Scholarly article on topic 'Study on Environment Evaluation and Protection Based on Set Pair Analysis——A Case Study of Chongqing'

Study on Environment Evaluation and Protection Based on Set Pair Analysis——A Case Study of Chongqing Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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{"environmental evaluation" / "set pair analysis" / "environmental protection" / Chongqing}

Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Yang Liu

Abstract How to accomplish the assessment of environmental quality and its quantitative? How investments in environmental protection affect environmental quality? Such issues were hot in environment protection. This paper do an empirical analysis with data of Chongqing from 1996 to 2009 based on Set Pair Analysis methods, the results showed environmental quality from 1996-1998 were “worse”, the quality in 1999 and 2000 were “qualified”, the quality were “better” from 2001-2006 and were “good” in 2008 and 2009. And then, the paper unified the correlation of each level into a coordinate system in order to quantitative value of environmental quality. Through the analysis of relationship between investment in environmental protection and environmental quality, it was found that 1% changing of environmental protection investment could cause 9% changing of environmental quality. In addition, changing rate of environmental quality has lagged 1 year compared with changing rate of environmental protection investment.

Academic research paper on topic "Study on Environment Evaluation and Protection Based on Set Pair Analysis——A Case Study of Chongqing"

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Energy

ELSEVIER

Procedía

Energy Procedía 14 (2012) 14 - 19

ICAEE 2(11

Study on Environment Evaluation and Protection Based on Set Pair Analysis-A Case Study of Chongqing

Construction Management and Real Estate Faculty of Chongqing University, Construction Management and Real Estate Faculty of Chongqing University Sha Pingba District Chongqing City, 400045, China

How to accomplish the assessment of environmental quality and its quantitative? How investments in environmental protection affect environmental quality? Such issues were hot in environment protection. This paper do an empirical analysis with data of Chongqing from 1996 to 2009 based on Set Pair Analysis methods, the results showed environmental quality from 1996-1998 were "worse", the quality in 1999 and 2000 were "qualified", the quality were "better" from 2001-2006 and were "good" in 2008 and 2009. And then, the paper unified the correlation of each level into a coordinate system in order to quantitative value of environmental quality. Through the analysis of relationship between investment in environmental protection and environmental quality, it was found that 1% changing of environmental protection investment could cause 9% changing of environmental quality. In addition, changing rate of environmental quality has lagged 1 year compared with changing rate of environmental protection investment.

© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 2nd International Conference on Advances in Energy Engineering (ICAEE).

Key words: environmental evaluation, set pair analysis, environmental protection, Chongqing

1. Introduction

With the development, environmental deterioration has been a serious threat to survival of mankind in many countries and regions. As the largest developing country in the world, China has to face the problems of environmental pollution with high speed economic development. According to statistics, emission of SO2, POPs, Hg and CO2 and emission intensity of NOx are the first in the world, the lost caused by environmental pollution has passed 15% of GDP each year. To this end, China's investment for

* Corresponding author. Tel.: (86+1361829(8(0. E-mail address: public_323@yahoo.com.cn.

Yang Liu*a*

Abstract

1876-6102 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 2nd International

Conference on Advances in Energy Engineering (ICAEE).

doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.890

environmental management increased year by year, it brings heavy financial burden for states and local governments. As the only municipality in western China, after become a municipality in 1997, Chongqing has been maintaining a high economic growth; in addition, Chongqing is the economic center of Yangtze River and important economic growth pole in western China. It means Chongqing must face the problem that how to accomplish the sustainable development between economy and environment. So, the research has obvious realistic significance. With rich in content, environmental quality usually presents the comprehensive of the water environment, atmospheric environment, solid waste disposal, industrial waste and other aspects. Some scholar use different methods to evaluate the environmental quality[1-5], someone analysis some factors of environment[6-9]. The results show that every aspect of environment often shows the characteristics of both established and uncertain. And the Set Pair Analysis method is an effective method to solve such kind of problems [10-15].

2. Set pair analysis

Set pair is a pair combined with two sets which has some connections. Set Pair Analysis analyzes the connection and converts between set pair from similar, opposite and differences three aspects. The expression show as formula (1):

. S F . P .

u = a + bi + cj =--1--i +--j (1)

In formula (1), a, b, c meet the normalization condition, it show as formula (2) a + b + c = 1 (2)

3. Model of environment evaluation

3.1. Ass/ssm/et m/thod

First of all, build the assessment indicators system of environmental quality, We treat each indicator and levle as a "set pair" when we do environmental quality evaluation. And then get the correlation of each indicator relative to a target level; summarize the correlation of the same level into a total correlation. In the end, compared all total correlation of different level and choose the level which the maximum total correlation belong to as environmental quality level.

3.2. Define the expression of correlation

The expression of each indicator relative to level "bad" was show as formula (3)

Cx - C

Cx e[0, Cki )

Cx e[Cki, Ck. Cx e[Ck2,+œ)

„• Cx e [Cki, Ck2 ) i = 2CC C" Ck2

Ck1 Ck2

3.3. Calculate the index of difference degree " i "

The correlation was 1 when statistics completely the same as level value and was -1 when completely conflict, so calculate the difference degree " i " become a key problem in environmental quality evaluation. As an example of level "bad", the correlation expression show as formula (3), i = 1 in interval [0, Ck1) ; i = -1 in interval [Ck2 ,+ro), in interval [Ck1, Ck2 ), upper and lower limit of i were 1 and -1,

combine 1 and -1 with a line, calculate the linear equation expression of the line with "Two Known Points" method.

3.4. Calculate the total correlation

According to formula (3), get the correlation of each indicator relative to every level, and then summarize the correlations into a total correlation, it show as formula (4).

Pi =ZZAkl I = (1,2,-6) (4)

k=1 i=1

4. A case study of Chongqing

The paper was chosen 13 indicators to build evaluation system of Chongqing environmental. It show as Table.1

True value of each indicators of Chongqing environment from 1996-2009.According to formula (4), calculate the correlation of each level and compare them, the level which the maximum of correlation belong to is the level of environmental quality. The results was shown as Table.2

Table.1 nvaluation system and level of environmental quality

No. Indicators

1 Forest Coverage Rate

2 Percentage of Nature Reserves in the Land Area

3 Rate of Afforestation Covered Area to Developed Area

4 Daily average of TSP

5 Daily average of SO2

6 Daily average of NO2

7 Rate of Quality of Drinking Water Sources up to Standards

8 Average Nosies in Downtown

9 Rate of Waste Water up to Discharge Standard

10 Rate of Industrial Solid Wastes Comprehensively Utilized

11 DischargedVolume of SO2

12 DischargedVolume oflndustrial Dusts

13 Discharged Volume of Dusts from Living

nnvironmental quality Unit -

bad worse qualified better good

% 20 25 30 35 40

% 3 6 9 12 15

% 15 20 25 30 40

(mg/m3) 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

(mg/m3) 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

(mg/m3) 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.35

% 80 85 90 95 100

dB(A) 3 4 5 6 6.5

% 60 70 80 90 100

% 50 60 70 80 90

10 000 tons 5 10 15 20 25

10 000 tons 5 10 15 20 25

10 000 tons 1 2 3 4.5 6

Table.2 Results of correlation of each level and total

level 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

bad 2.02 3.70 4.49 2.20 -3.18 -7.28 -9.05 -9.06 -11.00 -11.00 -9.69 -11.00 -11.00 -11.00

worse 7.79 9.01 11.20 11.03 7.64 0.15 -0.84 2.54 3.25 2.37 0.52 -3.17 -9.55 -11.85

qualified 2.85 6.03 8.99 11.53 7.95 4.38 2.55 6.07 8.32 4.55 4.99 3.11 -0.75 -5.97

better -3.60 -6.32 -7.42 -5.59 2.43 6.39 8.11 8.74 10.49 10.17 8.75 10.45 8.24 7.98

good -13.00 -13.00 -13.00 -13.00 -5.85 2.13 -1.15 1.90 1.60 2.24 4.20 8.52 10.73 10.80

max 7.79 9.01 11.20 11.53 7.95 6.39 8.11 8.74 10.49 10.17 8.75 10.45 10.73 10.80

Belong to worse worse worse qualified qualified better better better better better better better good good

According to the results of Table.2, it is found that environmental quality of Chongqing show a increasing trend year by year, specially, from 1996^1998 were "worse", the quality in 1999 and 2000 were "qualified", the quality were "better" from 2001^2006 and were "good" in 2008 and 2009. But only the conclusion can not help us to find more information about the changing. What we want to know is the degree of "worse", "bad" and so on, so it is necessary to convert the word into number, it means we should to quantitative the results. Environmental quality value calculation results show in Table.4

Ni = my min + • (mij max - mij min ) (S)

Environmental quality value calculation results show in Table.4

Table.4 Results of Chongqing environmental quality value from 1996~2009

Level Score 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

bad 20

worse 40 7.79 9.01 11.20

qualified 60 11.53 7.95

better 80 6.39 8.11 8.74 10.49 10.17 8.75 10.45

good 100 10.73 10.80

score 31.99 33.86 37.23 57.74 52.23 69.84 72.48 73.45 76.14 75.64 73.46 76.07 96.51 96.62

According to the results of Table.4, the changing was completely the same as Table.3, and the environmental quality was quantitative in an unified axis. As every known, increasing environmental protection investment can improve the environmental quality. According to Chongqing Statistics Yearbooks, the value of environmental protection investment from 1996-2009 were shown in Table.5

Table.5 Changing of environmental quality and investment in environmental protection from 1996~2009

year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

quality 31.99 33.86 37.23 57.74 52.23 69.84 72.48 73.45 76.14 75.64 73.46 76.07 96.51 96.62

changing 5.9% 10.0% 55.1% -9.5% 33.7% 3.8% 1.3% 3.7% -0.7% -2.9% 3.6% 26.9% 0.1%

investment 7.9776 12.5677 19.6589 20.2857 24.7474 30.5 36.77 44.72 50.88 65.14 84.64 108.2 126.42 189.55

changing 57.5% 56.4% 3.2% 22.0% 23.2% 20.6% 21.6% 13.8% 28.0% 29.9% 27.8% 16.8% 49.9%

According to the data from Table.5, changing of environmental quality and investment in environmental protection value were shown in Fig. 1(a), rate changing of them were shown in Fig. 1 (b)

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

environmental quality score Investment in Environmental Protection

Fig.1. (a)Changing of environmental quality and investment in environmental protection value^t^Changing of environmental quality and investment in environmental protection increasing rate

According to Table.5 and Fig.2, it is found that environmental quality and environmental protection investment has a strong positive correlation. We treat environmental protection investment as independent variable "x" and environmental quality as dependent variable "y", then fit the curve, the result was shown in Fig.2

ta a c

Ia ■p

G O in

■iH >

investment in environmental protection(100 million yuan)

Fig.2 Changing and curve fitting of environmental quality and investment in environmental protection

Through the curve fitting, the relationship between them was "y=21.218Ln(x)-12.771", it means 1% changing of environmental protection investment will cause 9% changing of environmental quality. According to Fig.3, changing rate of environmental quality has lagged 1 year compared with changing rate of environmental protection investment.

5. Conclusion

Through the empirical analysis to the data of Chongqing from 1996 ~ 2009, it is found that environmental quality of Chongqing show a increasing trend year by year, specially, from 1996^1998 were "worse", the quality in 1999 and 2000 were "qualified", the quality were "better" from 2001^2006 and were "good" in 2008 and 2009.

It makes quantitative environmental quality become possible with put all level into a unified axis. Through the analysis of relationship between investment in environmental protection and environmental quality, it is found that if we treat environmental protection investment as independent variable "x" and environmental quality as dependent variable "y", their relationship can be expressed as "y=21.218Ln(x)-

y = 21. 218Ln(x) - 12. 771

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

12.771", it means 1% changing of environmental protection investment will cause 9% changing of environmental quality. In addition, changing rate of environmental quality has lagged 1 year compared with changing rate of environmental protection investment.

Practice proved that Set Pair Analysis method was suitable for environmental quality evaluation, the methods has advantages of easy to use, conclusion objective and so no. In addition, the paper use a method to put the evaluation level into a unified axis, it is helpful to quantitative the environmental quality.

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