Scholarly article on topic 'Staff Empowerment, Entrepreneurial Behaviors and Organizational Efficiency in Iranian Headquarter Education'

Staff Empowerment, Entrepreneurial Behaviors and Organizational Efficiency in Iranian Headquarter Education Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Saleh Dehghani, Amin Gharooni, Atefeh Arabzadeh

Abstract There are factors, which affect firms to react faster to change and be more efficient than ever before. Globalization, shortened life cycles and higher level of competition are examples to compel companies to react. However there are so many factors that influence organizational efficiency, but in this study in order to achieve efficiency in Iranian headquarter education staff (Hormozgan city), the relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship as the independent variables have been assessed in the organization. In this research it will be shown that to reach the highest organizational efficiency and obtain firms’ vision and mission, need staff with the entrepreneur characteristics and in addition empower them by means of involving individuals in decisions and activities affecting them to strive for more ambitious objectives. In this correlative study, 165 of staff were chosen through categorical ratio sampling. The necessary data for the variables empowerment and entrepreneurship behavior of staff and organizational efficiency were gathered by questionnaires. Data analysis illustrated that there is positive meaningful relationship between all dimension of empowerment and entrepreneurship organizational behavior of staff with organizational efficiency.

Academic research paper on topic "Staff Empowerment, Entrepreneurial Behaviors and Organizational Efficiency in Iranian Headquarter Education"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 109 (2014) 1130 - 1141

2nd World Conference On Business, Economics And Management - WCBEM 2013

Staff Empowerment, Entrepreneurial Behaviors and Organizational Efficiency in Iranian Headquarter Education

Saleh Dehghani a *, Amin Gharooni b, Atefeh Arabzadeh c

Abstract

There are factors, which affect firms to react faster to change and be more efficient than ever before. Globalization, shortened life cycles and higher level of competition are examples to compel companies to react. However there are so many factors that influence organizational efficiency, but in this study in order to achieve efficiency in Iranian headquarter education staff (Hormozgan city), the relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship as the independent variables have been assessed in the organization. In this research it will be shown that to reach the highest organizational efficiency and obtain firms' vision and mission, need staff with the entrepreneur characteristics and in addition empower them by means of involving individuals in decisions and activities affecting them to strive for more ambitious objectives. In this correlative study, 165 of staff were chosen through categorical ratio sampling. The necessary data for the variables empowerment and entrepreneurship behavior of staff and organizational efficiency were gathered by questionnaires. Data analysis illustrated that there is positive meaningful relationship between all dimension of empowerment and entrepreneurship organizational behavior of staff with organizational efficiency.

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Organizing Committee of BEM 2013.

Keywords: Empowerment, entrepreneurship, efficiency and staff;

1. Introduction

In recent decades, competitive environment and shorter life cycle for manufactured goods force firms to react more quickly than ever before.

New technologies and confronting with these rapid changes, managers must prepare themselves for these situations in this dynamic environment (Judge & Blocker, 2008), and also by the beginning of the 1990s, after many years of experience and the evolution of human societies from traditional to industrial stage continuous process in developing new technologies, the majority of organizations in the world find that for survival, need deep changes in the structure and escape from non-dynamic blocks, therefore, if an organization wants to be frontier in this competitive industry should use skilled, creative and motivated staff.

It is truly believed that people in any companies are efficient when their results are achieving the goals of themselves, organizations and stakeholders. In terms of educational systems, because all the organizations that are responsible in the training of students can influence and impact on people lives, and deliver knowledgeable people to the society with the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior and creativity. In fact, human resource is the main

* Corresponding Author: Amin Gharooni. Tel.: +98-917-317-3476 E-mail address: amingh_62@yahoo.com

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Organizing Committee of BEM 2013. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.600

asset of each firms and gathering educated people have been become one important issue to increase the efficiency of the organization.

Education is as the basis and foundation for the development of cultural, social, economic and politic of each society. Nowadays, most of the governments perceive this new industry and pay more attention to it. So, this article is prepared in order to analyzing empowerment of staff and entrepreneurial behavior in organization and finding the relationship of these factors to the employees' efficiency.

As it is admitted, efficiency is very crucial for each organization and means that the measurement of achieving determined purposes in organization and also it is often used with the specific purpose of relaying the capability of a specific application of effort to produce a specific outcome effectively with a minimum amount or quantity of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort (Davis & Pett, 2002). From the point of Peter Drucker view, efficiency is doing things right and is a key for prosperity of any organizations (Drucker, 1963).

Although there are many factors, which can affect on the staff's efficiency, entrepreneurship and empowerment of employees as the two main factors are going to be assessed in this research. Therefore, the question is here, is there any meaningful relationship between staff's empowerment and entrepreneurship with the efficiency of them? So, the main purpose of this article is to find out the meaningful relationship between these variables in the Iranian educational organization (Hormozgan).

2. Organizational Effeiciency

Efficiency is measurement of achieving determined purposes in organizations (Smith & Hoy, 2007). The efficiency of organizations in achieving goals at the organizational level is called organizational efficiency (Cameron & Whetten, 1983; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). The organizational efficiency is also defined as the extent to which an organization fulfills the objectives(Denison, Haaland, & Goelzer, 2004). The topic of organizational efficiency emphasized process control, information management and goal setting (Denison, et al., 2004; Quinn, 1988). The measurement of organizational efficiency is a very important step in the development of an organization (Akta§, Qifek, & Kiyak, 2011; Handa & Adas, 1996).

There are so many research has been done about organizational efficiency between 1060s and 1970s and there are 30 dimensions have been determined for measuring efficiency. These dimensions are:

1- Organizational Total Efficacy: Assessing the overall operational reports.

2- Ability To Production: The quantity of organizational production or service.

3- Effectiveness: The relation between operation and cost.

4- Increment: Net income.

5- Quality: How company can fulfill expectations.

6- Goings On: Quantity of events in one task in a time.

7- Growth: Increasing of some variables such as work force, capital and profitability in comparison with past.

8- Absence: Employee's absence without a valid reason.

9- Output: The number of completed activities or products obtained.

10- Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction of employees from outcomes that are achieved by themselves.

11- Motivation: The degree of forces and tendencies which are given to individual in order to achieve specific goals.

12- Moral: A phenomenon that stimulate effort, shared goals, feelings of belonging to a group.

13- Control: Managerial control of orientation behavior in the organization for members.

14- Conflict and Cooperation: Choose goals that make people like each other and working well together and have a relationship and a perfect harmony or other objects that could cause physical and verbal confrontations and ineffective communication and weak coordination.

15- Flexibility: Flexibility in changing in organization, methods, and performance standards that suit the environment changes.

16- Goal Orientation and Planning: The explicit target for future planning.

17- Unification of Goals: Future planning in order to achieve specific goals.

18- Goals internalize: Acceptance of organizational goals and the accuracy and appropriateness of.

19- Roles and value analogy: The degree to which members are unanimous in attitude desired and expected performance, spirit and requirements of the role.

20- Interpersonal management skills: Level skills for managers in dealing with supervisors, subordinates and peers by creating their support, facilitate interaction and enthusiasm to achieve performance goals.

21- Management duty skills: The leadership skills that managers or leaders of the organization execute.

22- Information and commitment: Integrity, efficiency and accuracy of the analysis and distribution of information critical to the effectiveness of organization.

23- Preparation: The specific tasks of the organization's ability to run successful.

24- Environment efficiency: Successful adaptation of organization with environment.

25- Participation: Involving individuals in decisions and activities.

26- Flexibility: balancing and adapting with the competitive environment.

27- Information management: Establish channels of communication and information faster and more favorable for the application of information and communication channels that will affect their awareness of the issues.

28- Effectiveness: Doing the right things.

29- Stability: Sense of order and uniform operations, establishing discipline and maintenance of work process operations.

30- Human resource improvement: Employees to do their job well needs skills and training.

3. Entreprenurship

Entrepreneurship orientation consists of three components: innovativeness, risk-taking, and pro-activeness (Miller, 1983; Zahra & Covin, 1995). Miller (1983) comments that entrepreneurs seek innovation and new opportunities and that these tendencies lead to constructive risk-taking. Lumpkin and Dess (1996) define EO as "the processes, practices, and decision making activities that lead to new entry. In addition, a company with an EO engages in "product-market innovation, undertakes somewhat risky ventures, and is first to come up with 'proactive' innovations, beating competitors (Miller, 1983, p. 771). In an entrepreneurial organization, employee's value autonomy and freedom, which enable them to pursue creativity, risk taking, and exploration in the development of innovative ideas. To obtain competitive advantages, the entrepreneurial culture encourages employees to look for innovative changes in their product and/or process development. They define entrepreneurial spirit as "pursuing new opportunities by participating in emerging markets (Lumpkin & Dess, 1996).

That is, organizations' entrepreneurial orientation encourages employees to pursue creative and new projects (which are believed to be risky) more frequently than companies without an entrepreneurial orientation. We could assume that entrepreneurship orientation results in creative decision-making, especially in the search for new opportunities.

4. Entrepreneurial learning

The ability to learn is essential in developing entrepreneurial capabilities (Rae & Carswell, 2000). Through successful learning, the skills, knowledge and abilities required in different stages of business development can be acquired, so that they can be applied subsequently. Therefore, learning is considered central to the process of entrepreneurial development (Man, 2006). This is particularly critical in an ever-changing dynamic marketplace, and it is even argued that entrepreneurship is essentially a process of learning and so in order to understand entrepreneurship, we must first understand how the entrepreneur learns (Rae, 2005).0n the other hand, a better understanding of entrepreneurial learning is necessary for the design of entrepreneurship education and training programmers so that we can understand the entrepreneur's learning needs through putting a focus on the personal and business development of the entrepreneur (Rae and Carswell, 2000).

5. Staffs' Empowerment

Employee empowerment means that an employee is given a chance to be enterprising, take risks without compromising with the organizational goals, mission and vision. His say in the process of decision-making is increased. This can be for one particular individual or for the entire organization. In the latter case it is called participative management (Tjosvold, Hui, & Law, 1998).

Spreitzer (1995) defined psychological empowerment in the workplace with 4 sub-factors: meaning (how important the job is to them), self-determination (autonomous decision making), competency (confidence to accomplish their job) and impact (their ability to influence on other in the work unit) (G. M. Spreitzer, 1995). He suggests two consequences of empowerment, such as managerial effectiveness (the degree of a manager fulfills or exceeds the work role expectation) and innovative behaviors. Thus, more empowered employees have greater self-efficacy and they are likely to be innovative to achieve success. Spreitzer's (1995) study of mid- and low-level employees from industrial organizations found the two consequence factors to be significant. Chan et al., (2008) examined the employee empowerment process with five independent factors: two organizational factors such as decentralized structure and innovative culture and three supervisory supports such as resource, information, and social-political supports (Chan, Taylor, & Markham, 2008). They found that except for organizational structure, these factors are significantly related to subordinates' trust and this further leads to empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior. These results show that supervisory support is a good predictor of employee empowerment and once employees are empowered, it motivates them to have extra roles for the organization beyond their responsibilities. Thus, while market strategies have a specific impact on employees' market information search, the degree of employee empowerment would change this relationship.

Overall, empowered employees are more likely motivated to accept extra work and show highly innovative and creative work performance. Previous studies have shown that supervisors' supportive and non-controlling attitudes increase employees' autonomy and confidence in their work environment, because supportive supervisors show concern for employees' feelings and they give positive feedback on the subordinates' work (Deci, Connell, & Ryan, 1989).

6. Hypotheses

6.1. Hypothesis 1: There is a meaningful relationship between entrepreneurial behaviours and efficiency in organization.

6.2. Hypothesis 2: There is a meaningful relationship between staff's empowerment and efficiency in organization.

6.3. Hypothesis 3: There is meaningful relationship between entrepreneurial behavior, empowerment of employees and efficiency in organization.

7. Framework

As it is discussed before, in this research two variables are assessed as the independent variables (entrepreneurial behavior and staff's empowerment) and for the dependent variable, organizational efficiency is going to be assessed. In the figure 1, this relationship is completely illustrated.

Figure 1. Theoretical framework of the study

8. Methodology

The approach, which is undergone, our assessment to achieve the purposes of our research and answers the mentioned questions, was to ask a large sample of employees to rate their organization on entrepreneurial behaviour, empowerment and efficiency factors. This procedure was undertaken in 312 staff of Iranian Headquarter Education. Our population constitute of 150 people are female (48%) and 162 people are male (62%). According to Morgan and Grees's table and by using of the relative sampling method, 165 of whole staff were chosen as the sample, which constitute of 79 female and 86 male. From all 165 questionnaire which were distributed between them 19 of respondents did not completely fill, thus, data analyzing is done with 146 respondents.

Our data collection was based on the survey and questionnaire and all the items required five point Likert scale (from strongly disagree to strongly agree). The questionnaire constitutes of four different parts; staff empowerment, entrepreneurial behavior and efficiency of the Hormozgan Headquarter Education and lastly some demographic items in order to categorized staff.

8.1. Measures

All the items scales were based on previous research, which we explained about these literatures in the previous section and we also tested all these items in the questionnaire on a small sample of managers in our own company to be ensured that all the items are clear.

Questionnaire culminated in the development of 78 items for employees. In independent variables just a one to five Likert type rating scale of agreement is used (1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=neutral, 4= agree, 5=strongly agree). The survey consists of 43 items for two independent variables and for dependent variables we chose 35 items. Inductive and hypothetical-deductive reasoning methods were used to ensure each statement on the survey linked well to each research question and hypothesis. These reasoning methods are consistent with the critical realist paradigm, which specifies one method is not better than another in research studies.

8.2. Staffs' Empowerment

For measuring the empowerment, the questionnaire from (G. Spreitzer, Cooper, & Barling, 2008) was used and has 4 dimensions:

1. The meaning dimension relates strongly to courtesy.

2. The competence dimension relates to both conscientiousness and sportsmanship.

3. The self-determination dimension relates to altruism.

4. The impact dimension relates to conscientiousness.

8.3. Entrepreneurship

In this part we used the questionnaire from Parsons, J (1998) which also used in another Iranian journal by (SAADI). This section involves 31 questions and divided into 8 parts:

1. Moral Characteristics

2. Using of human and material resources

3. Saving resources

4. Risk tendency

5. Emphasis on modern methods and academic

6. Using the talents and abilities of subordinates

7. Delegating authorities to subordinates

8. Restriction of the laws and government regulations

8.4. Efficiency

This dependent variable was measured with 35 items that asked from each employee. This section is divided into 4 dimensions from Parsons,J 1998 that used this questionnaire. These dimensions are;

1. Adaptation

2. Achieving the goals

3. Consolidation

4. Continuity and Reliability

9. Findings

As it was said, a relative sampling process was used to select the participants in this study and all this process was done in the Headquarter of Education in Bandrabbas (capital city of Hormozgan- south state of Iran). Of the total sample size, which was 165 employees, just 146 respond to the survey and participate in this research correctly. Following tables are provided according to the demographic questions in our survey.

Table 1. Frequency and percentage of the sex of the employees

_Groups_Frequency_Percentage

Male 84 57.5

Female 62 42.5

Overall 146 100

Table 2. Frequency and percentage of the age of the employees

Groups_Frequency_Percentage

20-30 33 21.9

31-40 75 51.4

41-50 38 26

51-60 1 0.7

Table 3. Frequency and percentage of level of employee's education

Groups Frequency Percentage

Degree 3 2

Undergraduate 116 79.5

Postgraduate 27 18.5

Table 4. Frequency and percentage of employees years of experience

Groups Frequency Percentage

0-10 42 28.8

11-20 71 48.6

21-30 33 22.6

9.1. Reliability and validity:

In this research each factor has its own measures and separated and for finding the reliability needs to assess each factor separately in the SPSS. To capture empowerment, we asked all the employees as our respondents to indicate their rate of agreement to each items in measuring empowerment in their organization. The reliability for all the variables has been determined by Cronbach alpha.

The reliability of empowerment factor is (a = 0.79). In the section B that represents entrepreneurship, the reliability is a = 0.83 as well. In section C which is organizational efficiency, we got Cronbach a (alpha) as a coefficient of reliability and equal to 0.86.

The consequences of factor analysis in SPSS proved that all the items in the independent variable are categorized correctly in the two sections.

9.2. Description analysis

From the information provided in the Table 5 which is the outcome of the SPSS description statistics in order to find out the Mean and Standard Deviation of each variable and all the dimensions.

Table 5. Frequency and percentage of employees years of experience

Variables Empowerment Entrepreneurship Efficiency

Dimensions Meaning competence self-determination impact Moral Characteristics Using of human and material resources Saving resources Risktendency Emphasis on modern methods and academic Using the talents and abilities of subordinates Delegating authorities to subordinates Restriction of the laws and government regulations Adaptation Achieving the goals Consolidation Continuity and Reliability

Mean 12.50 12.11 10.50 11.06 25.10 7.24 16.81 13.75 9.17 4.56 8.96 17.44 28.45 29.75 29.34 36.95

S.Devation 2.14 2.33 2.69 2.23 4.18 1.89 3.23 2.21 1.55 1.02 1.89 2.79 3.63 4.62 4.35 4.63

As it is clear in the table, among all the dimensions of empowerment, meaning dimension has the maximum mean and in the entrepreneurship, moral characteristics were the maximum. Finally, in the efficiency dependent variable, continuity and reliability was the maximum one.

9.3. Hypothesis 1

The first hypothesis explains that there is a meaningful relationship between entrepreneurial behaviors and efficiency in organization. For finding the meaningful relationship between these variables, we did correlation analysis and found out the Person Coefficient and significant coefficient based on the Table 6:

Table 6. Person Correlation Coefficient between dimensions of entrepreneurship and efficiency

Efficiency

Index Correlation Coefficient -(r) Significance Person Coefficient -(p)

Dimensions

Moral Characteristics 0.053 Ns

Using of human and material resources -0.013 Ns

Saving resources 0.619 0.01**

Risk tendency 0.09 Ns

Emphasis on modern methods and academic 0.189 0.01**

Using the talents and abilities of subordinates 0.106 Ns

Delegating authorities to subordinates 0.146 Ns

Restriction of the laws and government regulations -0.21 0.05*

N = 146. * P < .05 **p < .01

As it is obvious in the table 6, there is meaningful emphasizing on the modern methods with organizational between restriction laws and regulations and efficiency behavior do not have any influence on efficiency.

9.4. Hypothesis 2

The second hypothesis explains that there is a meaningful relationship between staff's empowerment variable and efficiency in organization. So we did the same process as we have done for first hypothesis.

Table 7. Person Correlation Coefficient between dimensions of empowerment and efficiency

Efficiency

Index Correlation Coefficient -(r) Significance Person Coefficient -(p)

and significant relation between saving resources and efficiency and there is negative and significant relation . Additionally, the other dimensions of entrepreneurial

Dimensions

Meaning 0.877 0.01**

Competence 0.867 0.01**

S elf- determ ination 0.746 0.01**

Impact 0.832 0.01**

n = 146.

* P < .05 **p < .0

It is interesting to note that all the dimensions in the empowerment variable are significantly related to the efficiency of this organization (P< 0.01).

9.5. Hypothesis 3

The last hypothesis explains that there is meaningful relationship between entrepreneurial behavior, empowerment of employees and efficiency in organization. The information provided in the table below is the outcomes of the same process in the SPSS.

Table 8. Person Correlation Coefficient between all variables

Efficiency

Index Correlation Coefficient -(r) Significance Person Coefficient -(p)

Variables

Empowerment 0.265 0.01**

Entrepreneurship 0.204 0.05*

n = 146.

* P < .05 **p < .01

It is obvious that the two independent variables and efficiency are significantly related to each others. 10. Discussion

In this study, we have developed the complementary concept of empowerment, entrepreneurship and efficiency, whereby an organization context encourages individuals to increase overall performance of the company in terms of efficiency.

It has been observed in this research that based on the table 6, there is meaningful and significant relation between entrepreneurial behaviors in organizations and efficiency in the level of p< 0.05. On the other hand, staff's empowerment and efficiency are significantly related to each other in the level of p< 0.01, it means that by increasing these strategies in organization- entrepreneurial behaviors and empowerment between all employees- and specifying the path, delegating and involving stakeholders in organizational decision, consequently, the efficiency of staff and organization will increase as well.

A successful organization is a collection of people with organizational behavior and common thoughts and goals, who, thorough teamwork in the flexible system of the organization, will share their experiences and knowledge with the management with a passion for growing improvement of their organization and will aggregate the funds and exploit natural resources.

In this regard, employees' flourishing and advancement, and empowerment of their capabilities were the center of the attention of Experts in Human Resources Management under the name of Employees' empowerment.

Employees' empowerment is one of the new and effective techniques of increasing the staffs' productivity and optimum usage and utilization of their capacity and individual abilities in line with productivity and organizational goals. On the other hand, organization's experts and management believe the organizations will be efficient when their results are the same as their pre-determined goals. In order to achieve these people with characteristics of entrepreneurship including innovation and creativity are so much required. In conclusion it can be said that in order for an organization to have a high degree of efficiency we should enhance the employees' ability by decreasing cumbersome rules and giving the employees some authority and the freedom to participate in decision making process.

Empowerment is the process of giving more potential to the personnel. In this process we help our employees to improve their confidence and overcome their feeling of frustration and distress (Autonomy). Strengthening of this level will result in intrinsic motivation of the individuals (Gholifar, Hedjazi, Hoseini, & Rezaei, 2011). Empowering is also the encouraging of people to participate in making decisions that will influence their activities. This way we can provide opportunities for people to show that they can create new ideas and use them in practice (G. M. Spreitzer, 1995). Empowering is giving the authority to employees to make proper decisions without the need for those decisions to be confirmed by a higher authority (Siegall & Gardner, 2000).

In an organization that employees and their opinions are respected the process works in a way that the person feels that his performance is important for the organization (significance). Surely there will be a commitment among employees and they will do their best for the organization. When the personnel are given the opportunity to make decisions, their self-esteem will be increased and they will successfully perform the assigned tasks (Competence). They will have some sort of inner feeling towards their job. They will feel that they are pursuing valuable and important goals. The person's sense of security in the organization will be increased and the employees' trust towards each other will be increased. These factors will result in the efficiency among employees and the efficiency of the organization.

Achieving the predetermined goals of the organization is called efficiency. In other words, efficiency is the degree of movement towards the predetermined goals and shows that to what extent the activities have led to the results. According to the above definitions, the thing that shows the process of efficiency is the organization's goal, which is achieving to better efficiency with less cost and in less time, and is based on a predetermined schedule. Based on the theoretical topics in this research education, after military and defence is in the second rank based on using funds and time. So an organization of this extent and investment requires managers and staff that efficiently carry out their role.

According to the results obtained in this study (The significant relationship of efficient use of resources and efficiency) it can be said that this study describes efficient use as the creative use of resources and finding new and innovative ways to use the resources efficiently and the ability to optimize the use of the capital (wealth) and according to the things that should happen in the process of efficiency (Commitment to responsibilities, Achieving organization's goals and high work ethics), it can be said that the efficient use of resources can provide the conditions for an efficient organization and personnel. Such conditions justify the positive and meaningful relationship between the variables mentioned above.

In this issue (The relationship between the emphasis on the use of modern methods in the process of entrepreneurship and efficiency), it can be said that structure and relationships within the organization shouldn't only be based on Executive Directives and regulations and monitoring their implementation, but the duty of all personnel and specially management Should be working towards the development of learning skills and creativity among the members and seeking new and innovative ways to use facilities which are examples of entrepreneurship, so that the organization due to this characteristic of the personnel (Innovation) which may result in creating a system with a new educational style, can achieve the sign of efficiency which is achieving the goals.

Given the significant negative correlation between the cumbersome rules and regulations of the organization and effectiveness, it can be said that what should occur in the process efficiency is achieving the predetermined goals. According to this, we can say that all of the goals of the organization would not need the mentioned the rules and regulations even though they may not be cumbersome. Since the education organization deals with the process of learning science directly and what every developing country is looking for is progress in science we can conclude that implementing all the rules and regulations is a barrier to creativity and innovation.

11. Conclusion, Limitations and Suggestion

This research has been done with the purpose of examining the relationship of empowerment and entrepreneurship with efficiency. In order to reach this goal 146 subjects were selected as a partial class to answer the questionnaire survey. Evidence for the validity and reliability of research instruments shows that the validity and reliability of research instruments was satisfactory. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using Pearson correlation test. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relation between Empowering and Entrepreneurship and effectiveness. There also is a significant positive relationship between the efficient use of resources and focus on new ways of entrepreneurship. There is a significant negative relationship between cumbersome rules and regulations of Entrepreneurship and the process of effectiveness.

11.1. Limitations

• Some respondents were less willing to cooperate with the investigator due to lack of previous research results.

• Troublesome rules and regulations for investigation and research.

• Because the study was conducted in only one region, generalizing the results to other communities with similar statistics must be done cautiously.

• Another limitation in the way of this research was the Lack of variety to choose other questionnaire to collect and evaluate information.

11.2. Suggestions

This section offers the suggestions of notable researchers in the field of empowerment, entrepreneurship and efficiency:

• Since this study was conducted among employees of the Department of Education in Hormozgan province, researchers interested in such matters are advised to carry out their research in a larger community to have a more flexibility.

• The other variables that can impact on the efficiency of the organization should be investigated.

• Based on the results of this study it can be said that, if empowerment and entrepreneurship in the hierarchy of the organization is run and taught, then people will know the importance of their job and by participating in decision making process their commitment towards the organization will be increased and a feeling of autonomy will be manifested in them and as a result their efficiency will be improved. So it is suggested that the managers of the organizations pay more attention to these matters (empowerment and entrepreneurship in organizations).

• Accurately and consistently measuring the efficiency of the staff and giving them feedback and also considering promotions for employees and staff who in addition to the proper use of resources also offer Useful and fruitful ideas to advance the goals of their organization.

• Organic and dynamic approach to organization can be an effective step to improve the ability of staff. So according to the process of Delegation and efficiency, it is recommended to stay away from strict legislating and concentration of the power and give the employees more authority.

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