT laminated composite under various Hbias at frequency of 1 kHz is presented in Fig. 3. It is obvious that Bind responds almost linearly to EPZT in the range of 0-80 V/cm for all Hbias, indicating that aCME, i.e. the slope of Bind-EPZT, is relatively constant in the measurement range. Accordingly, the L-L mode Metglas/PZT laminated composite can be applied for high-sensitivity electric field detection device required for ultralow bias magnetic field.

The frequency dependencies of the CME coefficients aCME for the L-L and L-T mode Met-glas/PZT laminated composites under the optimum bias magnetic field and an applied electric field of 80 V/cm are compared in Fig. 4. As can be seen in Fig. 4(a), aCME for both modes laminated composites almost keep constant values in the low-frequency range (0.5 ~ 5 kHz), and aCME of the L-L mode laminated composite exhibits a large value of 0.136 G ■ cm/V, which is 2.12 times that of the L-T mode one (0.05 G ■ cm/V). For the magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminated composites, the

FIG. 4. The frequency f dependencies of the CME coefficients aCME for the L-L and L-T modes Metglas/PZT laminated composites under the optimum bias magnetic field of 7 Oe (a) in the low frequency ranging from 0.5 ~ 5 kHz and (b) in the vicinity of electromechanical resonance under an applied electric field of 80 V/cm.

quasi-static CME coefficient can be expressed as4'27'31

(1 - n) d33

a Sta — aCME —

(1 - n) s33 + nsE

(i — 1 or 3) (3)

where B is the induced magnetic flux density in the magnetostrictive phase, E the applied electric field on the piezoelectric phase, n the thickness fraction of the magnetostrictive phase, d33m and d3i>p the piezomagnetic and piezoelectric coefficients for the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases, respectively, s3H3 the elastic compliance coefficient under constant magnetic field for the magnetostrictive phase, and siEi the elastic compliance coefficient under constant electric field for the piezoelectric phase. Note that i equals 3 and 1 for the L-L and L-T mode CME laminated composites, respectively. Under the condition that the two constituent materials and thickness fraction are fixed, aCME is in direct proportional to d3i>p according to Eq. (3). The value of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient d33>p of the piezoelectric ceramics is generally 2 ~ 3 times that of the transverse one d3^p, which can explain the results of the comparative experiments for the L-L and L-T mode Metglas/PZT laminated composites. Additionally, Eq. (3) implies that aCME is inversely proportional to sE. For piezoceramic fiber composite transducer, its piezoelectric coefficients d3i>p are unaltered compared with those of pure piezoceramics, however, its elastic compliance coefficients siEi increase with the addition of epoxy resin. Thus, the piezoceramic fiber composite transducers relative to the pure piezoceramic ones aren't optimal to be used as the piezoelectric phase in the CME laminated composites.

Figure 4(b) displays the aCME spectra of the L-L and L-T mode Metglas/PZT laminated composites. Due to the electromechanical resonance (EMR) enhancement, the peak value of aCME

for the L-L mode Metglas/PZT laminated composite at the resonance frequency of 43.5 kHz is 2.75 G ■ cm/V, which is 2.52 times that for the L-T mode one at the resonance frequency of 32 kHz. The resonant aRME at the EMR can be estimated in terms of the quasi-static one as32,33

aRes _ 8 Qm aSta (4)

aCME — 2 aCME, (4)

where Qm is the mechanical quality factor whose reciprocal (1/ Qm) is the mechanical loss of the CME laminated composite. Accordingly, the determined values of Qm for the L-L and L-T mode Metglas/PZT laminated composites are 25 and 26.9, respectively, which are much higher than that in the L-L mode Metglas/PZT fibers 2-1 composite of 14.1 in Ref. 27. That means the Metglas/PZT laminated composites possess lower mechanical loss over the Metglas/PZT fibers 2-1 composite which contains additional mechanical loss originated from the loss of Kapton film and the interstitial epoxy resin between PZT fibers.

IV. CONCLUSION

In summary, we have designed the CME laminated composite consisting of a PZT plate with screen-printed interdigitated electrodes (IDE) bonded with Metglas ribbons, which shows a large CME effect. The experimental results demonstrates that the Metglas/PZT CME laminated composite using L-L mode possesses a large CME coefficient aCME of 0.136 G ■ cm/V in the low-frequency range and 2.75 G ■ cm/V at the resonance frequency under the optimum bias magnetic field of 7 Oe. The achieved CME effect in the L-L mode Metglas/PZT laminated composite is dramatically superior to the comparative L-T mode one due to the larger longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT ceramic. And compared to the Metglas/PZT fibers 2-1 composite, the Metglas/PZT laminated composites possess lower mechanical loss owing to without the additional losses from the covered Kapton film and interstitial epoxy resin between PZT fibers. These obtained results made the Metglas/PZT (with screen-printed IDE) laminated composite operating in L-L mode be a promising component for applications of novel ME transducers and sensors.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51132001, 51072003 and 11090331).

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