Scholarly article on topic 'Teacher – Parents’ Relations in the Efficiency of the Value Education'

Teacher – Parents’ Relations in the Efficiency of the Value Education Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Tekin Çelikkaya, Uğur Başarmak, Simge Filoğlu, Bilge Şahin

Abstract Value education which is very effective in education field today is not only taught in the schools but also taught in the family. The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of the teachers and the parents during the process of teaching values. The research was conducted with 10 Social Studies teachers and the parents of the students in these schools in the city centre of Kırşehir in 2012-2013 education year. The data of the study was conducted by semi-structured interview form which was composed of 7 open ended questions. In the analysis of the data obtained in the study, inductive analysis, one of the content analysis types, was used. As a result, the teachers and the parents mutually tried to teach the values, the parents tried to be role models and to emphasize like the teachers and also they used the suggestopedia method which the teachers have never used.

Academic research paper on topic "Teacher – Parents’ Relations in the Efficiency of the Value Education"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 (2014) 1106 - 1113

5th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013

Teacher -Parents' Relations in the Efficiency of the Value

Education

Tekin gELIKKAYA a *, Ugur BA§ARMAK b, Simge FILOGLU c ' Bilge §AHIN d

a Assist.Prof.Dr Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Education, Kirsehir and 40000, Turkey b Instructor, Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Education, Kirsehir and 40000, Turkey c Graduate Student, Ahi Evran University, Faculty of Education, Kirsehir and 40000, Turkey d Social Studies Teacher Governor Mithat Primary School , Kirsehir and 40000, Turkey

Abstract

Value education which is very effective in education field today is not only taught in the schools but also taught in the family. The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of the teachers and the parents during the process of teaching values. The research was conducted with 10 Social Studies teachers and the parents of the students in these schools in the city centre of Kirsehir in 2012-2013 education year. The data of the study was conducted by semi-structured interview form which was composed of 7 open ended questions. In the analysis of the data obtained in the study, inductive analysis, one of the content analysis types, was used. As a result, the teachers and the parents mutually tried to teach the values, the parents tried to be role models and to emphasize like the teachers and also they used the suggestopedia method which the teachers have never used.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center.

Keywords: Value, value education, social studies , teacher, parents 1. Introduction

Today globalisation provided opportunities for many developments in political, social, economic and cultural fields; on the other hand, it has caused the problems which threaten social life to emerge. Our national, moral, social, ethical and cultural values which make up the basis of our social life are the most important reference for the solution of risks and problems which threaten the individual, the family, the society we live in and the world. Since values education is the main concern of the society, they must be tackled multi dimensionally (MEB TTKB,2010).

Social studies is a value education course. One of the aspects which drew the attention in the radical curriculum changes is that the subject of value education was emphasised in the curriculum. When social studies curriculum are examined, the aim is to have the students gain 20 values. (MEB, 2008; MEB, 2010). These values are determined to be"Being fair, Giving importance to family unity, Peace, Independence, Being scientific, Hardworking, Cooperation, Sensibility, Honesty, Aesthetic, Tolerance, Hospitality, Freedom, Respect, Giving importance to being healthy, Love, Responsibility, Cleanliness, Patriotism, Helpfulness". While some of these values are taught only in one class level (for ex: hospitality in the 4th grade, aesthetic in the 7th grade), some of them are taught in a few classes at the same time (For ex: respect in the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grade).

As a result of being immature in terms of values, the human can do an act which not only gives damage to their surroundings but also to themselves and the other people (Doganay, 2009: 227).Because of that, value education has a very important place in education system. The primary missions of the family, society and schools are to bring up individuals who have adopted basic human values (Eksi, 2003: 79).

* Corresponding author: Tekin ^elikkaya. Tel.: +0-505-396-7808 E-mail address: akademisyteko@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.353

Primarily the family and then the education institutions in a planned way, near and far environment comes in the cultural transfer which includes values. Values education whose background was structured in the family are reinforced and developed in schools. Value gains cannot be provided with the education in schools without the support of the family. School support is very important; however, it is not a correct idea to attach every single hope to the formal education institutions and schools (Aydin & Gurler,2012:27-29). Values education restricted to the schools is like a tree which is not watered. The family is the primary source of the first values education (such as respect, love, hospitality, responsibility) for the children. Family is the first social place where the child learns his /her social life. The roots of many behaviours, good or bad acts are obtained in the family. The individuals earn their primary behaviours as a result of collaboration between their families. In order not to create value confusion within the students, the values acquired in schools and the values acquired in the family must be in compatible with each other. When the compatibility is achieved, the success rate of studies about values education will rise.

The aim of this study is to determine the opinions of the teachers and the parents while the values are taught to the children. The questions below are sought answers in order to realize these aims.

1. What are the expectations of teachers and parents from each other while the students are taught the values?

2. According to the teachers and parents, which values must be taught primarily to the students?

3. Which activities are the parents included in within the framework of value education?

4. Which are the values taught to the children in school and at home?

5. Which methods are used for the values to be taught?

6. Which values are difficult to teach the children?

7. What are the suggestions of the teachers and the parents to enhance the effect of the values taught on the students?

2.Method

2.1. The research model

"Embedded, single - case" design, one of the case study designs, were used in the research as a design. Hence, a "descriptive method" was used in the research.

2.2. Population and sample

The research was conducted by 10 social studies teachers who were chosen randomly from 39 primary schools in the city centre of Kirsehir and the parents of the students in these schools in 2012-2013 education year. The teachers had more than ten years teaching experience. The opinions of father and mother as parents were received together. The volunteer teachers and parents in the research group were also interviewed.

2.3.Data Collection Tools

The data in the research was collected by semi structured interview form which was made up of 7 open ended questions. While the interview form was being prepared, the literature related to the field was analysed, and pre-interviews were carried out with 5 social studies teachers and 5 parents who did not make up the population. The interview form was prepared in the light of the data obtained and the form was analysed by a lecturer from education programs and teaching field and two lecturers who worked in the values education field and it was finalised on their views and suggestions. The interviews were recorded and later these recordings were transcribed and were sent to the teachers and the parents who were interviewed in order to control them and the interviewees gave their consent.

2.4.Data Analysis

Inductive analysis, one of the content analysis types, was used to analyse the data obtained in the research. The data obtained from the semi-structured interview forms were coded separately by the researchers. The matching percentage between the two coders were calculated to be % 86 . Since the matching percentage which is %70 and over was accepted, the reliability in terms of data analysis was obtained.

3.Findings

In this section, the responses to the questions asked within the content of the study were presented in tables. The presentation of the findings was based on the order of the questions in the interview form and the responses to the questions were presented by giving their themes and frequencies. The opinions of the teachers and the parents were given in order to support the data. While it was being explained to whom the opinions belonged , the codes of T1,T2,...,T10 were used for the teachers, and the codes of P1,P2,...,P10 were used for the parents.

Table 1. The Opinions Related to the Teachers and Parents about their Expectations from Each Other While Values are Taught to the Students

Teacher's expectations f Parents' expectations f

Family support 6 Equal treatment to everyone 4

Reinforcement of values 2 Being role models 3

Collaboration 1 Endear oneself 2

No expectations 1 Making explanations 1

Being understanding and 1

sincere

Have the students like the 1

lesson

The teachers were asked what their expectations were from the parents and the parents were asked what their expectations were from the teachers when teaching the values to the students. The data obtained were given in Table 1. When Table 1 was analysed, the teachers stated that they wanted the parents to support them (6), to reinforce the values taught in the school (2), to collaborate with them (1) when teaching the values to the students However, T8 with his/her statement " when we consider the environmental conditions of our school, and take into consideration the low education level of the parents, instead of having expectations from the parents I try to teach whatever I can on my own as a teacher." stated that s/he did not expect anything (1). T4 stated about support "if they are not given clearly in the family, we have difficulty in communicating with the students. We ask help from the parents. " T2 explained his/her opinions about support and collaboration "I expect the parents to support us for collaboration and to participate in our activities." T7 stated his /her views about collaboration, "collaboration with the parents, to tell the truth, we are in collaboration with the parents about how to enhance SBS success. The parents expected the teachers to behave every student equally without dividing them into groups as successful or not, and not discriminating them (4), to be role models for the students (3), to endear themselves, (2),to explain what the students ask (1), to be understanding and sincere towards the students (1), and to have the students love the lesson (1). about equality, P7 stated, "Nothing could be connected to the school success. My child may not be good at maths but s/he is a good person. The teachers should take this into consideration." P1 stated about explanation, "the teachers can tell what is expected of the students in terms of behaviours very well." P5 stated about endearing oneself to another, "if a child likes his /her teacher, he does whatever he tells him to do as an order."

Table 2. The Opinions Related to the Teachers and Parents about the Values which are required to be Taught Primarily to The Students

Values required to be taught by f the parents Values required to be taught by the teachers f

Honesty 7 Responsibility 7

Respect 6 Hardworking 6

Love 5 Love 4

Tolerance 5 Cooperation 4

Responsibility 4 Respect 4

Sensitivity 3 Sensitivity 4

Hardworking 2 Being fair 3

Cleanliness 1 Honesty 3

Helpfulness 1 Freedom 1

Importance to family unity 1

Cooperation 1

The parents were asked the question about which values are required to be taught primarily to the students by the teachers and the teachers were asked which values are required to be taught mainly to the children by their parents and the data obtained was given in Table 2. When Table 2 was analysed, the teachers stated that the parents primarily must teach their children honesty (7), respect (6), love which includes the love of people, mother and father, and flag (5), tolerance (5), responsibility (4), sensitivity (3), hardworking (2), cleanliness (1), helpfulness (1), giving importance to family unity (1), and cooperation. T7 stated his/her opinions about love, respect and tolerance, "first of all to love the people. The person who does not love the human beings is not beneficial to other people and can not get rid of selfishness. Love, tolerance and respect must be taught, in other words, they must be taught that people think differently or it is normal for people to be different. " About hardworking and honesty, T8 stated, "I think nothing can be expected from a student in the future because he does not know what is hardworking and honesty." The parents stated that the teachers primarily must have the students gain responsibility (7), hardworking (6), love (4), cooperation (4), sensitivity towards the natural environment and his/ her environment where he lives (4), respect to rights and freedom as well as flag and the Turkish national anthem (4), being fair (3), honesty (3), freedom (1). P5 stated his /her views about responsibility, "a child who is aware of responsibility can show respect to the other values, too. " P8 explained his /her views about love, "To me, love comes first. When a person learns love, s/he shows respect and also fulfils his/her responsibility. " P4 stated his views about respect, "the values towards the flag and the Turkish national anthem must be gained because if a student protects his spirituality, he learns to respect the other values automatically."

Table 3. The opinions related to the Activities Prepared for the Parents _by the Teachers and the Parents' Condition of Taking part_

Teacher f Parent f

I did not do an activity 10 I did not take part in 10

an activity

The teachers were asked whether they prepared any activities for the parents within the framework of values education or not and the parents were asked whether they participated in the activities or not and the data obtained was given in Table 3. When Table 3 was analysed, the teachers stated that they did not do such an activity and at the same time the parents stated that they did not join such an activity.

Table 4. The Opinions related to the Values which are tried to be taught by the Parents at Home and by the Teachers in School

Values taught in schools f Values taught at home f

Responsibility 8 Respect 8

Respect 8 Hardworking 3

Love 7 Love 2

Honesty 6 Responsibility 2

Patriotism 4 Cleanliness 2

Helpfulness 3 Honesty 2

Sensitivity 3 Sensitivity 1

Tolerance 3 Being fair 1

Being fair 2 Hospitality 1

Hardworking 2

Independence Peace

Being Scientific

Hospitality

Cleanliness

The teachers and the parents were asked which values were taught to the children in school and at home and the data obtained was given in Table 4. When Table 4 was analysed, the teachers try to teach the students the values of responsibility (8), respect which includes work and human rights (8), love for flag and people (7), honesty (6), patriotism (4), helpfulness (3), sensitivity to what happens in their environment (3), tolerance (3), being fair (2), hardworking (2), independence (1), peace (1), being scientific (1), hospitability (1), and cleanliness (1) in school. T4 stated about responsibility, "most importantly, I try to teach the student responsibility. " T7 stated about sensitivity, "I intend to bring up individuals who are sensitive to their environment and who make an effort to solve the problems in their environments. " The parents try to teach their children the values of respect (8), hardworking (3), responsibility (2), love (2), honesty (2), cleanliness (2), sensibility (1), being fair (1) and hospitality (1) at their home.P7 stated about responsibility, "A responsible child is both hardworking and sensitive to his environment." P2 explained his/her views about respect, "we give religious education at home, so respect and good manners are very important."

Table 5.The Opinions Related to the Methods Used to Teach _the Values by the Teachers and the Parents_

Method of the teacher f Method of the parent f

Being role model 7 Being role model 6

Sample case 5 Emphasising 3

Associating with the topic 3 Suggestopedia 2

Short story 2 Explanation 1

Emphasising 1

Conceptual explanation 1

Watching video 1

The teachers and the parents were asked to explain what methods they used to teach the values and to give examples to these sample practises. The data obtained was presented in table 5. When Table 5 was analysed, the teachers stated that they used mainly being role model (7) and it was followed by presenting sample cases associating with the subject (3), short story (2),emphasizing (1), conceptual explanation (1),watching video(1) to teach the values. As sample practises, T2 said, "I stress their importance in the lesson. I associated them with the subjects. I try to be the role model for them. " T3 said, "while explaining the values, I tell short stories, present them sample cases, or give examples from every day life. If you do like that, the children really adopt them. " T4 stated, "we try to give examples from the life of successful people. I try to give them examples from their successful friends. In other words, we try to address to the students' perceptions with these concrete examples. " The parents stated that they used mainly being role model (6), emphasising (3) just like the teachers, but they also used suggestopedia(2) which the teachers have never referred to, and explanation (1) While P1 said, "while trying to teach these values, I follow a leading way, which is more likely to be warning. " P3 stated, " I try to be the role model with my behaviours. I do not smoke near my child. " P4 said, "For example, when we visit our family, our priority is to ask them how they are and answer their wishes. My children take me as a role model and display the same behaviours."

Table 6. The Opinions Related to the Values which the Parents _and the Teachers Have Difficulty in Teaching_

Values which the teachers have difficulty in teaching f Values which the parents have difficulty in teaching f

Hardworking 5 Responsibility 5

Respect 3 Respect 3

Responsibility 3 Sensitivity 2

Love 3 Hardworking 1

Honesty 3 Honesty 1

Being fair 2

Tolerance 2

Patriotism 2

Helpfulness 1

The teachers and the parents were asked to explain which values they had difficulty in teaching while giving the children values education and what the reasons were. The values which were difficult to teach were given in Table 6. When Table 6 was analysed, the teachers stated that they had difficulty in teaching the students the values of hardworking(5), respect (3), responsibility (3), love (3), honesty (3), being fair (2), tolerance (2), patriotism (2) and helpfulness (1). The teachers stated that among the reasons for these difficulties were not to be given in the family (3), not being model (3), the negativity in life, visual and printed media (2), differences in applications (2), exam obstacles (2), lack of time (1). T5 stated his/her views about family, "Because love, respect and honesty are born in the family, we have difficulty in teaching these values. " T8 stated his/her views about implementation, "...I mean the different implementations between the teachers. " T7 stated his/her views about the negativity in media, "the students give more importance to what they watch on television because they are different from what they learn. They pay more attention to what they see outside but not what is printed." The parents stated that they had difficulty teaching their children the values of responsibility (5), respect (3), sensitivity to history and environment (2), honesty (1), and hardworking (1). The parents stated that among the reasons for these difficulties were the negativity in life, visual and printed media (4) and individual mistakes (2). P7 told about media," Their models are from television, internet, and even the celebrities. " P8 said, "There is television and internet.... Of course we also make mistakes. We sit and watch nonsense TV dramas for hours. Well, their plot and moral dimensions are obvious. " P2 mentioned individual mistakes, "I think it is my mistake. He was the first child and we did whatever he wanted."

Table 7. The Suggestions of Teachers and the Parents About the Efficiency and Permanence of Values Education

Teacher's suggestions f Parents' suggestions f

Close relation with the parents 6 Close relation with the teacher 8

Teacher and family must support 3 each other Families should be educated 2

Families should be educated 3 Home visits 1

Teacher and the family should be 2

the role models

The values which are applicable 2 should be put in the curriculum

Home visit 1

The teachers and the parents were asked their suggestions about what they could do in order to have more effective and permanent values which they tried to teach on the children The data obtained was given in Table 7. When Table 7 was analysed, the teachers suggested that they should be in close relations with the parents (6), the family and the teacher should support each other (3), the families should be educated (3), the teacher and the family should be role models (2), the values should be placed in the curriculum so that they could be implemented (2), the families should be visited(1). T6 mentioned close relations, "because we have a syllabus to follow, we can spare extra time for the values. Curriculum can be reorganized. Charity fairs might be organized for the value of helpfulness. Trips can be organized with the parents within the content of values education. " T8 mentioned family education, "the parents can be informed about the values and they can be made aware about how to teach these values to their children. T9 stated, "there must not be a conflict between the parents and the teachers. The family says no to what I tell the students to do, so the student is at a loss as to whom to believe. " The parents ,like the teachers, suggested that they should be in close relations with the teachers (8), the families should be educated about how to give values education (2), home visits should be done (1). P6 mentioned close relations, " I think that we should act together. For example, the teacher can make meeting to evaluate behaviours, but not grades. " P2 mentioned family education, "moreover, we want the teachers to inform us about the values. " P3 mentioned family visits, "Social Studies teachers can enter the family environment." 4. Results, Discussion

The children must acquire positive values in their families for successful values education in schools. According to Bal (2004), it is more difficult to replace the wrongly developed value with an other desired value than teaching them a new value (Baloglu & Balgalmis, 2005:23). Because the responsibility of the child belongs to the family before the child goes to school, the family's influence to teach the values is to increase more.

Although there are a lot of studies which reveal the value perceptions, value preferences and the opinions of teacher candidates (Yapici & Zengin, 2003; Sari,2005; Dilmac, Bozgeyikli & Cikili, 2008; Fidan,2009; Tay, 2009; Akin & Özdemir, 2009; Altunay & Yalcinkaya, 2011;Acikalin,2011; Basciftci, Gülec, Akdogan & Koc, 2011; Coskun & Yildirim, 2009; Koca, 2009), the teachers and the students (Aslan,2007;lscan,2007;Balci,2008;Deveci & Dal, 2008;Turan & Aktan, 2008; Sezer, 2008; Can, 2008; Aktepe & Yel, 2009;Samanci,2009; Yilmaz,2009;Balci & Yanpar, 2010;Katilmis,2010) related to the value concept in literature, no studies which examine the opinions of the teachers and the parents related to the content of the values which appear in the social studies curriculum are encountered. This makes the research important.

While the teachers expect the parents to support them; the parents expect the teachers treat the students equally and be role models for them. %78 of the adults think that the teachers are good examples for the students (Halstead and Taylor, 2000:174), which reveals that the parents are right about their expectations from the teachers to be a model.

It was determined that the teachers and the parents mutually tried to teach the values which they wanted. While the teachers want the parents to teach their children mainly the values of honesty, respect, and love; the parents try to teach mainly respect and responsibility and the other 9 values present in the curriculum at their homes. The parents stated that if one value was taught (such as respect and responsibility) all the other values would be taught. The parents wanted the teachers to teach mainly responsibility, hardworking, and love values. On the other hand, it was determined that the teachers tried to teach first responsibility and respect and the other 15 values out of 20 values in the curriculum in school. This condition reveals that the expectations of the teachers and the parents about value gains were realized.

The teachers stated that while having the students acquire the values, they mainly tried to be role models and give examples from the life of successful people and the events encountered in the environment. The parents tried to be role models just like the teachers and do emphasising. Moreover, they used the suggestopedia method which is not used by the teachers. According to Simon (1972:138), the parents use the suggestopedia method successfully. The researches reveal that provided the teachers use the same method, success is not achieved. The reason is that the teachers do not have enough time and the close relations to use this method effectively (Dirct by:Akbas,2004:96)

The teachers stated that they had difficulty in teaching mainly hardworking and the other values such as respect, responsibility, honesty, being fair, tolerance and helpfulness. The teachers stated that the reasons for these difficulties are that the values such as love, respect, and responsibility should be taught in the family and their being not taught in the family caused a deficiency and the difficulties of being a role model and the negative situations in life, visual and printed media caused value acquisition to be more difficult. The parents stated that they had difficulty in teaching their children the values of responsibility, respect, being sensitive about history and what happens in the environment, honesty, and hardworking. The parents stated that the reasons for these difficulties were the negative situations in life, visual and printed media as determined by the teachers and their own individual mistakes.

The teachers stated that the value education would be effective and permanent if the teachers were in close relations with the parents, the teacher and family supported each other, the families were given education, the teacher and the family became the role models and the values were put in the curriculum in such a way that they could be implemented. The parents stated that if they were in close relations with the teacher and the families were informed about how to do values education, the value education would be effective and permanent. However, although both the teachers and the parents emphasised the necessity of close relations, the teachers did not organize activities in which the parents took part nor the parents joined such an activity. Thus, the study conducted by Akba§ (2004) determined that there was no collaboration between the school and the family.

The following recommendations can be made in line with the research findings:

S Both the teachers and the parents could be given seminars about values education.

S There could be a collaboration with the families during the process of values education given in the lesson.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Commission of Scientific Research Projects in Ahi Evran University. (Project number: PY0-EGF.4001.12.029)

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