Scholarly article on topic 'The Role of Open Innovations in the Development of e-Entrepreneurship'

The Role of Open Innovations in the Development of e-Entrepreneurship Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Computer Science
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{e-entrepreneurship / "open innovations" / "customer cooperation" / "e-entrepreneurial processes" / "e-entrepreneurial organization"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Dorota Jelonek

Abstract Dynamic transitions in the enterprise surroundings, including constant moving the traditional market towards the market space available on the Internet and development of new information technologies offer new opportunities for creation and implementation of business projects termed e-entrepreneurship. One factor that stimulates e-entrepreneurship is innovations. This study aims to present the role of selected models of open innovations in e-entrepreneurship processes. It was emphasized that customers play an essential role in creating innovations. Moreover, the study verified the hypothesis that companies are increasingly committed to implementation of e-entrepreneurial processes, thus strengthening their position in the virtual market.

Academic research paper on topic "The Role of Open Innovations in the Development of e-Entrepreneurship"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía

CrossMark

Computer Science

ELSEVIER

Procedía Computer Science 65 (2015) 1013 - 1022

International Conference on Communication, Management and Information Technology

(ICCMIT 2015)

The Role of Open Innovations in the Development

of e-Entrepreneurship

Dorota Jelonek*

Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Management, Al. Armii Krajowej 19b, Czestochowa 42-200, Poland

Abstract

Dynamic transitions in the enterprise surroundings, including constant moving the traditional market towards the market space available on the Internet and development of new information technologies offer new opportunities for creation and implementation of business projects termed e-entrepreneurship. One factor that stimulates e-entrepreneurship is innovations. This study aims to present the role of selected models of open innovations in e-entrepreneurship processes. It was emphasized that customers play an essential role in creating innovations. Moreover, the study verified the hypothesis that companies are increasingly committed to implementation of e-entrepreneurial processes, thus strengthening their position in the virtual market.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier B.V.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Universal Society for Applied Research

Keywords: e-entrepreneurship; open innovations; customer cooperation, e-entrepreneurial processes, e-entrepreneurial organization

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 343250846; fax: +48 343613876 E-mail address: jelonek@zim.pcz.pl

1877-0509 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Universal Society for Applied Research

doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.09.058

Introduction

Entrepreneurship is a multifaceted phenomenon that involves human creativity, financial resources, and technological capital, fostering the discovery and establishment of new ways to organize production processes and new institutional forms, leading to such outcomes as enterprise growth and new ventures1.

Entrepreneurship can be considered as a process - the act of creation and building something new e.g. a new enterprise2 or as a group of features that characterize managers' behavior3.

Emergence of the Internet was one of the most important milestones in the development of business surroundings which expanded from the traditional market to market space available on the Internet4. This was followed by a remodeling of entrepreneurship into Internet entrepreneurship5 or e-entrepreneurship6, 7 .

Internet has cause a switch from the traditional closed model of innovations to a model of open innovations. Easy access to Internet communication solutions, development of social media and Web 2.0 stimulates customers' activity not only as buyers but also as experts, consultants, promoters of products and brands and, importantly, creative innovators. Enterprises involved in e-entrepreneurial processes should encourage customers to cooperate with them, since it is customers who are the best and immediate source of information about current market needs. The customers also deliver ideas about product improvements or demand on new products. Customers can also indicate the areas in current operation that could be improved or changed.

The aim of this study is to verify the following hypotheses:

H1: Customers are a creative source of innovations, especially product and marketing innovations,

H2: Enterprises are more and more often involved in co-creation of innovations with customers, which positively affects their financial results and strengthens their competitive position in the market.

H3: Companies are increasingly committed to implementation of e-entrepreneurial processes and therefore are strengthening their position in the virtual market.

H4: e-Entrepreneurship significantly affects enterprise performance.

In order to verify the hypotheses, the study used the results obtained from surveys carried out in 2012 and in 2015 in Polish medium-sized enterprises in the food processing industry.

1. Entrepreneurship vs. e-entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship has been examined from many different research standpoints. Floyd and Wooldridge8 analysed entrepreneurship from the perspective of knowledge creation used to restore organizational capabilities. Furthermore, Ramsey and Ibbotson9 took a macro and micro-perspective on entrepreneurial enterprises and discussed e-opportunities for economic development and the internationalisation of small Irish firms. These researchers argued that the willingness to embrace e-business will determine the future success of Ireland in the digital economy9. Birkinshaw10 approached these problems globally and investigated entrepreneurship in subsidiaries of multinational firms.

Changes in the external enterprise surroundings are a strong antecedent of entrepreneurship. Dess et al.11 and Bratnicki3 also emphasize that entrepreneurship is difficult to define due to different aspects in which it may appear; in other words, entrepreneurship is a process, which occurs in specific time and context3.

e-Entrepreneurship has been regarded to be a subcategory of entrepreneurship, oriented at digitization (virtualization) of selected or all business activities and processes, which in a traditional organizations were performed physically12.

These new models of entrepreneurship, which use information technologies such as the Internet, are also termed cyberentrepreneurship13, entrepreneurship in digital space14 or digital entrepreneurship14. Carrier et al.13 highlighted that cyberentrepreneurship is, in itself, an innovative business practice that enables business opportunities to be detected and seized.

The relationship between e-entrepreneurship and changes in the external environment of a firm triggered by the growth of the Internet have been studied extensively. Kathuria and Joshi15 showed that the growth of the Internet transforms enterprise environment in already existing firms while the firms respond to such changes by exhibiting entrepreneurial attributes.

It is widely recognized that the Internet has been one of the most important tools to help firms overcome physical and managerial barriers to e-entrepreneurship. This is particularly true for smaller entrepreneurial firms, given their widely recognized human and financial resource limitations, restricted international experience and lack of knowledge of global markets16.

e-Entrepreneurship can be also viewed from an international aspect as the Internet allows for addressing potential customers without geographical restrictions, yet the successful exploitation of these market opportunities might necessitate learning by (online) experience and avoiding 'shock effects'17 when dealing with remote markets. Hamill and Gregory18 argued that the enablement offers the prospect of removing a whole range of potential internationalisation barriers. However, while setting up websites implies instant internationalisation from a technical perspective, the successful deployment of this virtual presence is restrained by functional and organisational capabilities19.

Online shopping is expected to displace traditional shopping in the years to come. This will result in a decrease in turnover of traditional retail trade. Companies that will fail to timely change from traditional business models to ebusiness models may not be able to maintain their position in the market.

Since e-entrepreneurship opens up opportunities for enterprises to develop, the enterprises should quickly realize that being successful in the Internet is primarily associated with "being first" in the market. Moreover, the Internet reduces the economies of scale and, consequently, small and medium-sized enterprises can successfully compete with larger companies, whereas this competition is very difficult in the tradition market11.

Effective implementation of e-entrepreneurial activities requires knowledge of what distinguishes them from traditional entrepreneurial activities. Differences between these two types of entrepreneurship can be considered in the following contexts11:

• market entry,

• electronic products and electronic services,

• employees,

• marketing and advertising,

• transactions,

• payments,

• distribution,

• relationships with customers,

• cooperation with suppliers,

• networking.

As a process, entrepreneurship is understood to mean an organized sequence of actions oriented at the use of innovative ideas in order to generate benefits in the market. The following aspects are essential in the process of developing entrepreneurship: creativity, innovativeness and ability to explore ideas, seize opportunities and accept the risk.

Entrepreneurial process is defined as a cycle of value creation, involving opportunity recognition, acquisition and collecting resources, and implementations, such as new product and business launches.

e-Entrepreneurship is characterized by active searching for changes and quick responding to these changes, seeing opportunities for implementation of innovations and new technologies including internet technologies that change business models into e-business models.

As a determinant of entrepreneurship development, innovativeness has been studied by many researches in various aspects and in different sectors. Entrepreneurship and innovation have been analysed in studies by Heller20, Lassen et al.21, Jelonek22 and Zhao23.

2. Selected models of open innovations

The problem of innovation was discussed by many authors, e.g. Drucker24, Chesbrought25, Pachura26 and Jelonek27. Innovation consists in implementation of new combinations of resources and productive forces that were

realized through the process of creative thinking and this implementation must be carried out by entrepreneurs as it does not occur automatically. Therefore, there is a close connection between entrepreneurship and innovativeness. Drucker24 defined innovation as a specific tool for entrepreneurs which stimulates opportunities for new business or new services. This researcher further stated that innovation represents a specific tool for entrepreneurship: an action that gives resources new possibilities to create wealth. Innovation plays a key role in entrepreneurship, while the concept of innovation and novelty can be understood very broadly and relate to many ideas and solutions.

New paradigms, such as Open Innovation25 and Web 2.028 promote a more proactive role of customers in the innovation area. Companies should see customers as co-creators of products and hence value. Products should be designed in ways that allow users to design all by themselves, remix, and share.

There are many concepts in literature that emphasize the most essential aspects of co-creation and a number of existing methods for involving users, such as:

• Virtual community - Rheingold29,

• Crowdsourcing - Howe30,

• User Co-Creation - Prahalad and Ramaswamy31,

• Collective Intelligence - Glenn32,

• Open Innovations - Chesbrough25, Jelonek27,

• User-Driven Innovations - Rosted33,

• Lead User - Von Hippel34.

Information about customer preferences and personalization have always been a key factor for success in any business. Electronic commerce, partially in conjunction with flexible manufacturing, now provides the opportunity to obtain the information necessary for personalization from customers all over the world at low cost and, specifically in the case of digital products, to tailor general-purpose goods or services to the specific needs of each customer - "mass customization"35.

3. Towards e-entrepreneurial organization

Due to their activity and innovativeness, the organizations which have the ability to quickly react to dynamic changes in the environment and the ability to meet customers' needs are regarded as entrepreneurial organizations. Entrepreneurial organizations develop their entrepreneurial behavior skills in a favorable entrepreneurial climate.

Entrepreneurship in organizations is understood to mean a way of starting and developing new plans that consists in realization of innovation ideas from their inception to implementation. The implementation of ideas can be carried out by the organization itself, in cooperation with customers or with other organizations. Entrepreneurial organizations do not only respond to the symptoms that they notice in the business environment but they also stimulate new customer needs and development of new markets.

Schumpeter36 identified the five functions that should be performed by an entrepreneurial organization:

• manufacturing and distribution of new products,

• implementation of new manufacturing methods,

• creation of new business entities,

• exploration of new markets,

• searching for new sources of raw materials supply.

According to Ansoff37, entrepreneurial activities are associated with:

• withdrawal of obsolete products (services),

• creation of new products (services),

• identification of buyers of these products (services),

• identification of the ways to enhance attractiveness of the products (services) to the potential buyers and to strengthen new products (services) in the market.

Organizations need to learn how to develop entrepreneurial competences, how to make innovations and how to transform into flexible and dynamic organizations. Drucker24 argued that entrepreneurship is not natural and spontaneous but it is a conscious work that requires usage of knowledge, skills and previous experience.

With entrepreneurial orientation, companies have better opportunities to boost their business activities through introduction new products, entering into new markets, implementing new business processes and system transformations38.

Adaptation of company to the electronic economy involves analysis of the needs of customers who have access to the Internet and responding to those needs by creating products that are offered on websites. Internet can be used to build and sustain relationships with customers, business partners and employees. It helps extend the geographic scope of business without incurring excessive costs. Therefore, Internet entrepreneurship is primarily based on technological innovations which improve communication and accelerate exchange of information. For this reason, every entrepreneur should think how to innovate their business model and face the challenges of entry into the digital world.

4. Research method

The study was carried out twice, with a three-year interval. First study was conducted in January - February 20121 and second in January - February 2015. Comparison of the results obtained was made to find whether companies improved their entrepreneurial skills, especially those related to e-business.

The study involved five companies from food processing industry (2 - fruit and vegetable processing, 1 - dairy processing, 2 - meat processing). They were all medium sized companies that employed up to 250 employees. A method of a guided interview was used in the survey. Scenario of the interviews with managers of each company was the same. The interviews were carried out with the managers of the strategic level and with the managers in the divisions of sales, marketing, production and production technologies. The number of employees ranged from 7 to 11 respondents, depending on the company, with 47 respondents in total.

The interview scenario contained the questions which were supposed to elicit answer to the following research questions:

1. Does the enterprise cooperate with customers?

2. Do customers co-create innovations and, if they do, in which areas of enterprise's activity?

3. Do enterprises include opportunities created by the Internet and virtual markets in their e-entrepreneurial activities?

4. Which of the e-entrepreneurial processes has the biggest effect on companies' financial results and market performance?

5. Data analysis

All the managers interviewed agreed that the enterprises cooperate with customers very well, develop relations with customers and appreciate their role as innovators.

Another questions concerned participation of customers in development of innovations. Most of managers (80%) answered positively to the question of whether there was a group of customers who were active to cooperate in different areas. Respondents were asked to assess the scope and importance of the cooperation and co-creation of innovations with customers implemented over the previous three years with respect to competitors. The first survey covered the period of 2009 to 2011, while the second was carried out in 2012 to 2014. The survey concerned innovations in the field of products, packaging, technologies, marketing, processes and organization. Scale: 1 -unimportant, 2 - insignificant importance, 3 - moderately important, 4 - important, 5 - very important. The average values for the answers obtained in the study are presented in Fig. 1.

t Part of the study results was presented in: Jelonek D. The Innovative Potential of Prosumption and the Results of Enterprises., 7th Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control. September 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain.

The results of the study showed that customers are a creative source of innovation, especially product and marketing innovation (hypothesis H1). Comparison of the results collected in 2012 with those obtained in 2015 reveals that companies develop cooperation with customers and find innovation co-created with customers as more and more important over the years. Areas in which customers have fewer innovative ideas include technology, process and organization.

Fig. 1. Answers to the question "How do you rate the effect of the innovations implemented in recent three years

with respect to competitors?"

Respondents' answers to the questions concerning e-entrepreneurial processes implemented in companies are presented in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Identification of realized e-entrepreneurial processes and cooperation with customers. Comparison of results from 2012 and 2015

Was the process Was it Was the process Was it

implemented? implemented in implemented? implemented in

(2012) cooperation with (2015) cooperation with

e-Entrepreneurial process customers? (2012) customers? (2015)

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

Development or significant modifications of the 40 7 2 45 45 2 34 13

website

Implementation of new IT/IS solutions 6 41 0 47 43 4 12 35

Usage of Cloud Computing technology 0 47 0 47 0 47 0 47

Virtualization of ordering process 11 36 0 47 7 40 7 40

Virtualization of payment process (mobile 15 32 0 47 7 40 10 37

payments)

Virtualization of communication with customers 15 32 12 35 36 11 16 31

- communication innovations

Virtualization of communication with suppliers 12 35 0 47 18 29 2 45

Virtualization of marketing activities (e- 40 7 15 32 47 0 37 10

marketing)

Participation or increasing the level of 20 27 12 35 45 2 45 2

participation in social media

New quality of products/services 47 0 14 33 47 0 31 16

New quality of products/services connected with 47 0 12 35 47 0 25 22

innovative packaging

New product/service launch 47 0 12 35 47 0 37 10

Virtualization of customer after-sales services 7 40 0 47 16 31 5 42

Expansion into foreign markets through 7 40 0 47 31 16 2 45

translation of the website and product range to

several languages

Updating the range of services or withdrawal of 47 0 9 38 47 0 33 14

products/s ervices

Replacing paper documents with electronic 39 g 15 32 45 2 36 11

versions

Changes in the employment model (teleworkers) 0 47 0 47 17 30 0 47

Respondents were also asked to evaluate the effect of e-entrepreneurial processes and results of cooperation with customers on the financial results and market performance in the company. Scale 1 - unimportant, 2 - insignificant importance, 3 - moderately important, 4 - important, 5 - very important. The average values for answers (surveys in 2012 and 2015) are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Effect of e-entrepreneurial processes and results of cooperation with customers on the financial results and market performance in the company. Comparison of the results obtained in 2012 and 2015

The impact of the The impact of The impact of the The impact of

process on the cooperation with process on the on cooperation with

financial results customers on the the market customers on the

e-Entrepreneurial process financial results performance market

performance

2012 2015 2012 2015 2012 2015 2012 2015

Development or significant modifications of the

website 4.2 4.1 2.1 3.4 4.3 4.1 2.4 3.3

Implementation of new IT/IS solutions 3.1 3.3 0 2.5 2.6 2.8 1.2 1.6

Usage of Cloud Computing technology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Virtualization of ordering process 3.4 4.2 3.2 3.8 3.5 4.2 3.3 3.9

Virtualization of payment process (mobile

payments) 2.1 3.2 2.2 3.3 4.3 4.2 3.3 3.4

Virtualization of communication with customers

- communication innovations 3.5 4.6 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.3 3.9

Virtualization of communication with suppliers 3.6 4.1 0 1.1 2.7 3.2 1.4 1.4

Virtualization of marketing activities (e-

marketing) 4.6 4.8 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.8

Participation or increasing the level of

participation in social media 2.6 3.1 2.6 3.4 3.8 4.6 3.2 4.8

New quality of products/services 4.9 4.9 4.1 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.8

New quality of products/services connected with

innovative packaging 4.4 4.5 3.9 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.2 4.6

New product/service launch 4.9 4.8 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.1 4.5

Virtualization of customer after-sales services 2.2 2.4 0 1.4 2.5 3.1 1.3 1.8

Expansion into foreign markets through

translation of the website and product range to

several languages 2.7 4.1 0 1.4 3.4 34.3 0 1.8

Updating the range of services or withdrawal of

products/s ervices 4.3 4.4 3.5 3.8 4.4 4.5 2.8 3.4

Replacing paper documents with electronic

versions 2.6 3.1 1.4 2.3 2.6 2.9 2.9 3.4

Changes in the employment model (teleworkers) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

It was indicated that co-creating innovations with customers was a major factor in the development of e-entrepreneurial behaviours. Moreover, the hypothesis which said that enterprises are more and more often involved in co-creation of innovations with customers, which positively affects their financial results and strengthens their competitive position in the market, was verified.

Analysis of study results showed that companies analyzed in the surveys used opportunities offered by the Internet and virtual markets within their e-entrepreneurial activities. Only two processes that required the use of Internet were not implemented by any of the companies analyzed: the use of cloud computing technologies and changes in the employment model (teleworkers). The role of customers in initiation and implementation of e-entrepreneurial processes is constantly increasing. In 15 of 17 e-entrepreneurial processes, the level of customer involvement increased substantially. Customer involvement was reflected by initiatives, comments and opinions

about products, packaging, processing orders, methods of communication or marketing, innovative ideas, assistance in product testing, participation in organized contest for new products, new packaging or creating slogans.

Participation of customers as innovators and cooperation between company and customers in open innovation models is of essential importance. Respondents evaluated the role of customers as innovators as very high, both with respect to improving current products and packaging, and creation of new products and packaging. An important role is also played by customers as innovators in marketing and advertising (e-marketing). The role of customers as stimulating factor in enterprise activity in social media (45 answers "Yes"). The answers concerning the effect of this process on the market performance were also highly rated (average score 4.8).

Open innovation model also includes cooperation with entities from enterprise environment, especially suppliers. Virtualization of payment processes, implementation of new IT/IS solutions or the process of replacing paper documents with electronic versions were initiated by suppliers of the enterprises studied. Although the evaluation of the customer contribution to innovation in these processes was low, cooperation with suppliers and innovative changes in given areas was found to have significant impact on the financial results of the company.

Unfortunately, over three years between studies, companies have not fully developed their cross-border e-entrepreneurship. In 2012, only one enterprise was implementing the process of expansion into foreign markets, by translation of the company's website and range of products into several languages. In 2015, three companies declared to have translated their offer and website to foreign languages. This means that two companies had their websites only in Polish versions. The role of customers in this area was marginal.

When evaluating the impact of e-entrepreneurial processes on the financial results of the company, respondents contributed the most to the processes associated with product innovation, both in terms of improvement in current products (new quality of current products/services) and launching new products and new markets. Similarly, the effect of cooperation with customers on market performance in the model of open innovation was rated as very high by the respondents.

In the food processing industry, besides product innovation, packaging innovation are also important. Packaging was changing in terms of colors, label design, size, capacity and material from which they were made. Customers have suggested e.g. introducing smaller packages (serving for one person) of frozen food and XL packages (serving for four people) for these products. In the area of packaging innovation, customers' role as initiators and consultants was highly rated. Packaging innovations had a positive impact on boosting sales and financial performance as well as on improving company's competitive position on the market.

The hypothesis (H3) which assumed that companies are increasingly committed to implementation of e-entrepreneurial processes and therefore are strengthening their position on the virtual market and hypothesis (H4) of the significant effect of e-entrepreneurship on enterprise performance were verified positively.

Respondents from the same company answered to question given in Tables 1 and 2 in a very similar way. Arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for the answers given by employees of the same company. Standard deviation did not exceed the value of 1.00 for any of the questions. Furthermore, this value for several questions was lower than 0.50. This demonstrates that managers were not only familiarized with the narrow area of their own expertise but also had good knowledge of the overall operation of the company.

Conclusion

The Internet technology causes that companies do not only benefit from significantly lower operating costs, but they also are able to operate on a scale that is larger than before. Opportunities for international expansion are becoming quite natural and common. Poland is a country with substantial potential of implementation of new technologies that facilitate development of Polish companies and their international expansion. The development of technologies should be followed by removal of regulatory barriers.

In the Internet business models, contribution of users (customers or traders) to co-creation and co-development of services which they use is critical.

Nowadays, under conditions of continuous innovation and accelerated development of technologies and business models, it is necessary to ensure that legislation is brought in dialogue with online businesses and users of internet services.

Building comparative advantage based on low prices and cost reduction through sales of low-processed products is insufficient in operation of modern enterprises. One of the most important sources of competitive advantage is innovativeness in products and services and innovativeness in business models, with particular focus on e-business models. These activities result in transformation of business from bureaucratic companies to more flexible, adaptive and willing to transform, that is, entrepreneurial companies. Transformation of traditional business towards e-entrepreneurial business is carried out by converting values, resources, structures and strategies.

In e-entrepreneurial processes, companies are increasingly taking advantage of cooperation with entities from their environment (especially customers) using the model of open innovation. Innovation of products, packaging, marketing and processes have a significant impact on financial results and competitive position in the market. Virtualization of such processes as ordering, payments, after-sales customer services, communication or e-marketing ensures more effective implementation of current business objectives and changes the approach of companies to a new model of e-business.

References

1. Phan P, Zhou J. Abrahamson E. Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship in China, Management and Organization Review, 2G1G; 6/2; 175-194.

2. Gawel A. Entrepreneurial process. Creating new businesses, (Proces przedsiebiorczy. Tworzenie nowych przedsiebiorstw), Difin, Warsaw 2G13.

3. Bratnicki M. Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs of contemporary organizations, (Przedsiebiorczosc i przedsiebiorcy wspolczesnych organizacji), Copyright by University of Economics in Katowice, Katowice 2GG2.

4. Jelonek D. The Internet space in the environment of organization. Implications for the strategic management (Przestrzen internetowa w otoczeniu organizacji. Implikacje dla zarzadzania strategicznego), Scientific papers of Academic School of Management and Entrepreneurship in Walbrzych, 2G13, T.22 (2), s. s.309-320.

5. Waesche NM. Internet Entrepreneurship in Europe: Venture Failure and the Timing of Telecomunications Reform, Published by Edward Elgar Publishing Limited Glensanda House, 2GG3.

6. Matlay H. E-entrepreneursip and small e-business development: towards a comparative research agenda, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 2004;11/3: 408-414.

7. Jelonek D. Entrepreneurship and e- entrepreneurship, in: Knowledge and IT in Entrepreneurship Creation Process, (Przedsiebiorczosc a e-przedsiebiorczosc, w: Wiedza i technologie informacyjne w kreowaniu przedsiçbiorczosci), edited by Adam Nowicki, Dorota Jelonek, Published by Faculty of Management, Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa 2G13, s. 95-97.

8. Floyd SW, Wooldridge B. Knowledge creation and social networks in corporate entrepreneurship: The renewal of organizational capability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1999;23:123-144.

9. Ramsey E., Ibbotson P. E' entrepreneurial SMEs: An Irish study of micro and macro influences, Journal oof International Entrepreneurship, 2GG5;3(4):317-332.

1G. Birkinshaw, J. The determinants and consequences of subsidiary initiative in multinational corporations. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1999;24:9-36.

11. Dess GG, Lumpkin GT, McGee JE. Linking corporate entrepreneurship to strategy, structure, and process: Suggested research directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1999;23:85-103.

12. Hull CE., Hung YTC., Hair N., Perotti V., DeMartino R. Taking adventage of digital opportunities: a typology of digital entrepreneurship, International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 2007;4/3:290-303.

13. Carrier C., Raymond L., Eltaief A. Cyberentrepreneurship. A multiple case study, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 2004;10/ 5:349-363.

14. Hafezieh N., Akhavan P., Eshraghian F. Exploratopn of proces and competitive factors of entrepreneurship in digital space, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 2G11;4/4:267-279.

15. Kathuria R, Joshi MP. Environmental influences on corporate entrepreneurship: executive perspectives on the internet, Internet Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 2007; 3:127-144.

16. Sinkovics RR,-Bell JD. Current perspectives on international entrepreneurship and the Internet, Journal International Entrepreneurship, 2GG6;3: 247-249.

17. Pedersen T, Petersen B., Learning about foreign markets: Are entrant firms exposed to a "Shock Effect"? Journal International Marketing, 2GG4;12(1):1G3-12.

18. Hamill J, Gregory K. Internet marketing in the internationalisation of UK SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management, 1997;14(1-3):9-28.

19. Prasad VK, Ramamurthy K, Naidu GM. The influence of internet-marketing integration on marketing competencies and export performance. Journal of International Marketing, 2GG1;9(4):82-11G

2G. Heller, T., Loosely coupled systems for corporate entrepreneurship: Imagining and managing the innovation project/host organization interface. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1999;24:25-32.

21. Lassen, A. H., Gertsen, F. and Riis, J. O., The Nexus of Corporate Entrepreneurship and Radical Innovation. Creativity and

Innovation Management, 2006;15:359-372.

22. Jelonek D., The Innovative Potential of Prosumption and the Results of Enterprises., 7th Conference on Performance Measurement and Management Control. September 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain 2013.

23. Zhao F., Exploring the synergy between entrepreneurship and innovation", International Journal oof Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 2005;11/1:25 - 41.

24. Drucker PF, Innovation and entrepreneurship: practice and principles. London, Heinemann, 1985.

25. Chesbrought H. The Era of Open Innovation, MPT Sloan Management Review, 2003;44/3:35-41.

26. Pachura A. Innovation theory - an epistemological aspects, Polish Journal of Management Studies,2012;5:127-134.

27. Jelonek D. The Role of the Internet in Open Innovations Models Development, Business Informatics, 2012;1(23):38-47.

28. O'Reilly T. What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software, 2005, http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html (2015-02-03).

29. Reingold O, Alt R. Social Customer Relationship Management: State of the Art and Learnings from Current Projects, 25th Bled eConference eDependability: Reliable and Trustworthy eStructures, eProcesses, eOperations and eServices for the Future, 2012, Bled, Slovenia.

30. Howe J. The Rise of Crowdsourcing, Wired Magazine, June 2006;14.

31. Prahalad CK. Ramaswamy V. The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2004.

32. Glenn JC. Collective Intelligence - One of the Next Big Things. Finnish Society for Futures Studies. Helsinki, Finland. Futura, 2009;4.

33. Rosted J. User-Driven innovation. Results and recommendations, FORA, Copenhagen, 2005.

34. Von Hippel EA. Democratizing Innovation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2005.

35. Bandulet M, Morasch K. Would You Like to be a Prosumer? Information Revelation, Personalization and Price Discrimination in Electronic Markets, International Journal of the Economics of Business, July 2005;12/2:251-271.

36. Schumpeter J A. Essays - On Entrepreneurs, Innovations, Business Cycles and the Evolution oof Capitalism. Transaction Publishers Brunswick, U.S, 1989.

37. Ansoff HI. Corporate Strategy. New York: McGraw Hill, 1965.

38. Bratnicki M. Configuration Approch to Organizational Entrepreneurship, Economics and Organization of Enterprises (Konfiguracyjne ujecie przedsiebiorczosci organizacyjnej, Ekonomika i OrganizacjaPrzedsiebiorstw), 2008;6(701):17-22.