Scholarly article on topic 'Video stream and teaching channels: quantitative analysis of the use of low-cost educational videos on the web'

Video stream and teaching channels: quantitative analysis of the use of low-cost educational videos on the web Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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{"Low-cost videos" / "video stream" / "teaching methodologies" / "student motivation" / "perceived efficiency"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Pep Simo, Vicenc Fernandez, Ines Algaba, Nuria Salan, Mihaela Enache, et al.

Abstract This paper presents the results of using low-cost educational videos, aimed at complementing face-to-face and distance courses of the Degrees in Industrial Engineering, Industrial Organization and Aeronautical Engineering at ETSEIAT (Technical School of Industrial Engineering and Aeronautical Engineering of Terrassa). The high speed access and the ability to create knowledge networks in which all authors can actively participate are only some of the advantages of Video Stream (Fiil and Ottewill, 2006; Michelinch, 2002) and Web 2.0, that have motivated this project. The elaborated videos, combined with text, images and questionnaires can be easily inserted into the ETSEIAT teaching platform ATENEA (Moodle), thus developing new teaching methodologies to support independent learning and enhance students’ motivation. Based on a sample of 487 students enrolled in different courses and degrees, this paper analyzes both quantitatively and qualitatively different dimensions of evaluation of new technologies in teaching (Breen et al., 2001) as well as the professors’ perspective and their perceived cost. The main research findings revealed an improved student motivation and an increase of the perceived efficiency in the learning and teaching process, without substantially raising costs.

Academic research paper on topic "Video stream and teaching channels: quantitative analysis of the use of low-cost educational videos on the web"

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Procedía Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 2937-2941

WCES-2010

Video stream and teaching channels: quantitative analysis of the use of low-cost educational videos on the web

Pep Simoa *, Vicenc Fernandeza, Ines Algabaa, Nuria Salana, Mihaela Enachea, Maria Albareda-Sambolaa, Edna R. Bravoa, Albert Suñea, Daniel Garcia-Almiñanaa,

Beatriz Amantea, Manuel Rajadella

aUniversitat Politécnica de Catalunya, ETSEIAT- Colom Street 11, Terrassa 08221, Spain Received October 23, 2009; revised December 1, 2009; accepted January 13, 2010

Abstract

This paper presents the results of using low-cost educational videos, aimed at complementing face-to-face and distance courses of the Degrees in Industrial Engineering, Industrial Organization and Aeronautical Engineering at ETSEIAT (Technical School of Industrial Engineering and Aeronautical Engineering of Terrassa). The high speed access and the ability to create knowledge networks in which all authors can actively participate are only some of the advantages of Video Stream (Fiil and Ottewill, 2006; Michelinch, 2002) and Web 2.0, that have motivated this project. The elaborated videos, combined with text, images and questionnaires can be easily inserted into the ETSEIAT teaching platform ATENEA (Moodle), thus developing new teaching methodologies to support independent learning and enhance students' motivation. Based on a sample of 487 students enrolled in different courses and degrees, this paper analyzes both quantitatively and qualitatively different dimensions of evaluation of new technologies in teaching (Breen et al., 2001) as well as the professors' perspective and their perceived cost. The main research findings revealed an improved student motivation and an increase of the perceived efficiency in the learning and teaching process, without substantially raising costs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Low-cost videos; video stream; teaching methodologies; student motivation; perceived efficiency

1. Introduction

By means of new technologies, teaching-learning methodologies at university have been improved progressively. Attention costs reduction, effectiveness increase, and teaching efficiency, have been allowed by using virtual tools and resources, as internet, and virtual environments like Moodle. In fact, Web 2.0 emergence and video-stream, opens up a new range of possibilities, such as to reduce teaching and learning costs, while increasing students satisfaction and motivation.

In this paper, results of using low-cost educational videos, designed to complement teaching and semi-face-to-face, in Industrial Engineering and Aeronautical Engineering, have been shown. By means of video stream and Web

* Pep Simo. Tel.: +34 937398171 E-mail address: pep.simo@upc.edu

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.444

2.0 advantages (Fill and Ottewill, 2006; Michelich, 2002), such as access speed, and possibility of knowledge networks creation, active participation of all stakeholders can be developed. To this end, educational videos have been elaborated, and all of them are characterized by low production cost in time and resources, by joining in YouTube channels and by locating on Moodle virtual environment. Teacher network creation, has been a collateral result, but interesting anyway.

By means of an technological tools in university evaluation questionnaire, based on Fernandez et al. (2009) and Breen et al. (2001), and based on the principles of good practice in higher education proposed by Angelo (1993) and Chickering and Gamson (1991), learning results and students satisfaction have been analyzed. Finally, reflection on advantages and disadvantages of the public use of video stream -based educational channel and potential as schools and colleges corporative image, have been carried out.

2. Video stream as teaching-learning tool

Within innovative teaching at university framework, the use of information technology and communication (ICT) tools becomes an increasingly common practice. These technologies are new and emerging in education, allowing active methodologies incorporation in the teaching-learning paradigm, so tangible and relevant in European universities while European Higher Education Area development and implementation associated with Bologna proposals.

Thus, the use of new teaching-learning tools, as chat (Boling, 2008), videoconference (Anastasiades, Vitalaki and Gertzakis, 2008), postcasting and networked educational videos (Fernandez, Simo and Sallan, 2009), are tools in expansion within the academic setting. But the speed with which these technologies have appeared and progressively consolidated, lead to get first evidences in this moment and draw real possibilities scenario, in order to identify more efficient and effective learning methodologies and improve teaching quality.

According to Caspi, Gorsky and Privman (2005), educational videos can be divided into three categories, depending on use and purposes: demonstration videos, narrative videos and lecture sessions videos. First of these categories, demonstration videos, are a really good tool in order to allow and improve autonomous learning, becoming much more effective than other methodologies based on more traditional methods, such as books and written or oral manuals (Wisher and Curnow, 1999). Therefore, this methodology allows faculty, especially in technology related areas, to develop new teaching and learning strategies, adding a new dimension in the teaching material.

Thus, we can say that digital video adds a new dimension in audio-visual teaching aimed materials. Moreover, fast development of new technologies and low costs related to stream video recording, edition and production, make this tool available to faculty, allowing own audiovisual creation, according the own needs and by means of economic cost similar to required for slide shows presentation in any suitable software (e.g., PowerPoint, Impress).

2.1. Video streaming

Video streaming can be defined as video which can be played by means of an Internet data stream, directly on a website, in real time, without having to download previously can be played (Shephard, 2003). In an easier way, it can be described as "click and get" videos, incorporating on-demand strategy concept for content distribution. Owing to the advantages that are associated with streaming video technology, two very important roles in higher education are identified. On the one hand, video stream become an education tool with many future possibilities and ready to explore; on the other, it has become an outreach and institutional advertising tool for universities (Fill and Ottewill, 2006). To this, learning-oriented motivational capability related to video, must be added (Marx and Frost, 1999).

In the actual scenario, where knowledge supply is exceeding demand, teachers compete for the so-called "economy of attention" (Simon, 1971; Goldhaber, 1997, Davenport and Beck, 2001). Internet audiovisual content viewing, taking advantage of splitting them up into small sections and by combining them with other teaching-learning resources such as text, graphics or questionnaires, whether on websites, forums or wikis, should increase motivation and attention of students. Moreover, stream video technology is widely well known by students, in terms of entertainment, and allows viewing in multiple suits (iPods, mobile phones with Internet connection), beyond the computer.

Furthermore, students' access to high quality-low cost learning materials from anywhere, across multiple platforms, can be guaranteed. For teachers, network itself provides a set of resources that allow, only by means of a network connected computer and without software installation nor any specific hardware carrying, viewing audiovisual contents in sessions, with the added security that same material can be easily replayed by students as often as necessary. Even for semi-presential and non-presential courses, this methodology allows teachers to devise new communication and students-interaction strategies.

3. Methodology

Empirical research carried out by this work, consists of a horizontal study on twenty-five subjects from Industrial Engineering and Aeronautical Engineering careers, taught in classroom based and semi-presential way at the ETSEIAT (High Industrial and Aeronautic Engineering School), center of Tech University of Catalonia (UPC). The study was conducted during 2008/2009 academic year, introducing educational videos with different levels of use, either in the classroom sessions, integrated in web and into educational platforms, or directly into YouTube channels for later playback. For new technologies in higher education evaluation and data analysis collection, a questionnaire designed by Fernandez et al. (2009) and Breen et al. (2001) an assessment rubric were provided to students to the middle of each course.

3.1. Audiovisual material elaboration and teacher formation

One of the key specifications of this research was focused on the concept of low cost educational video, which implied finding ways to produce and distribute audiovisual teaching equipment minimizing the costs of tangible and intangible, that is, both in terms of physical resources and economic, as in actual time spent by faculty in the design and creation of audiovisual material.

A condition setting was not requiring advanced levels of computing to video creation and edition for teachers. Free or very common license management video software, were choose as better options programs, also for distribution. Finally, audiovisual teaching materials preparation time, must not exceed even less than other conventional teaching materials (e.g., books, manuals, cases, slides), in all cases, without sacrificing quality. To meet these requirements, desktop publishing and production software, available for users from university licenses, and free downloaded software, were used.

Subjects selection considered in this work are related to an open call answer from community of faculty. From here, working group composed of teachers who taught in teaching qualifications and cited a total of twenty-five subjects, was defined. Once work setting identified, conventional teaching shortcomings, both teachers' perceptions and occasional students' queries or messages reported. This allowed to teaching-learnig gaps identification and definition of different strategies and training needs, related and tailored to needs selected by teachers involved in this active research.

Teachers training was developed by means of semi-presential course, working on examples perfectly tailored to attendees needs, and with the main objective of providing autonomy. Trend lines were related to ensure that all involved teachers would be able to create their own low cost videos to complement and enhance their teaching, also creating own YouTube channels, linked in a video channels network, in order to achieve knowledge and level enough for videos use and distribution in Moodle based ATENEA platform.

3.2. YouTube channels and video integration with Moodle

Among the multitude of platforms available for videos open access distribution, including some already existing at university, YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) has been selected for this purpose. YouTube production and dissemination costs are minimal, and YouTube video managing is as easy as slides setting in university open access repository (e.g., UPCommons). Furthermore, in order to create a network between teachers, creation of a common channel for relating all YouTube teachers channel, has been considered. This channel (http://www.youtube.com/user/upcetseiat) was designed with members' videos (conferences, information, educational and cultural activities) and with a classic advertising corporate communication channel sense, but also adding a set of playlists with all members teaching videos. By subscriptions to teachers' channels (links), a network

of educational channels has been easy to create, where the central element was Faculty/University channel school, but inviting the user to navigate within a set of educational and scholars' contents.

Finally, integration of educational videos in the existing platform at university (ATENEA), has been performed. ATENEA is a Moodle-based web application that enables integration of high quality and variety of online multimedia resources available through an architecture based on PHP language and MySQL database. Thus, YouTube hosted videos insertion was a simple task and allowed different modes, from simple combination of video and text insertion (fig. 2), to multiple combined video, text, quizzes and other online resources.

4. Evaluation sample and results

Evaluation of such kind of resources has been an activity that required the execution of judgments on those elements that bring value to the learning process (Scanlon & Issroff, 2005). As Breen et al. (2001) and Fernandez et al. (2009) previous work, by suggestion of university technology tools assessment proposal, a list of 15 assessment elements has been considered in this work: specificity, efficiency, consolidation handiness, accessibility handiness, interest, accidental discovery, interaction, circulation, overload information, quality of information, failure, preparation, competitiveness for access, availability and attractiveness. The results obtained on a sample of more 487 students, in different subjects, are discussed in table 1.

Table 1. Obtained results from the sample N = 487 (1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree)

Efficiency of low-cost educational videos Average Standard Deviation

Specificity 3,79 0,78

Efficiency 3,85 1,01

Consolidation handiness 3,87 1,08

Accessibility handiness 3,85 0,99

Interest 3,83 0,85

Accidental discovery 3,79 0,76

Interactivity 3,57 0,94

Circulation 3,12 1,05

Overload information (reverse) 2,42 1,08

Quality information 3,49 1,10

Preparation (reverse) 2,56 1,01

Failure (reversed) 2,12 1,10

Competitiveness for access (reversed) 2,42 1,06

Availability 3,71 0,90

Atractiveness 3,64 0,85

5. Conclusions and future lines

To conclude this active research and implementation of this teaching innovation project, it was found that the sharing of educational videos and text resources in the existing educational platforms (ATENEA) has been high value and interest considered, for conventional subjects teaching and also for taught in the semi-presential mode. One of the main effects was improvement detected in student motivation and, consequently, improvement in the teaching-learning process.

However, teachers of different subject considered in this work, after analyzing evaluation results, concluded that:

• The number of hits is greatly reduced, because students can improve their ability to learn independently

• Discussion and cooperative learning have been encouraged, because dynamic teaching materials can promote searching for new audiovisual materials by students, and therefore, the impact on improved quality of teaching-learning process is high.

• Creating and editing software selection for teachers, in order to achieve a minimum level of autonomy in elaboration of own dynamic teaching material, is part of their ongoing training and therefore is a key element in improving own teaching.

• While students prefer, for the same quantity and quality of information, a short video to long paragraphs written in response to particular explanations, this substitution is considered adequate only if associated with a complementary process, because video not offer a global vision of education.

• In despite the video allows quick and easy viewing of a particular process, it provides an overview and therefore must not be considered itself main element of training. So a video that written explanations are added associated with audiovisual content is an excellent teaching material, as it provides a clear and complete idea of a particular event or process.

• Educational short and low cost videos creation, allows reuse in other courses, besides own for which them were created. Teacher who use YouTube channel allows university community access into own teaching materials easily, in multiple applications, without losing authorship rights. In conclusion, this option increases visibility of teachers work and allows finding new synergies between different departments, as shown by the results of this investigation.

Finally, authors recommend and encourage such initiatives in different universities, because very positive results are the best result and conclusion. YouTube channels creation can help teacher, in the near future, knowledge extension more easily, in own university of among others, helping interchange of knowledge, creating synergies beyond the universities in their own teaching materials.

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