Scholarly article on topic 'Phase equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite formation in NCKFMASHTO and MnNCKFMASHTO systems: A case study from Rajapalaiyam, Madurai Block, southern India'

Phase equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite formation in NCKFMASHTO and MnNCKFMASHTO systems: A case study from Rajapalaiyam, Madurai Block, southern India Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Geoscience Frontiers
Keywords
{"Incipient charnockite" / Granulite / Pseudosection / "Reduced fluid" / Petrology / "Southern India"}

Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Takahiro Endo, Toshiaki Tsunogae, M. Santosh, E. Shaji

Abstract Incipient charnockites represent granulite formation on a mesoscopic scale and have received considerable attention in understanding fluid processes in the deep crust. Here we report new petrological data from an incipient charnockite locality at Rajapalaiyam in the Madurai Block, southern India, and discuss the petrogenesis based on mineral phase equilibrium modeling and pseudosection analysis. Rajapalaiyam is a key locality in southern India from where diagnostic mineral assemblages for ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism have been reported. Proximal to the UHT rocks are patches and lenses of charnockite (Kfs + Qtz + Pl + Bt + Opx + Grt + Ilm) occurring within Opx-free Grt-Bt gneiss (Kfs + Pl + Qtz + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Mt) which we report in this study. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on the charnockitic assemblage in NCKFMASHTO system yields a p-T range of ∼820 °C and ∼9 kbar. Modeling of the charnockite assemblage in the MnNCKFMASHTO system indicates a slight shift of the equilibrium condition toward lower p and T (∼760 °C and ∼7.5 kbar), which is consistent with the results obtained from geothermobarometry (710–760 °C, 6.7–7.5 kbar), but significantly lower than the peak temperatures (>1000 °C) recorded from the UHT rocks in this locality, suggesting that charnockitization is a post-peak event. The modeling of T versus molar H2O content in the rock (M(H2O)) demonstrates that the Opx-bearing assemblage in charnockite and Opx-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss are both stable at M(H2O) = 0.3 mol%–0.6 mol%, and there is no significant difference in water activity between the two domains. Our finding is in contrast to the previous petrogenetic model of incipient charnockite formation which envisages lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through breakdown of biotite by dehydration caused by the infiltration of CO2-rich fluid. T-X Fe3+ (=Fe2O3/(FeO + Fe2O3) in mole) pseudosections suggest that the oxidation condition of the rocks played a major role on the stability of orthopyroxene; Opx is stable at X Fe3+ <0.03 in charnockite, while Opx-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss is stabilized at X Fe3+ >0.12. Such low oxygen fugacity conditions of X Fe3+ <0.03 in the charnockite compared to Grt-Bt gneiss might be related to the infiltration of a reduced fluid (e.g., H2O + CH4) during the retrograde stage.

Academic research paper on topic "Phase equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite formation in NCKFMASHTO and MnNCKFMASHTO systems: A case study from Rajapalaiyam, Madurai Block, southern India"

GEOSCIENCE FRONTIERS 3(6) (2012) 801-811

available at www.sciencedirect.com China University of Geosciences (Beijing)

GEOSCIENCE FRONTIERS

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/gsf

RESEARCH PAPER

Phase equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite formation in NCKFMASHTO and MnNCKFMASHTO systems: A case study from Rajapalaiyam, Madurai Block, southern India

Takahiro Endo a, Toshiaki Tsunogae a b *, M. Santosh c d, E. Shajie

a Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan

Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa c Division of Interdisciplinary Science, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520, Japan

China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, China e Department of Geology, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom, Trivandrum 695 581, India

Received 26 March 2012; received in revised form 2 May 2012; accepted 17 May 2012 Available online 26 May 2012

KEYWORDS

Incipient charnockite; Granulite; Pseudosection; Reduced fluid; Petrology; Southern India

Abstract Incipient charnockites represent granulite formation on a mesoscopic scale and have received considerable attention in understanding fluid processes in the deep crust. Here we report new petrological data from an incipient charnockite locality at Rajapalaiyam in the Madurai Block, southern India, and discuss the petrogenesis based on mineral phase equilibrium modeling and pseudosection analysis. Rajapalaiyam is a key locality in southern India from where diagnostic mineral assemblages for ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism have been reported. Proximal to the UHT rocks are patches and lenses of charnockite (Kfs + Qtz + Pl + Bt + Opx + Grt + Ilm) occurring within Opx-free Grt-Bt gneiss (Kfs + Pl + Qtz + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Mt) which we report in this study. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on the charnockitic assemblage in NCKFMASHTO system yields a p-T range of ~820 °C and ~9 kbar. Modeling of the charnockite assemblage in the MnNCKFMASHTO system

* Corresponding author. Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.

E-mail address: tsunogae@geol.tsukuba.ac.jp (T. Tsunogae). 1674-9871 © 2012, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Peer-review under responsibility of China University of Geosciences (Beijing).

doi:10.1016/j.gsf.2012.05.005

indicates a slight shift of the equilibrium condition toward lower p and T (~760 °C and ~7.5 kbar), which is consistent with the results obtained from geothermobarometry (710—760 °C, 6.7—7.5 kbar), but significantly lower than the peak temperatures (>1000 °C) recorded from the UHT rocks in this locality, suggesting that charnockitization is a post-peak event. The modeling of T versus molar H2O content in the rock (M(H2O)) demonstrates that the Opx-bearing assemblage in charnockite and Opx-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss are both stable at M(H2O) = 0.3 mol%—0.6 mol%, and there is no significant difference in water activity between the two domains. Our finding is in contrast to the previous petrogenetic model of incipient charnockite formation which envisages lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through breakdown of biotite by dehydration caused by the infiltration of CO2-rich fluid. T-XFe3+ ( = Fe2O3/(FeO + Fe2O3) in mole) pseudosections suggest that the oxidation condition of the rocks played a major role on the stability of orthopyroxene; Opx is stable at XFe3+ <0.03 in charnockite, while Opx-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss is stabilized at XFe3+ >0.12. Such low oxygen fugacity conditions of XFe3+ <0.03 in the charnockite compared to Grt-Bt gneiss might be related to the infiltration of a reduced fluid (e.g., H2O + CH4) during the retrograde stage. © 2012, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India is known as one of the classic examples of regionally metamorphosed granulite-facies complexes formed during late Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian (~0.55 Ga, e.g., Braun et al., 1998; Santosh et al., 2003, 2006a,b, 2009; Collins et al., 2007a,b) collisional orogeny related to the amalgamation of Gondwana supercontinent. The SGT is composed of several granulite blocks (e.g., Trivandrum Block, Madurai Block, Nilgiri Block) and shear/suture zones that dissect these blocks (Fig. 1a). The SGT has also been in focus with regard to granulite formation on a mesoscopic scale where orthopyroxene-bearing patches, veins and lenses termed as "incipient charnock-ites" have developed within garnet-biotite gneisses representing dehydration induced by fluids (e.g., Santosh et al., 1990; Raith and Srikantappa, 1993; Tsunogae and Santosh, 2003; Endo et al., 2012).

The Rajapalaiyam area in the southern margin of the Madurai Block is a key locality in the SGT, where sapphirine + quartz assemblage was first reported from southern India by Tateishi et al. (2004), suggesting peak metamorphism at ultrahigh-temperature conditions of ~ 1000 °C. In this study, we report the occurrence of incipient charnockites in a gneissic quarry close to the sapphirine + quartz locality (Fig. 1b). We present new mineralogical and petrological data on the incipient char-nockite and surrounding orthopyroxene-free gneiss and apply mineral equilibrium modeling to evaluate the petrogenesis of the charnockite formation. For the phase analysis, we adopted the complex system, including TiO2, Fe2O3, and MnO for the application to natural rocks. Particularly, this is the first attempt to apply MnNCKFMASHTO system on charnockites, and our results challenge the existing models on incipient charnockite genesis.

Figure 1 (a) Geological map of southern India showing various granulite blocks and major shear/suture zones (modified after GSI, 1995; Santosh and Sajeev, 2006) and the locality of incipient charnockite (star) discussed in this study. ACSZ: Achankovil Shear Zone, PCSZ: Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone, CSZ: Cauvery Shear Zone. (b) Geological map of the area and sample location.

2. Geological setting

The Madurai Block in the SGT is composed dominantly of massive charnockites, hornblende-biotite orthogneiss, metasediments, marble/calc-silicate associations, mafic/ultramafic rocks, Mg-Al-rich rocks, and late alkali-feldspar granites. The pelitic and Mg-Al-rich units preserve the evidence for peak UHT metamorphism as confirmed by the occurrence of some key minerals or mineral assemblages such as sapphirine + quartz, orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz, spinel + quartz, Al-rich orthopyroxene, and mesoperthite (e.g., Sajeev et al., 2004; Tamashiro et al., 2004; Tateishi et al., 2004; Tsunogae and Santosh, 2006, 2010, 2011; Santosh and Sajeev, 2006; Braun et al., 2007; Tsunogae et al., 2008; Kondou et al., 2009). The timing of UHT metamorphism in this region has been constrained as 550—520 Ma, associated with the final assembly of the Indian fragment within the Gondwana supercontinent (Santosh et al., 2006b). At Rajapalaiyam, the dominant rock types are garnet-bearing granulites (dominantly quartzo-feldspathic and pelitic gneisses) intruded by pink alkali-feldspar granite (Fig. 1b). The granulites show NNW-SSE trending foliation with steep dips (85°) toward NE with well-defined alternation of garnet-orthopyroxene-rich and quartzo-feldspathic layers. Sriramguru et al. (2002) first reported sapphirine in this locality from pelitic xenoliths (garnet + orthopyroxene + cordierite + spinel + plagioclase + perthite) in the alkali-feldspar granite, and determined peak temperatures of 860 °C from garnet-orthopyroxene geothermometer and 950 ° C from feldspar thermometer on mes-operthite. Tateishi et al. (2004) reported fine-grained intergrowth of sapphirine + quartz within porphyroblastic garnet in pelitic and quartzo-feldspathic granulites from the locality and inferred peak metamorphism at >1000 °C, which is consistent with their temperature estimates using ternary feldspar and sapphirine-spinel geothermometers (950—1000 °C). Tsunogae and Santosh (2006, 2010) performed detailed investigation on various reaction textures in sapphirine + quartz bearing granulites and estimated peak p-T condition of 1050—1070 °C and 8.5—9.5 kbar, which was followed by isobaric cooling from sapphirine + quartz field to orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz field and subsequent decompression to form various corona textures.

The gneiss-incipient charnockite pairs analyzed in this study were collected from a previously unreported quarry located about 200 m east-southeast of the UHT locality from where Tateishi et al. (2004) first reported sapphirine + quartz assemblage. Both exposures are along quarried hillocks about 4 km east-southeast of the Rajapalaiyam town (Fig. 1). The locality exposes charnockites occurring within foliated orthopyroxene-free garnet-biotite (Grt-Bt) gneiss (Fig. 2a). The Grt-Bt gneiss is the dominant lithology in the quarry. Foliation defined by alternation of pink K-feldspar-rich layers and quartz + biotite - rich gray layers can be seen in weathered surface (Fig. 2b). Irregular patches or lenses of dark grayish to brownish charnockite are present throughout the quarry. The size of the patches varies from 50 cm to up to 3 m. Although foliation is obvious in the Grt-Bt gneiss, it disappears while passing into the charnockite patches (Fig. 2b). The lack of foliation observed in the present case is closely comparable with a similar feature displayed by gneiss-incipient charnockite locations elsewhere in southern India (e.g., Pichamuthu, 1960; Santosh et al., 1990; Raith and Srikantappa, 1993). The charnockite patches in the Rajapalaiyam quarry do not show any systematic distribution pattern, although a prominent structural control in incipient charnockite patches has

been described in previous studies from other localities (e.g., Santosh et al., 1990; Raith and Srikantappa, 1993). Two representative samples (charnockite (sample MD31-3A) and Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B)) collected from this quarry were examined in detail.

3. Petrography

The Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B) is composed mainly of K-feldspar (30%-40%), plagioclase (20%-30%), quartz (20%-30%), biotite (3%-5%), and garnet (1%-3%), with accessory apatite, zircon, and Fe-Ti and Fe oxides (Fig. 2c, d). Coarse-grained (up to 3.4 mm) K-feldspar is the most dominant mineral in the sample and occurs as subidioblastic porphyroblast showing perthitic texture. Quartz (0.3-4.2 mm) and plagioclase (0.6-2.5 mm) are also coarse grained and scattered in the matrix. Garnet (0.8-1.3 mm) is sub-idioblastic and contains minor inclusions of quartz. Brownish biotite (0.3-1.6 mm) occurs along grain boundaries of quartz and feldspars, and is often aligned along the rock foliation.

The charnockite sample (MD31-3A) is composed of plagioclase (25%-35%), K-feldspar (25%-35%), quartz (20%-30%), ortho-pyroxene (3%-5%), biotite (2%-3%), and Fe-Ti oxide (2%-3%) (Fig. 2e, f). Accessory minerals are apatite and zircon. The measured grain size of plagioclase (0.5-2.1 mm), quartz (0.4-4.0 mm), K-feldspar (0.5-2.9 mm), and biotite (0.3-1.2 mm) are nearly consistent with those in Grt-Bt gneiss, although a coarsening of grain size in charnockite as compared to the surrounding orthopyroxene-free gneiss is reported from many incipient char-nockite localities (e.g., Santosh et al., 1990). Plagioclase shows antiperthitic texture with thick (~30 mm) exsolution lamellae of K-feldspar. Orthopyroxene (0.4-2.2 mm) is subidioblastic to xenoblastic, and occurs along grain boundaries of quartz and feldspars. Biotite occurs in the matrix and is not associated with orthopyroxene, due to which we regard the mineral as a prograde/ peak phase, although biotite is often regarded as a retrograde mineral in charnockite. Garnet is rare but its presence was identified during mineral separation. The opaque mineral is dominantly ilmenite and no magnetite was found in the rock. We therefore regard K-feldspar + quartz + plagioclase + biotite + garnet + orthopyroxene + ilmenite as the stable mineral assemblage during high-grade metamorphism.

4. Mineral chemistry

Chemical analyses of all minerals were carried out using an electron microprobe analyzer (JEOL JXA8530F) at the Chemical Analysis Division of the Research Facility Center for Science and Technology, the University of Tsukuba. The analyses were performed under conditions of 15 kV accelerating voltage and 10 nA sample current, and the data were regressed using an oxide-ZAF correction program supplied by JEOL. Below we summarize the salient results from mineral chemistry data from the analyzed rocks. Representative compositions of minerals are given in Table 1.

4.1. Garnet

Garnet in the Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B) is essentially a solid solution of pyrope and almandine (XMg = Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.22). It shows low grossular (4 mol%-6 mol%) and spessartine (7 mol%-8 mol%) contents (Table 1). The mineral displays a slight rimward increase of almandine content and decrease of grossular content such

Figure 2 Field and thin-section photographs of charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss discussed in this study. (a) Dark brownish patches of charnockite (CH) in Grt-Bt gneiss (GBG) from Rajapalaiyam in the Madurai Block. (b) Enlarged photograph of charnockite patch in Grt-Bt gneiss. Foliation of the Grt-Bt gneiss is defined by alternation of quartzo-feldspathic and Grt-Bt-rich layers, which disappears in charnockite. (c) and (d) Photomicrographs of Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B). (e) and (f) Photomicrograph of charnockite (sample MD31-3A). (c) and (e) are polarized light, while (d) and (f) are crossed polars.

as Alm<56-67 P1P19-20 Grss-6 Sps8 (core) to Alm67-69 P1P19-20 Grs^s Sps8 (rim), which is a common compositional zoning pattern of garnet in granulites. Garnet in charnockite (sample MD31-3A) has higher almandine, grossular, and spessartine contents (Alm70-71 Prp12-13 Grs6-7 Sps10-11) than that of Grt-Bt gneiss.

which the orthopyroxene in sample MD31-3A of present study is classified as metamorphic in origin. The mineral contains w(MnO) up to 2.1%.

4.3. Biotite

4.2. Orthopyroxene

Orthopyroxene in the charnockite (sample MD31-3A) is Fe-rich as XMg = 0.38. Al content in the mineral is low as 0.05—0.06 pfu (w(Al2O3) = 1.2%—1.4%), which is a common feature of the charnockites in southern India (e.g., Rajesh et al., 2011). Rajesh et al. (2011) distinguished magmatic and metamorphic orthopyr-oxenes on the basis of XMg and XAl ratios of the mineral, based on

Matrix biotite in sample MD31-3B (Grt-Bt gneiss) is characterized by high w(TiO2) content (4.3%—4.7%, Ti = 0.49—0.53 pfu) and XMg (0.47—0.48). Biotite included in garnet shows significantly higher XMg of 0.64, although its w(TiO2) content is similar to the matrix phase (4.4%, Ti = 0.50 pfu). The biotite in sample MD31-3A (charnockite) is slightly TiO2-poor (w(TiO2) = 3.9%—4.0%, Ti = 0.44—0.46 pfu) and less magne-sian (XMg = 0.46).

Table 1 Representative electron microprobe analyses of minerals MD31-3B) from Rajapalaiyam. in charnockite (CH, sample MD31-3A) and Grt-Bt gneiss (GBG, sample

Lithology CH CH GBG GBG CH GBG CH GBG CH GBG GBG

Mineral name Opx Grt Grt Grt Pl Pl Kfs Kfs Bt Bt Bt

Oa 6 12 12 12 8 8 8 8 22 22 22

Remarks Core Rim Matrix In Grt Matrix

S1O2 49.89 37.29 38.90 38.73 63.13 62.67 64.97 65.58 36.67 37.78 36.76

Al2O3 1.60 20.81 21.24 20.97 22.51 23.15 18.39 18.42 13.91 14.38 14.75

T1O2 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.10 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.75 4.43 4.57

&2O3 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.05 0.00

FeOb 34.90 31.61 30.21 30.34 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.02 20.92 14.42 20.74

MnO 2.07 4.79 3.59 3.66 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.25 0.03 0.12

MgO 12.12 3.08 4.84 4.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.22 14.26 10.16

CaO 0.26 2.17 2.08 1.72 4.30 4.94 0.17 0.14 0.05 0.00 0.00

Na2O 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.08 9.14 8.75 1.95 2.12 0.10 0.22 0.15

K2O 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.42 0.16 14.05 13.69 9.52 9.81 9.71

Total 100.93 99.96 100.93 100.35 99.57 99.77 99.62 100.04 95.41 95.37 96.96

Si 1.969 3.004 3.048 3.055 2.808 2.782 2.995 3.003 5.653 5.636 5.563

Al 0.074 1.976 1.961 1.949 1.180 1.211 0.999 0.994 2.527 2.528 2.630

Ti 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.006 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.434 0.497 0.520

Cr 0.000 0.008 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.006 0.000

Fe2+ 1.152 2.129 1.979 2.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 2.695 1.798 2.624

Mn 0.069 0.326 0.238 0.245 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.032 0.003 0.015

Mg 0.713 0.369 0.564 0.555 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.346 3.169 2.290

Ca 0.011 0.187 0.174 0.145 0.205 0.235 0.008 0.007 0.009 0.000 0.000

Na 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.012 0.788 0.752 0.174 0.188 0.031 0.063 0.043

K 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.024 0.009 0.826 0.799 1.872 1.866 1.873

Total 3.992 8.005 7.973 7.971 5.007 4.993 5.005 4.994 15.601 15.565 15.560

Mg/(Fe + Mg) 0.38 0.15 0.22 0.22 0.47 0.64 0.47

Alm(%) 70.7 67.0 67.9 An(%) 20.1 23.6 0.8 0.7

Prp(%) 12.3 19.1 18.8 Ab(%) 77.5 75.5 17.3 18.9

Grs(%) 6.2 5.9 4.9 Or(%) 2.4 0.9 81.9 80.4

Sps(%) 10.8 8.0 8.3

a Number of oxygens. b Total Fe as FeO.

4.4. Feldspars

Plagioclase occurs as a medium-grained phase in the matrix of both the charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss. It shows consistent albite-rich composition of An19-20 (charnockite) and An21-22 (Grt-Bt gneiss). K-feldspar in the charnockite (Or81-82) is slightly rich in potassium than that in Grt-Bt gneiss (Or79-80).

5. Pressure-temperature conditions

5.1. Geothermobarometry

Sample MD31-3A contains dominant orthopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz assemblage. Garnet occurs only rarely, and was identified through mineral separation, and therefore the textural relationship of garnet with the other minerals could not be studied in detail. We consider that garnet could have been in equilibrium with orthopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz because of fast volume diffusion of Fe, Mg, and Ca in garnet compared to other minerals and its very low modal abundance. We therefore attempted to apply conventional Grt-Opx-Pl-Qtz

geothermobarometer to the sample in order to obtain pressure and temperature values, the results from which are summarized below.

5.1.1. Grt-Opx geothermometer

The Grt-Opx geothermometer was applied to garnet-orthopyroxene pairs in charnockite. The estimated temperature ranges for the mineral pairs using the methods of Bhattacharya et al. (1991) are in the order of 710-760 °C. The temperature was calculated at 7 kbar, a reference pressure based on the peak pressure condition estimated by Grt-Opx-Pl-Qtz geobarometer of Moecher et al. (1988) (see below). Application of the method of Lee and Ganguly (1988) also gave consistent but slightly higher temperatures of 730-820 °C.

5.1.2. Grt-Opx-Pl-Qtz geobarometer

Metamorphic pressure was estimated for the assemblage in the same sample based on the experimental calibration of Perkins and Newton (1981). The calculated results are 5.0-6.2 kbar at 750 °C. Application of the revised geobarometer of Moecher et al. (1988) yielded a pressure range of 6.7-7.5 kbar, which is slightly higher than the method of Perkins and Newton (1981).

5.2. Mineral equilibrium modeling

Metamorphic p-T conditions of the stability of mineral assemblages in the charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss from Rajapalaiyam were constrained using THERMOCALC 3.33 (Powell and Holland, 1988; updated October 2009) with an updated version of the internally consistent data set of Holland and Powell (1998; data set tcds55s, file created November 2003). The computations using this software are based on the stable mineral assemblage and phase compositions from Gibbs Free Energy minimization for a given bulk composition at specified p-T conditions, and the results are used to construct rock - specific equilibrium assemblage diagrams (also called pseudosections). Calculations were undertaken in the system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2-Fe2O3

(NCKFMASHTO) (White et al., 2003, 2007), which provides a realistic approximation to model the examined rocks. In this study, Mn-bearing MnNCKFMASHTO system was also adopted for charnockite as garnet in the rock contains w(MnO) up to 4.8% (~11 mol% spessartine component), which is likely to have affected the stability of the mineral assemblage in the rock. The phases are considered in the modeling and the corresponding a-x models used are garnet, biotite, and melt (White et al., 2007), plagioclase and K-feldspar (Holland and Powell, 2003), clinopyr-oxene (Green et al., 2007), amphibole (Diener et al., 2007), muscovite (Coggon and Holland, 2002), spinel and magnetite (White et al., 2002), and ilmenite-hematite (White et al., 2000). Quartz and H2O are treated as pure end-member phases. For the analysis, slabs of relatively homogeneous part of the examined granulites were used for thin-section preparation, and the counterpart of the same slabs was used for chemical analysis. Bulk rock compositions for the rocks were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at Activation Laboratories, Canada. The chemical composition of sample MD31-3A (charnockite) is w(SiO2) = 70.73%, w(Al2O3) = 13.92%, w(Fe2O3) = 0.05%, w(FeO) = 3.50%, w(MgO) = 0.41%, w(MnO) = 0.049%, w(CaO) = 1.75%, w(Na2O) = 3.83%, w(K2O) = 4.02%, w(TiO2) = 0.30%. Fe2O3 is taken into account for the calculations because magnetite is present in the Grt-Bt gneiss. The charnockite sample contains w(P2O5) up to 0.14%, which is reflected in the ca. 0.5 modal percent of apatite. As we neglect P2O5 from the system, the CaO content equivalent to apatite should be extracted from the calculation. The corrected w(CaO) content (1.57%) is adopted for the pseudosection calculation. The Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B) shows similar composition of w(SiO2) = 70.65%, w(Al2O3) = 14.31%, w(Fe2O3) = 1.13%, w(FeO) = 2.17%, w(MgO) = 0.33%, w(CaO) = 1.95%, w(Na2O) = 3.72%, w(K2O) = 4.22%, w(TiO2) = 0.37%. MnO is neglected in the modeling because the w(MnO) content of this sample is low (0.028%). The rock is slightly enriched in Fe2O3 as compared to the charnockite, which is consistent with the occurrence of magnetite in Grt-Bt gneiss. The corrected w(CaO) content is 1.81% calculated based on the bulk w(P2O5) content (0.11%).

Sample MD31-3A (charnockite) contains K-feldspar + quartz + plagioclase + biotite + orthopyroxene + garnet + ilmenite ± inferred melt, representing the probable high-grade assemblage. Fig. 3a shows a p-T pseudosection for sample MD31-3A calculated using the compositional factors listed in Fig. 3 and at molar H2O content in the rock (M(H2O)) of 0.2 mol%. The stability field of the peak mineral assemblage of the rock plotted in the pseudosection suggests a wide p-T range of 2—6 kbar at 600 °C to w 9 kbar at 800 °C (hatched area in Fig. 3a) for the assemblage. The

upper temperature stability limit of the assemblage is defined by the absence of biotite, whereas the lower limit is set by the absence of rutile. Orthopyroxene has a wide stability field of ~ 8 kbar at 600 ° C, w 10 kbar at 800 °C, and ~ 12 kbar at 1000 °C (Fig. 3a). Even if we adopted higher M(H2O) values such as 1.0mol% (Fig. 3b), there is no significant difference in the stability field of the assemblage except for the increase of its lower stability limit (>5 kbar at 750 °C). We subsequently constructed T-M(H2O) pseudosection at 7 kbar for evaluating the approximate water content of the rock (Fig. 4a). The result suggests that the assemblage is stable at M(H2O) less than 1.0 mol% at ca. 750 °C as orthopyroxene disappears at M(H2O) > 1.0 mol%. We therefore adopted this value as the maximum H2O content of the rock during the stage of charnockite formation. We subsequently constructed MnNCKFMASHTO pseudosections of the charnockite at M(H2O) = 0.2 mol% (Fig. 5a) and 1.0 mol% (Fig. 5b) to evaluate the effect of Mn on the stability. If Mn is taken into account, the stability field of garnet expands to lower pressure, and the stability of the mineral assemblage shifts toward lower p-T in about 50—70 °C and 1 — 1.5 kbar as ~760 °C and w 7.5 kbar (Fig. 5).

Fig. 3 also shows pseudosections for K-feldspar + quartz + plagioclase + biotite + garnet + ilmenite + magnetite ± inferred melt assemblage in sample MD31-3B (Grt-Bt gneiss) at M(H2O) = 0.2 mol% (Fig. 3c) and 1.0 mol% (Fig. 3d). Mole Fe2O3/ (FeO + Fe2O3) ratio of 0.190 was considered for the calculation based on the result of bulk chemical analysis. The stability field of the mineral assemblage is 10—12.5 kbar at 750 °C and w820 °C at 10.5 kbar if we adopt M(H2O) = 0.2 mol% (hatched area in Fig. 3c), whereas the field shifts toward higher T at 1.0 mol% (850 °C at 10 kbar; Fig. 3d). The upper temperature and pressure stability limit of the assemblage is defined by the disappearance of biotite and magnetite, respectively. Fig. 4b (T-M(H2O) pseudosection) suggests that the assemblage is stable at H2O = 0.3 mol%—0.6 mol% at 7 kbar and 700—750 °C. At higher M(H2O), garnet will disappear, whereas at lower M(H2O) orthopyroxene should occur as a stable mineral.

6. Discussion

6.1. Petrology and p-T conditions

Incipient charnockite patches in Rajapalaiyam within the Madurai Block of southern India are characterized by the assemblage K-feldspar + quartz + plagioclase + biotite + orthopyroxene + garnet + ilmenite ± inferred melt, probably formed during highgrade metamorphism, whereas the host Grt-Bt gneiss lacks orthopyroxene. Although charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss discussed in this study were collected from the same locality, within a distance of few centimeters, the absence of foliation in char-nockite patches suggests that the charnockite was probably formed later than host Grt-Bt gneiss. Higher Mn content of minerals in charnockite could also support lower-T origin of the rock. Fig. 6 shows the stability fields of the mineral assemblages in the two rock types at M(H2O) = 0.2 mol% and 1.0 mol% in NCKFMASHTO system. Fig. 6a suggests that, at M(H2O) = 0.2 mol%, Grt-Bt gneiss and charnockite assemblages were formed at 9—12 kbar and <8.5 kbar, respectively, at 700—800 °C. Such high-pressure conditions of Grt-Bt gneiss within the stability field of kyanite are, however, contrasting to the evidence that sillimanite is the only aluminosilicate mineral present in the pelitic granulites collected from the adjacent pelitic

Figure 3 p-T diagrams showing calculated pseudosections of mineral assemblages in charnockite (sample MD31-3A) and Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B) from Rajapalaiyam in NCKFMASHTO system. Hatched areas show the peak mineral assemblage. q: quartz, pl: plagioclase, ksp: K-feldspar, g: garnet, opx: orthopyroxene, di: diopside, bi: biotite, mu: muscovite, cu: cummingtonite, mt: magnetite, ilm: ilmenite, ru: rutile, liq: inferred melt. (a) p-T pseudosection of charnockite at M(H2O) = 0.2; (b) p-T pseudosection of charnockite at M(H2O) = 1.0; (c) p-T pseudosection of Grt-Bt gneiss at M(H2O) = 0.2; (d) p-T pseudosection of Grt-Bt gneiss at M(H2O) = 1.0.

Charnockite

1.0 1.5

M(H20) (mol. %)

Bulk rock compositions (mol.%)

Si02 AI2O3 CaO MgO FeO 78.011 9.046 1.849 0.674 3.231 K2O NaîO Ti02 O

2.827 4.093 0.249 0.021

1 bi g opx ksp pl ilm ru q

2 bi g opx di ksp pl Ilm ru q

3 bi ksp pl ilm q 2 5 4 bi ksp pl ilm ru q

b 850 800

liq g opx ksp pl mt ilm q

- M liq bi g opx ksp pl mt ilm q liq bi g ksp pl ml ilm q

bi g opx ■

■ ksp pl mtq m liq bi ksp pl mt ilm q

L i bi g ksp bi ksp pl .--mt ilm q ^Jiq bi ksp pl mt ilm q H20

■ pl mt q k bi ksp p[ mt ilm q H2O

Grt-Bt gneiss

Bulk rock compositions (mol.%)

S1O2 AI2O3 CaO MgO FeO

77.494 9.248 2.121 0.539 2.923 K20 Na20 TÏ02 O

2.951 3.953 0.305 0.466

1 bi mu ksp pl mt ilm q

2 bi mu ksp pl mt ilm q H2O

1.0 1.5

M(H20) (mol.%)

Figure 4 T-M(H2O) diagrams showing calculated pseudosections of mineral assemblages in charnockite (sample MD31-3A) and Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B) from Rajapalaiyam in NCKFMASHTO system. Hatched areas show the peak mineral assemblage. (a) T-M(H2O) pseudosection of charnockite at p = 7 kbar; (b) T-M(H2O) pseudosection of Grt-Bt gneiss at p = 7 kbar.

granulite locality in Rajapalaiyam (e.g., Tsunogae and Santosh, 2010). Therefore the water content of M(H2O) = 0.2 mol% might be too low for the Grt-Bt gneiss. The p-T conditions calculated at M(H2O) = 1.0 mol% (Fig. 6b) are also higher for

Grt-Bt gneiss (750—850 °C and 4—11 kbar in the stability field of sillimanite) than charnockite (<830 °C, <9 kbar), but such lower p-T condition from charnockite is consistent with the field and petrological data discussed above, as well as the p-T data

Figure 5 p-T diagrams showing calculated pseudosections of mineral assemblages in charnockite (sample MD31-3A) from Rajapalaiyam in MnNCKFMASHTO system. (a) p-T pseudosection of charnockite at M(H2O) = 0.2; (b) p-T pseudosection of charnockite at M(H2O) = 1.0. See Fig. 3 for abbreviations.

Grt-B1 gneiss M(H20)=0.2

/ \Charnockite / M(H20)=0.2

Grt-Bt gneiss—^^^H

M(HzO) = 1 ^OT

Charnockite ^^ X

M(H20) =

-§¿11

Figure 6 p-T diagrams showing the stability fields of high-grade mineral assemblages in charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss at M(H2O) = 0.2 (a) and M(H2O) = 1.0 (b). Phase relations of aluminosilicates are based on thermodynamic data of Holland and Powell (1998).

estimated by geothermobarometry of charnockite (710—760 °C, 6.7—7.5 kbar). Our results also suggest that the mineral assemblage of Grt-Bt gneiss was stable at higher M(H2O) of 1.0 mol%, whereas that of charnockite could be stable both at 0.2 mol% and 1.0 mol%.

Application of MnNCKFMASHTO system yielded slightly lower p-T condition of ~ 760 °C and ~ 7.5 kbar for charnockite, but almost equivalent to the results obtained from conventional geothermobarometry. The results of this study therefore indicate that MnNCKFMASHTO system is probably more realistic for application to natural Mn-bearing charnockite than the NCKFMASHTO system. The metamorphic condition is also nearly consistent with the p-T ranges estimated from other char-nockites from southern India (e.g., Chacko et al., 1987; Santosh et al., 1992), but significantly lower than that of the adjacent sapphirine granulites that yielded peak UHT conditions of

w 1000 °C (e.g., Tateishi et al., 2004; Tsunogae and Santosh, 2006, 2010, 2011; Braun et al., 2007). As the UHT locality is only 200 m apart from the charnockite locality and there is no obvious tectonic boundary between them, it is inferred that the charnockitization took place during a retrograde stage possibly related to post-peak thermal overprint and/or fluid infiltration.

6.2. Origin of incipient charnockite in Rajapalaiyam

Endo et al. (2012) performed phase equilibrium modeling of peak mineral assemblages in incipient charnockite and adjacent Grt-Bt gneiss from Mavadi in the Trivandrum Block in NCKFMASHTO system. They concluded that orthopyroxene-bearing mineral assemblage in the charnockite is stable at lower M(H2O) (<0.3 mol%) than that of the host Grt-Bt gneiss (0.3 mol%— 1.5 mol%), which is consistent with the previous studies of

Figure 7 T-XFe3+ ( = Fe2O3/(FeO + Fe2O3) in mole) diagrams showing calculated pseudosections of mineral assemblages in charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss from Rajapalaiyam at p = 7 kbar and M(H2O) = 0.5 in NCKFMASHTO system. Hatched areas show the peak mineral assemblage. (a) T-XFe3+ pseudosection of charnockite (sample MD31-3A); (b) T-XFe3+ pseudosection of Grt-Bt gneiss (sample MD31-3B).

incipient charnockite formation in the SGT that considered the infiltration of CO2-rich anhydrous fluids along structural pathways within upper amphibolite-facies gneisses, resulting in the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through breakdown of biotite (e.g., Janardhan et al., 1979; Newton et al., 1980; Hansen et al., 1987; Santosh et al., 1990; Newton, 1992; among others), as well as for the general of anhydrous granulites in the lower crust in general (e.g., Touret and Huizenga, 2012; and references therein). However, phase equilibrium modeling in the present study shows that CO2 infiltration and lowering of water activity are not essential mechanisms for charnockite formation, because the mineral assemblages in both charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss from Rajapalaiyam are found to be stable at similar M(H2O) (0.3 mol%—0.6 mol% at 7 kbar, see Fig. 4).

As mentioned previously, the charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss have similar bulk compositions except for the high molar Fe2O3/ (FeO + Fe2O3) ratio of Grt-Bt gneiss (0.190) than that of the charnockite (0.006). We therefore evaluated the effect of Fe3+ on the stability of orthopyroxene. Fig. 7 shows T-XFe3+ ( = Fe2O3/ (FeO + Fe2O3) in mole) diagrams for charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss at 7 kbar and M(H2O) = 0.5 mol%, an M(H2O) value of high-grade metamorphism inferred from Fig. 4. Fig. 7a suggest that the charnockite assemblage is stable at low (0—0.03) XFe3+ condition, whereas the Grt-Bt assemblage is stable at higher XFe3+ (>0.12 at 700—750 °C, 7 kbar, and M(H2O) = 0.5 mol%; Fig. 7), which implies that charnockitization in Rajapalaiyam might have been controlled by oxygen fugacity rather than water activity. The oxidized condition of Grt-Bt gneiss is supported by the occurrence of magnetite in the rock, whereas magnetite is absent in the charnockite. Although the process to decrease oxygen fugacity to form charnockite is not known, infiltration of a reduced fluid (such as H2O + CH4 bearing fluid; e.g., Huizenga and Touret, 2012) could be a possible mechanism to lower the oxidation state. Infiltration of such reduced fluid during retrograde metamorphism (ca. 700 °C) and buffering of oxygen fugacity to low level, might have dehydrated biotite and stabilized orthopyroxene, and could have served as a possible mechanism to form incipient charnockite in Rajapalaiyam. Detailed microthermometric and Raman spec-troscopic studies of fluid inclusion in charnockite might be a key to fully understand the charnockitization process of these rocks.

7. Conclusion

Phase equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite (Kfs + Qtz + Pl + Bt + Opx + Grt + Ilm) and adjacent Opx-free Grt-Bt gneiss (Kfs + Pl + Qtz + Bt + Grt + Ilm + Mt) from Rajapalaiyam in NCKFMASHTO system demonstrates that the mineral assemblage in charnockite formed at ~820 °C and ~9 kbar. Application of MnNCKFMASHTO system on the charnockite indicates a slight shift of the equilibrium condition of the assemblage toward lower p and T (~760 °C and ~7.5 kbar), which is consistent with the results of geothermobarometry (710—760 °C, 6.7—7.5 kbar), but significantly lower than the peak temperatures (>1000 °C) recorded from the UHT rocks in this locality, suggesting that charnockitization is a post-peak event. The results from T-M(H2O) modeling demonstrate that the assemblages in charnockite and Grt-Bt gneiss are both stable at M(H2O) = 0.3 mol%—0.6 mol%, and there is no significant difference in water activity between the two domains. Our finding is in contrast to the previous petrogenetic model of incipient charnockite formation which envisages lowering of water activity

and stabilization of orthopyroxene through breakdown of biotite by dehydration caused by infiltration of CO2-rich fluid. TXFe3+ pseudosections suggest that the oxidation condition of the rocks probably played a major role on the stability of orthopyroxene; Opx is stable at XFe3+ <0.03 in charnockite, while Opx-free assemblage in Grt-Bt gneiss is stabilized at XFe3+ >0.12. Such low oxygen fugacity conditions of XFe3+ <0.03 in the charnockite compared to Grt-Bt gneiss might be related to the infiltration of reduced fluid (e.g., H2O + CH4) during the retrograde stage.

Acknowledgments

We thank Ms. Preetha Warrier and the staff at Gondwana Research Office in Trivandrum for their valuable field support. Special thanks are due to Dr. N. Nishida and Ms. Hisako Shimizu for their assistance on microprobe and pseudosection analyses. We also thank Guest Editor Prof. H.M. Rajesh and two reviewers (Prof. Oleg Safonov and Dr. Shoujie Liu) for constructive and helpful comments. Partial funding for this project was produced by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) to Tsunogae (Nos. 20340148, 22403017).

References

Bhattacharya, A., Krishnakumar, K.R., Raith, M., Sen, S.K., 1991. An improved set of a-Xparameters for Fe-Mg-Ca garnets and refinements of the orthopyroxene-garnet thermometer and the orthopyroxene-garnet-plagioclase-quartz barometer. Journal of Petrology 32, 629—656. Braun, I., Montel, J.M., Nicollet, C., 1998. Electron microprobe dating monazites from high-grade gneisses and pegmatites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India. Chemical Geology 146, 65—85. Braun, I., Cenki-Tok, B., Paquette, J.-L., Tiepolo, M., 2007. Petrology and U-Th-Pb geochronology of the sapphirine-quartz-bearing metapelites from Rajapalayam, Madurai Block, Southern India: evidence for polyphase Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism. Chemical Geology 241, 129—147.

Chacko, T., Ravindra Kumar, G.R., Newton, R.C., 1987. Metamorphic P-T conditions of the Kerala (South India) Khondalite belt: a granulite-facies supracrustal terrain. Journal of Geology 96, 343—358. Coggon, R., Holland, T.J.B., 2002. Mixing properties of phengitic micas and revised garnet-phengite thermobarometers. Journal of Meta-morphic Geology 20, 683—696. Collins, A.S., Santosh, M., Braun, I., Clark, C., 2007a. Age and sedimentary provenance of the southern granulites, south India: U-Th-Pb SHRIMP secondary ion mass spectrometry. Precambrian Research 155, 125—138. Collins, A.S., Clark, C., Sajeev, K., Santosh, M., Kelsey, D.E., Hand, M., 2007b. Passage through India: the Mozambique ocean suture, high-pressure gran-ulites and the Palghat-Cauvery shear system. Terra Nova 19, 141—147. Diener, J.F.A., Powell, R., White, R.W., Holland, T.J.B., 2007. A new thermodynamic model for clino- and orthoamphiboles in Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-O. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 25, 631—656.

Endo, T., Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., Shimizu, H., Shaji, E., 2012. Gran-ulite formation in a Gondwana fragment: petrology and mineral equilibrium modeling of incipient charnockite from Mavadi, Southern India. Mineralogy and Petrology, doi: 10.1007/s00710-012-0214-x. Green, E.C.R., Holland, T.J.B., Powell, R., 2007. An order-disorder model for omphacitic pyroxenes in the system jadeite-diopside-hedenbergite-acmite, with applications to eclogite rocks. American Mineralogist 92, 1181—1189.

GSI (Geological Survey of India), 1995. Geological Map of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry on 1: 500000 Scale. Geological Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hansen, E.C., Janardhan, A.S., Newton, R.C., Prame, W.K.B.N., Kumar, G.R.R., 1987. Arrested charnockite formation in Southern India and Sri Lanka. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 96, 225—244.

Holland, T.J.B., Powell, R., 1998. An enlarged and update internally consistent thermodynamic dataset with uncertainties and correlations: the system K2O-Na2O-CaO-MgO-MnO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2-C-H2-O2. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 8, 89—124.

Holland, T.J.B., Powell, R., 2003. Activity-composition relations for phases in petrological calculations: an asymmetric multicomponent formulation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 145, 492—501.

Huizenga, J.-M., Touret, J.L.R., 2012. Granulites, CO2 and graphite. Gondwana Research. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2012.03.007.

Janardhan, A.S., Newton, R.C., Smith, J.V., 1979. Ancient crustal meta-morphism at low pH2O: charnockite formation at Kabbaldurga, south India. Nature 278, 511—514.

Kondou, N., Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., Shimizu, H., 2009. Sapphirine + quartz assemblage from Ganguvarpatti: diagnostic evidence for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in central Madurai Block, Southern India. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 104, 285—289.

Lee, H.Y., Ganguly, J., 1988. Equilibrium compositions of coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene: experimental determinations in the system FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, and applications. Journal of Petrology 29, 93—113.

Moecher, D.P., Essene, E.J., Anovitz, L.M., 1988. Calculation and application of clinopyroxene-garnet-plagioclase-quartz geobarometers. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 100, 92—106.

Newton, R.C., 1992. Charnockitic alteration: evidence for CO2 infiltration in granulite facies metamorphism. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 10, 383—400.

Newton, R.C., Smith, J.V., Windley, B.F., 1980. Carbonic metamorphism, granulites and crustal growth. Nature 288, 45—50.

Perkins, D., Newton, R.C., 1981. Charnockite geobarometers based on coexistence garnet-pyroxene-plagioclase-quartz. Nature 292, 144—146.

Pichamuthu, C.S., 1960. Charnockite in the making. Nature 188, 135—136.

Powell, R., Holland, T.J.B., 1988. An internally consistent thermodynamic dataset with uncertainties and correlations: 3. Application, methods, worked examples and a computer program. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 6, 173 —204.

Raith, M., Srikantappa, C., 1993. Arrested charnockite formation at Kotta-vattam, Southern India. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 11, 815—832.

Rajesh, H.M., Santosh, M., Yoshikura, S., 2011. The Nagercoil char-nockite: a magnesian, calcic to calc-alkalic granitoid dehydrated during a granulite-facies metamorphic event. Journal of Petrology 52, 375—400.

Sajeev, K., Osanai, Y., Santosh, M., 2004. Ultrahigh-temperature meta-morphism followed by two-stage decompression of garnet-orthopyroxene-sillimanite granulites from Ganguvarpatti, Madurai Block, Southern India. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 148, 29—46.

Santosh, M., Sajeev, K., 2006. Anticlockwise evolution of ultrahigh-temperature granulites within continental collision zone in Southern India. Lithos 92, 447—464.

Santosh, M., Harris, N.B.W., Jackson, D.H., Mattey, D.P., 1990. Dehydration and incipient charnockite formation: a phase equilibria and fluid inclusion study from South India. Journal of Geology 98, 915—926.

Santosh, M., Kagami, H., Yoshida, M., Nandakumar, V., 1992. Pan-African charnockite formation in East Gondwana: geochronologic (Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr) and petrogenetic constraints. Indian Geologists' Association Bulletin 25, 1—10.

Santosh, M., Yokoyama, S., Biju-Sekhar, S., Rogers, J.J.W., 2003. Multiple tectonothermal events in the granulite blocks of Southern India

revealed from EPMA dating: implications on the history of supercontinents. Gondwana Research 6, 29—63.

Santosh, M., Morimoto, T., Tsutsumi, Y., 2006a. Geochronology of the khondalite belt of Trivandrum Block, Southern India: electron probe ages and implications for Gondwana tectonics. Gondwana Research 9, 261—278.

Santosh, M., Collins, A.S., Tamashiro, I., Koshimoto, S., Tsutsumi, Y., Yokoyama, K., 2006b. The timing of ultrahigh-temperature meta-morphism in Southern India: U—Th—Pb electron microprobe ages from zircon and monazite in sapphirine-bearing granulites. Gondwana Research 10, 128—155.

Santosh, M., Maruyama, S., Sato, K., 2009. Anatomy of a Cambrian suture in Gondwana: Pacific-type orogeny in Southern India? Gondwana Research 16, 321—341.

Sriramguru, K., Janardhan, A.S., Basava, S., Basavalingu, B., 2002. Pris-matine and sapphirine bearing assemblages from Rajapalaiyam area, Tamil Nadu: origin and metamorphic history. Journal of the Geological Society of India 59, 103—112.

Tamashiro, I., Santosh, M., Sajeev, K., Morimoto, T., Tsunogae, T., 2004. Multistage orthopyroxene formation in ultrahigh-temperature granu-lites of Ganguvarpatti, Southern India: implications for complex metamorphic evolution during Gondwana assembly. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 99, 279—297.

Tateishi, K., Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., Janardhan, A.S., 2004. First report of sapphirine + quartz assemblage from Southern India: implications for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism. Gondwana Research 7, 899—912.

Touret, J.L.R., Huizenga, J.M., 2012. Fluid-assisted granulite meta-morphism: a continental journey. Gondwana Research 21, 224—235.

Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2003. A new incipient charnockite locality from Nanguneri, Trivandrum granulite block, Southern India. In: Annual Report of the Institute of Geoscience, the University of Tsu-kuba 29, pp. 37—41.

Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2006. Spinel-sapphirine-quartz bearing composite inclusion within garnet from an ultrahigh-temperature pel-itic granulite: implications for metamorphic history and P-T path. Lithos 92, 524—536.

Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2010. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and decompression history of sapphirine granulites from Rajapalaiyam, Southern India: implications for the formation of hot orogens during Gondwana assembly. Geological Magazine 147, 42—58.

Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., 2011. Sapphirine + quartz assemblage from the Southern Granulite Terrane, India: diagnostic evidence for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism within the Gondwana collisional orogen. Geological Journal 46, 183—197.

Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., Ohyama, H., Sato, K., 2008. High-pressure and ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism at Komateri, northern Madurai Block, Southern India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 33, 395—413.

White, R.W., Powell, R., Holland, T.J.B., Worley, B.A., 2000. The effect of TiO2 and Fe2O3 on metapelitic assemblages at greenschist and amphibolite facies conditions: mineral equilibria calculations in the system K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2-Fe2O3. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 18, 497—511.

White, R.W., Powell, R., Clarke, G.L., 2002. The interpretation of reaction textures in Fe-rich metapelitic granulites of the Musgrave Block, central Australia: constraints from mineral equilibria calculations in the system K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2-Fe2O3. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 20, 41—55.

White, R.W., Powell, R., Clarke, G.L., 2003. Prograde metamorphic assemblage evolution during partial melting of metasedimentary rocks at low pressures: migmatites from Mt Stafford, Central Australia. Journal of Petrology 44, 1937—1960.

White, R.W., Powell, R., Holland, T.J.B., 2007. Progress relating to calculation of partial melting equilibria for metapelites. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 25, 511—527.