Scholarly article on topic 'Models of Technical and Industrial Heritage Re-Use in Romania'

Models of Technical and Industrial Heritage Re-Use in Romania Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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{"technical and industrial patrimony" / "heritage reuse" / "culture-led regeneration" / "functionally restructured areas"}

Abstract of research paper on Social and economic geography, author of scientific article — Andreea-Loreta Cercleux, Florentina-Cristina Merciu, George-Laurenţiu Merciu

Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyze preservation and capitalization of technical and industrial heritage in Romania. An ecosystemic approach to the heritage was used in order to study the interdependence between the quality of a monument building and the relation between the suppliers and recipients of services related to the heritage – with various functional models of towns. Thus, a classification was elaborated in order to establish the positive and negative aspects of behavior of urban metabolisms in terms of preservation and capitalization of technical and industrial heritage assets. For this purpose the most relevant case studies were selected to depict the different phases of urban regeneration projects (the cities of Bucharest, Timişoara, Călan, Reşita). The presence of a rich and diverse technical and industrial patrimony in Romania requires continuing the programs to preserve the industrial assets which have to be incorporated into economic policies for regional and national development and planning.

Academic research paper on topic "Models of Technical and Industrial Heritage Re-Use in Romania"

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Procedía Environmental Sciences 14 (2012) 216 - 225

Landscape, Environment, European Identity, 4-6 November, 2011, Bucharest

Models of technical and industrial heritage re-use in Romania

Andreea-Loreta Cercleuxa*9 Florentina-Cristina Merciua9 George-Laurentiu

Merciub

aInterdisciplinary Center for Advanced Researches on Territorial Dynamics, University of Bucharest bDepartment of Human and Economic Geography, University of Bucharest

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyze preservation and capitalization of technical and industrial heritage in Romania. An ecosystemic approach to the heritage was used in order to study the interdependence between the quality of a monument building and the relation between the suppliers and recipients of services related to the heritage - with various functional models of towns. Thus, a classification was elaborated in order to establish the positive and negative aspects of behavior of urban metabolisms in terms of preservation and capitalization of technical and industrial heritage assets. For this purpose the most relevant case studies were selected to depict the different phases of urban regeneration projects (the cities of Bucharest, Timi§oara, Calan, Re§ita). The presence of a rich and diverse technical and industrial patrimony in Romania requires continuing the programs to preserve the industrial assets which have to be incorporated into economic policies for regional and national development and planning.

© 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Univetsity of Buchare st, Faculty of Geography, Department of Regional Geography and Environment, Centre for Environmental Research and Impact Studies.

Keywords: technical and industrial patrimony; heritage reuse; culture-led regeneration; functionally restructured areas

1. Introduction

Preservation and heritage adaptive re-use [1, 2, 3] has become a domain of interest in the field of technical and industrial patrimony, too [4, 5], for a wide range of participants, direct or indirect, to strengthening the idea of asserting vernacular identity and culture. The major urban-regeneration projects [6, 7] carried out as part of cultural policies [8] is justified by the public interest in recuperating inherited architecture [9].

It is well known that globalization requires the reinvention of towns, from industrial centers into cultural ones under the impact of culture-led regeneration [10]. Industrial relocations, effects of

* Corresponding author. Tel. / Fax + 4021 313 84 10 E -mail address: loretacepoiu@yahoo.com

1878-0296 © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of University of Bucharest , Faculty of Geography, Department of Regional Geography and Environment, Centre for Environmental Research and Impact Studies. doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2012.03.021

globalization, require new specializations for abandoned areas, often combined with historical and cultural activities [11]. In the case of industrial towns, the regeneration sometimes leads to measures to incorporate assets into the heritage [12], grounded in the principle of choosing a sustainable development of the lands [13]. These measures materialize in actions to convert the old spaces, focusing on creativity, increasing the number of jobs and cultural sustainability. At the same time, globalization contributes to accelerating the phenomenon of loss or drop in interest in the sense of identity and belonging to a particular territory, reflected by elements of architecture, as well. Facing a situation where the threat to the cultural heritage has been acknowledged by the global community [14], we must thus weigh both the positive and the negative effects of the phenomenon of globalization when in any given space attempts are made at patrimonialization, which we may call "operational" patrimonialization.

When the existing culture has begun to stagnate and lose its vitality and forward movement, then it is time for a different type of strategy for changing culture, one whose purpose is not to perpetuate and develop the culture but to transform it into something else [15].

Numerous forms of reuse of industrial sites, disused or abandoned, are increasingly common: residential, educational, hotels, museums, commercial centers or exhibition spaces. The cultural dimension is an essential component in the unfolding of urban regeneration projects in Romania and it is predominantly approached from the perspective of the touristic potential that can replace former industrial activities, but which may not always prove a therapy. Tourism is an increasingly frequent form in changing the function of a territory which had an industrial vocation par excellence, which in time imbued the identity of the place. The new activities are possible grace to the tourist attractions that replace the production facilities because museums can contribute effectively to culture-led regeneration [16]. The new functionality of the former industrial buildings is a complex process that involves studying the particular features of them highlighted by different economic means. Revival of industrial towns becomes a priority in the current context, where urban and regional competitiveness is increasing [17].

The main objectives of the study are to identify the directions of the present actions to reorganize industrial spaces in Romania, to propose a classification of the activities which replace the ancient industrial functions and to outline the ways of intervention in order to respect and capitalize on the technical and industrial heritage. To meet these objectives, relevant case studies were taken into the analysis, some of them known to the public and even heavily publicized. An interpretation of those cases' processes and the factors determining the options for their evolution is provided to be taken into account.

The case studies were selected according to the industrial significance in the local economy and to the urban regeneration projects started by the local administration. Industrial towns with diversified profiles were selected (beer industry, steel, extraction) in order to see the complexity of urban regeneration. Thus, the most representative case studies for the industrialization process in Romania were selected, observing how urban regeneration is also customized depending on the type of industrial building, conservation mode or the degree of contamination.

2. Methodology

The study is based on using a complex methodology, which merges the ecosystemic approach of the heritage - based on the analysis of interdependence between the quality of a monument building and the relation between the suppliers and recipients of services related to the heritage - with various functional models of towns. These are incorporated into a more complex analysis, that is the system approach of towns, interpreted from the perspective of their metabolism as reflected by the input-output relationship, of the determining factors in the creation of the output, alongside a parallel analysis of the economic benefits of preserving the heritage (home comfort, leisure, inheritance) - Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Approach of technical and industrial heritage re-use

The ecosystemic approach to the heritage is reflected in the analysis of jobs created as the result of the establishment of a new tourist attraction on the premises of a heritage industrial building, analyzed from a threefold perspective [18]: jobs created directly (in cultural institutions, museums, archives, bookstores); jobs created indirectly (in restoration and preservation work); jobs created by other activities (in the distribution of goods and services related to the patrimony). As far as jobs in tourism are concerned, Xavier Greffe considers them as being part of a distinct category and an effect of the first category. Visiting tourist attractions means more than creating jobs at an institutional level - creating jobs in the vicinity as well (accommodation basis, public food facilities, and shopping centers). This integrated ecosystemic approach (top-down and bottom-up), centered on the cultural sustainability and typical at a first glance of urban patrimonial tourism, can be extrapolated, with certain modifications, to other services, alternatives in the conduct of the process of culture-led regeneration.

The economic benefits of preserving the heritage are multiple: the home comfort, leisure and inheritance [19]. The transformation of the so-called unaesthetic catalogue image, typical of industrial buildings in Romania (despite the presence of some buildings with outstanding architectural value, too) into an attractive image is associated with an enhanced residential comfort. The operational incorporation of former industrial buildings into the patrimony becomes even more necessary in the context of chaotic urbanization, mainly carried out after 1960 and most times reflected into an unsuccessful combination of residential spaces and industrial spaces. Leisure is another benefit offered to communities by the actions of conservation, as urban spaces in Romania have not reached a saturation of those services, which are in many cases actually considered secondary. The third benefit, that of inheritance, can be associated in a positive perspective with the process of gentrification that plays a significant part in the process of urban regeneration [20] and that in Romania shapes up ever more in the central areas or in areas significant for the territorial evolution of big cities.

The ecosystemic interpretation to the heritage is part of the systemic approach to the industrial patrimony expressed by the input-output relation. The forms of industrial reorganization encountered in Romania, conducted individually or simultaneously, typical of the transition and adaptation to the market economy (deindustrialization, industrial relocation, decentralization, economic reconversion) are based on the immobile testimonies of the various industries in Romania that have had a decisive role in the economic evolution of the country. This refers to industrial and technical buildings included on the counties' patrimony lists and which make up the input category. Subjected to economic reorganization processes, inputs respond differently to the functional re-adaptations concentrated in the direction of cultural regeneration. The alternatives of transformation of those spaces that belong in this case to culture-led regeneration are explained by the fact that before being industrial patrimony, all these constructions are cultural values. The suitable destinations (the outputs) are part of the domain of culture and, usually, they are divided into three categories: tourism, cultural activities and other services. The alternative of regenerating former industrial spaces must be analyzed in relation to the local conditions

and needs, because identification of the unique local characteristic features is one of the challenges of the regeneration policy [21].

The models that result in the wake of the differentiated behavior of urban metabolisms follow distinct trajectories: a) in harmony (positive) - that it those models that feature a well-balanced input-output relation and have the following characteristics: the measures of adaptation are suited to the type of monument; the models respond to a remarkable extent to the regeneration actions; some of them become successful-models that will ease the implementation of the measures in other spaces with similar conditions; b) in disharmony (negative) - in total opposition with the previous models, they emerge when: there are no feasibility studies for the projects suggested for enforcement (which would also take into consideration the local factors, too); the range of agents participating in the decision-making process does not include specialists in the fields of interest for the respective improvement work; the principle of subsidiarity is not respected; c) indifferent (on the border between positive and negative) — models resulting from the materialization of patrimonialization projects, but which do not respond exactly to the initial requirements: the architectural value of the industrial patrimony building is not included in its new function; many times, the functional adaptation is in the field of everyday services; they are unstable models, that are given successive functions, frequently in a short span of time.

The data were obtained by means of field research, the information about the history of the industrial spaces being obtained from the documentation analysis in archives and on-site.

3. Results

Even though the analysis of the manner in which industrial units are capitalized on a national scale reflects a lag in comparison to West-European countries, this process takes multiple re-use forms which can be distributed on the three aforementioned models.

Romania owns a considerable industrial heritage, with its multi-significance acting as its backbone: its age, aesthetics and technological value, the latter being associated with the diversity of the types of industry existing on a national scale as well. Likewise, it is also worth mentioning the political-legal criterion whose importance was exhibited under the communist regime and that generated the emergence and development of an industrial infrastructure, most of the times excessive in relation to the endurance capacity of the environment and to natural resources. A new stage of industrialization in Romania was created, that is today translatable through a series of elements pertaining to the industrial patrimony described most of the times as "industrial giants" and whose restructuring and re-capitalization are difficult. Despite all these, some constructions incorporate a series of particular characteristics that can be preserved in the urban tissue and assimilated as elements of cultural heritage and exploited as such.

3.1. Models of technical and industrial heritage re-use in Bucharest

The directions followed by industrial facilities inside the city of Bucharest after 1990 were quite distinct from one another, the most important being the liquidating the industrial facilities and selling the respective tracts of land and the reutilization of former industrial buildings for commerce, offices and residential [22].

Despite the plethora of examples of elements of Bucharest's technical and industrial heritage, their ranking on the three types of models is also influenced by a series of different aspects: old industrial building do not, in general, a genuine value in terms of identity; industrial constructions are restricted to the local specificity; exploitation of real estate by owners of old industrial buildings is generally undertaken in a direction different from the safeguarding of a Romanian technical and industrial heritage (sale, cheap renovation and, then, lease); the preference of investors is directed to new buildings, due to

multiple reasons: convenience, the lack of a strategy in perspective, legal obstacles and obstacles concerning the upgrading of old buildings etc.

3.1.1. Commodity Exchange - model in harmony

The reuse of the building of the former Commodity Exchange is one example in this respect. The ancient offices of the also so-called Warehouse Customs were built in 1898. The building, a historical monument, currently serves as head offices for several companies (advertising, commercial ventures, urban design etc.). The economic conversion into a multiple-destination building was designed as part of the Ark project, meant to rescue the building, in a state of advanced deterioration, in the wake of a devastating fire and 16 years of disuse. This process also involved restoring the original architecture, by retrieving the defining features of the old building, which was converted into an office complex for creative industries and at the same time into a public space dedicated to exhibitions [11].

Even though the tourist alternative was not chosen in the regeneration process, the location adjoining the center of the capital and the distinct architecture of the Commodity Exchange were determining factors in the preference of companies in terms of options in choosing offices. These advantages lead to the direct creation of jobs (advertising and urban design), beside their indirect creation (in activities such as restoration and conservation that met the use of original materials, through a successful adaptation of integrating what was old to the new and vice versa); likewise, jobs were created in other activities as well (in food services through the opening of a bar at the ground-floor of the building).

In terms of economic benefits in the preservation of heritage, benefits regarding leisure seem to stand out the most in the case analyzed, with options for this type of activity related to their territorial density being quite scarce in the area. As a result, Commodity Exchange becomes the first successful model in Bucharest, workable in future developments in the spirit of heritage preservation and cultural sustainability as well.

3.1.2. The Bragadiru Brewery - indifferent model

We have chosen for this model an economic development that had an important contribution to the development of Bucharest industrial and cultural life at the turn of the 19th century, namely the Bragadiru Brewery. Connected to the name of a great landowner bearing the same name, the brewery that dates from 1894 was one of the largest and most modern breweries in Bucharest until its nationalization in 1948, when it also changed its name to the Rahova Brewery. Aside from its main purpose - production -the Bragadiru brewery has a course similar to some famous European breweries, through the attention directed on the social aspect as well (and not only the economic one): during 1895-1904 the construction of the Bragadiru Palace is completed, also known as the "palace of culture for employees", set up near the brewery and where balls and festivities were held; after the 1948 nationalization, the palace will be restored and will house different cultural activities, a purpose it still currently holds.

After the privatization conducted in the late 1990s, the brewery experienced a downturn, with the new owners and investor uninterested in harnessing the economic potential of the unit. We considered the inclusion of the Bragadiru economic development in the category of indifferent models out of two reasons: a) on the one hand (negative aspect), the reconversion that is being attempted in terms of the factory and that is expected to become a commercial center (which will incorporate a mall, a hotel, a business center and an underground parking) is not undertaken observing the intervention conditions applied in the case of heritage buildings; the process of transformation is based approximately on the same determining factors previously considered: location near the central area of the capital, distinct architecture of buildings, but also large occupied areas that become real advantages in terms of investments; b) on the other hand (positive aspect), the cultural destination of the Bragadiru Palace, retroceded to heirs in 2003, is perpetuated at present as well. Faced with two distinct realities, we are

forced to classify this example as an indifferent one due to diverging means of intervention, followed by rightful heirs and private investors in the direction of an operational patrimonialization.

Generating jobs, both directly and indirectly, patrimonialization should imply early economic benefits on all three levels: the comfort of inhabitance (in Romania, opening a mall is immediately associated to the idea of an attractive residential area, reflecting on the real estate market as well); leisure (a mall indicates the expansion of the supply of leisure services); inheritance (descendents of the Bragadiru family take part by assuming the role of urban actor in undertakings concerning heritage conservation). However, reaching this benefits could be slowed down by a series of causes, among which the national economic situation or legal obstacles.

3.1.3. Assan 's Mill - model in disharmony

The third model analyzed, Assan's Mill, was the first milling enterprise in Bucharest, build between 1853 and 1948. The aspects of the constructions set up over time are multiple: technical - one of the first buildings on a metal scaffold in Bucharest; architectural - one of the most remarkable monuments of industrial architecture, whose cereal warehouse was in 1903 the tallest building in Bucharest; economic -in the early 1900s, it was powered by electricity produced in an in-house plant, being the first steam-powered mill in Romania; the functional profile developed over time, incorporating, aside from the cereal mill, production units for vegetable oils, polish and colors, soaps and putty; urban image - the installing of a clock in the early 20th century, as a landmark for people from the neighborhood.

Even though the buildings were preserved in proper condition and exhibited a huge reconversion potential, after 1990 no attempts to adapt them to any post-industrial development alternative were made. Determining factors in the development of an operational patrimonialization could have been represented by its location close to the central area, the distinct architectural style and the large area it covered (over 5 ha), prime attractions for real estate investors. Despite its quality as a historical monument of national value, Assan's Mill falls in the category of negatives, affected as of 2005 by demolishing activities, fires and vandalism. Under these circumstances, even though there are inputs that can be included in a functional readaptation process, due to the lack of interest in undertaking reconversion, tourist or nontourist projects, we cannot speak of a functional system which we could subject to the ecosystemic approach and the study of economic benefits.

3.2. Models of technical and industrial heritage re-use on a national scale

3.2.1. The Timiijoreana brewery - model in harmony

Among positive models, the example of the Timi§oreana brewery (built in 1718), located in the western part of the country, can be mentioned, becoming an industrial objective of local, but also national reference, as it represents the oldest brewery in Romania. The advantages that stood behind its transformation into a positive patrimonialization model are linked to its historical value and its importance to the beer industry in Romania: its history, fascinating not just due to the age, but also due to the conditions that encouraged its development, at the initiative of Austrian prince Eugene of Savoy, which gave it the name of "Imperial brewery"; in the 1920s, Timi§oreana became the official beer supplier for the Romanian Royal House; in the 1960s, the brewery became the second production unit in the world to operate on a complete automation of equipment. Currently, the brewer is part of the international group SAB Miller, a take over that amounted to investments in the expansion of the production capacity, but also in the modernization of historic buildings on the premises of the brewery (the cold plant, the silo, the malt production department, tanks for beer fermentation, vaults and storage houses), as well as some buildings classified as historical monuments in Traian Square, where the brewery is located. Recently, a museum was also built. The museum accommodates generous exhibition

spaces where equipments, technological installations, packing, advertising materials, photographs and even a projector room where a history of the brewery is suggestively presented are displayed.

The case of this example is different from the previous ones because it offers a new perspective in the analysis of the capitalization of industrial heritage: from an economic perspective, by preserving industrial production activity and doubling it through cultural capitalization of the economic objective. Unlike the other examples, even though the cultural capitalization of the technological significance of the beer factor does not constitute the primal element, it is important to notice the inter-relation between industrial production and cultural capitalization that blends harmoniously in a still-operational industrial objective. This example strengthens the idea that the heritage value of an industrial objective could be, if not superior to the production value, at least equal and co-existent to it, which turns it into a successful-model. This fact is also proven in the ecosystemic approach and economic benefits, attraction of visitors fascinated with the methods of labor in the industrial sector that stands out from other types of labor, as it is growing.

3.2.2. Calan — indifferent model

The city of Calan (located in the center-western part of the country) fits in with indifferent models because projects that are underway and meant to save the local industrial heritage will not be able to make up for the lack of interest displayed after 1990 by the authorities, as well as the new owners. Even though it developed in the aftermath of World War II in one of the country's steel centers, appreciated for its production of gray cast iron, blast furnace coke and casts, based on ore from the Poiana Rusca Mountains, it is currently one of the areas with major malfunctions on a national scale. The current situation is, at the same time, the result of industrialization policies prior to 1990, which favored the development of intensely polluting activities within mining, metallurgic, steel, and chemical and energy industries. As a result of these activities, the soil and the subsurface have been polluted with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, natural and synthetic organic substances, determining over time the emergence and expansion of contaminated sites that affect the quality of environment factors and the health of the population even at present.

Its activity amounted to producing gray cast iron for cast houses, casts and foundry coke (for the construction of cars). In 1991, the plant was privatized, with negative effects appearing soon after: after the plant was closed down in the early 2000s, it was invaded by "scrap iron collectors" who began knocking down all metallic components, turning it shortly into a ruin. The only structures left standing are 5 cooling towers, two chimneys from the foundry furnaces, radial tanks for the mechanical treatment of water and the supporting structure of buildings that were part of coke-chemical plants [23].

The industrial park, an intervention that corresponds to a complex ecosystemic approach, is scheduled to become operational in 2014 on an area of 40 ha and will create from several hundred to a thousand jobs in different services. Like in the example of the Bragadiru brewery in Bucharest, the Calan industrial complex was conceived from a social perspective, the Labor Club and the Guest House having been set up outside the plant, all built in 1874 and today on the list of heritage sites. Even though outputs will be represented by non-tourist activities, from a wide range of services creating jobs, as the project does not envisage measures to exploit heritage buildings of historical and architectural significance, we are likely to witness them being treated carelessly, which entitle us to place it in the indifferent models' section [24]. In terms of economic benefits, only that of living conditions could stand out, despite the former plant's location on the outskirts of the city.

3.2.3. Re§ifa — model in disharmony

Another example, this time negative, is represented by the municipality of Re§i$a, located in the southwestern part of the country, in the Banat Mountains area, whose development was due to the steel

industry. Until the completion of the first elements of industrial infrastructure (the two furnaces), Re§ita was a small rural community. The furnace no. 2, the only one remained of the city's two furnaces, a symbol for the cultural identity of the local population, represents the fifth generation of such equipment, built during 1969-1971, upgraded, to level of performances worldwide in those years, during 1986-1987 [25]. Put out of operation in 1991 and later classified as a historical monument of national importance, so far no improvements have been made for the conservation and tourist exploitation of the furnace. Even though the objective is rare piece in the country, tourists have no access to visit it because it is located on private property. Its significance is even greater as it is the last one in the inner Carpathian space [25]. As a result, we cannot speak for now about drafting a tourist model that would bring a series of economic benefits, supported by the undeniable value of inputs and effortless reconversion possibilities.

4. Discussion

The models for re-use of the technical and industrial heritage in Romania are at a disadvantage from the very start by the unclear legislation and lacking methodological norms for enforcement. Despite the legislative obstacles, there has been a recent noticeable change in the perspective of interpreting industrial spaces in Romania and decommissioned spaces or the various production/storage spaces are no longer presented as areas with economic and social problems, but rather as areas with an economic potential.

The case studies used are located inside distinct geographical spaces, with different industrial specificities and periods of service. The general factors at the foundation of their inclusion into the three categories of models belong to a wide range, whose influence is not always primordial. Although it ought to be a case of main factors, considering they include indicators dealing with location, the industrial history of the area, the economic dimension or the link between industry and the identity of the area, their "exercise" tends to be increasingly limited, because of the determining nature of other conditions, decisive in the shaping of directions of evolution. This refers to factors whose current nationwide influence takes precedence over the main factors', and they are equivalent to the territorial development strategies and the local authorities' degree of involvement in the economic conversion of the spaces. However, this trend noticeable at nationwide scale does not mean to convey that the factors included in the second category are less important than the main factors, even if they were thus differentiated. The message refers to the fact that while in the societies with a tradition in approaching the heritage the contribution of the factors is considered in the logical order of things, that is from local specificity later on integrated into development strategies and policies, in the case of cities in Romania the strategies are defined first and they are then adapted to the local conditions. Treating the patrimony in this manner can unfortunately bring about deadlocks in the implementation of projects whose planning is inadequate to certain spaces and situations. The case studies in Romania reveal a different range of local conditions that leave their mark on the type of capitalization of spaces.

Patrimonialization becomes, as a result, for spaces that undergone processes of functional restructuring, a means of economic stimulation. Aside from strictly economic benefits, the advantages that industrial patrimonialization brings about, for instance in tourism, are associated to the idea that investment in culture could give birth to gravitational effects: aside from the stimulation of entrepreneurial spirit and innovation, with positive consequences on the growth of employed population and incomes, patrimonialization leads to a growth in the level of local attractiveness and a development of the cultural level of the population [26].

When patrimonialization is not tended by local authorities, negative effects will not take long to emerge. If the location for production is not taken, as a result of processes of functional restructuring, tourism and cultural activities (cultural spaces, parks with museums, cultural centers) or in the field of other services, the buildings in question become the ideal space for the set up of squats. Squats, by partial

or total seizure of decaying real estate, represent a new element that interferes in the downfall of the industrial heritage, which will be a principal element of analysis in the future researches. Whereas in other cases this model of abusive seizure of space is reached as a result of real estate speculation, in the case of the city of Bucharest, the disregard and poor involvement of authorities in matters related to various areas of the city that hold historical value lead to the deterioration of historical monuments.

The industrial heritage approach in terms of the space re-use is widely present in the international flow of publications, but most of the cases are focused on individual case studies which provide only a description and interpretation of particular elements of each industrial construction. The small number of the approaches focused on general categories of industrial spaces with common characteristics and which can then be easily extrapolated to other areas corresponds to a still uncovered segment of analysis among current researches worldwide.

The establishing of the re-use three models can be hampered by the disadvantages of the methodology used and which can occur in the space analyzed. The ecosystemic approach of the heritage has a methodological limitation in the new created jobs forecasting, resulted from the culture-led regeneration process. Their estimation becomes very difficult because a number of external factors may contribute to reducing the number of jobs estimated: unexpected new investment projects in the area, strategies failed or abandoned the sequence of other economic processes etc.

5. Conclusions

Given the major transformations that the process of economic transition has entailed on a national scale, the present article highlights the importance of identifying and analyzing the directions pursued by the various functionally restructured areas, as well as current challenges in implementing alternative development policies. Considering the results gathered, we conclude that Romania is at the onset of implementing urban regeneration steps, short in safeguarding strategies for industrial heritage buildings and, last of all, to promote the their historic value. The idea to reuse the technical and industrial heritage has to be materialized and converted into an instrument that is absolutely necessary in the reassertion of under-privileged industrial areas, already registered on the list of heritage or potentially heritage monuments, even more so if mono-industrial spaces are concerned.

The means of intervention identified and considered mandatory in an approach on patrimonialization fall into a wide range of actions: 1) encouraging the draft of a technical and industrial heritage implies the involvement of authorities, alongside legal advisers and economists; 2) programs meant to raise population awareness and education regarding the appreciation and identification of them in the history of the location are extremely necessary; 3) the technical and industrial heritage is essential to the development and assertion of a site, with industrial buildings being as important through their value itself, but also through their content; 4) promoting successful models is necessary in order to prevent demolishing operations and to encourage the change in destination of industrial buildings of heritage value.

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by the strategic projects POSDRU /89/1.5/S/58852 "Post-doctoral program for training of researchers in science" and POSDRU/107/1.5/S/80765 "Excellence and interdisciplinarity in doctoral studies for an information society" co-funded by the European Social Fund by way of the Operational Sectorial Program for Development of Human Resources 2007-2013.

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