Scholarly article on topic 'A Survey of Effective Elements of Empowerment of the University Employees of Medical Sciences Toward a Conceptual Framework: Iran's Perspective'

A Survey of Effective Elements of Empowerment of the University Employees of Medical Sciences Toward a Conceptual Framework: Iran's Perspective Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Mohammad Behroozi, Bahram Fadaiyan, Sommayeh Ebneroomi

Abstract This Study is going to survey the effective elements of psychological empowerment among the employees of Bushehr medical Sciences University. This is a descriptive-survey research concluding 195 participants working in BMSU selected by a random and systematic method .The dependent (criterion) variable is psychological empowerment and the independent (predictive) variables are accountability, creativity and invention and self-control. The instrument for gathering data is the psychological empowerment questionnaire (PEQ) and the effective factors of empowerment questionnaire whose validity was supported by experts’ ideas and its reliability was based on the Chronbach's alpha coefficient that confirmed. Inferential and descriptive Statistics methods were used to analyze data. The results of multivariate regression showed that the most effective factors in psychological empowerment (in arrangement) are accountability, self – control, creativity and innovation.

Academic research paper on topic "A Survey of Effective Elements of Empowerment of the University Employees of Medical Sciences Toward a Conceptual Framework: Iran's Perspective"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 (2012) 2832 - 2836 —

WCES 2012

A survey of effective elements of empowerment of the university employees of medical sciences toward a conceptual framework:

Iran's perspective

Mohammad Behroozia *,Bahram Fadaiyan b, Sommayeh Ebneroomic

aAssitance Professor and Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University, Kharg Branch,postal code:7514966911, Iran. b PhD student of Educational Administration in Islamic Azad University,Research and Scinene of Tehran,Iran c MA in Educational Planning, Islamic Azad University Bushehr Branch, Iran

Abstract

This Study is going to survey the effective elements of psychological empowerment among the employees of Bushehr medical Sciences University. This is a descriptive-survey research concluding 195 participants working in BMSU selected by a random and systematic method .The dependent (criterion) variable is psychological empowerment and the independent (predictive) variables are accountability, creativity and invention and self-control. The instrument for gathering data is the psychological empowerment questionnaire (PEQ) and the effective factors of empowerment questionnaire whose validity was supported by experts' ideas and its reliability was based on the Chronbach's alpha coefficient that confirmed. Inferential and descriptive Statistics methods were used to analyze data. The results of multivariate regression showed that the most effective factors in psychological empowerment (in arrangement) are accountability, self - control, creativity and innovation.

Keywords: empowerment, motivation, psychological, creativity and innovation

1. Introduction

Today, Organizations are under some hard pressure internally and externally as well. External pressures consists of a globally increased competition, sudden changes, need to quality and services after sales and limited resources which make a rapidly compulsory reaction in the organizations; on the other hand, internal pressures consists of feeling a scorn state among staff or becoming a victim of bad-behaved thoughts leading to disappointment and pessimism which are based on some disadvantages and create some imposed issues and change organizational regulations. Bad or good experiences of past global management beginning with the scientific principles has caused the human become the most valuable assets of any organization and concern her/him as the higher value more than the needy elements for managing the organization. Following such a view caused the human be focused by all and the empowerment is raised while the organizational dynamism has concentrated once more.

Empowerment of employees is one of the effective techniques for increasing the staff productivity and the optimal use of capability and group/ individual abilities are applied for the organizational goals. The empowerment is a process by which development and influence of groups and individuals help the improvement of continuous

* Mohammad Behroozi. Tel.: +98-917-371-3190 E-mail address: dr_m_behroozi@yahoo.com

ELSEVIER

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.572

performance. As a matter of fact, synergy is a pioneer and effective technology which is making a strategic preference for companies and organizations and is creating some opportunity for the staff (Blanchard, 1999, p: 16).

Working capabilities with delegation, responsibility, autonomy in decision-making and self-ability are increased through the empowerment plans. In order to implement it there must be some basic structures including capital, motivated human resources and a consensual view as well by which three important principles of contributing the staff in information, defining an autonomous framework for decision making and substituting self-governed teams in the organizational hierarchy can help and make empowerment possible. What are gained it would be the increased loyalty and the feeling of the staff's belonging to the organization all of which are appeared through creative participation and creativity and innovation as well and ultimately it can make the organization productivity promote.

2.1 Research hypothesis

1. There is a significant relationship between delegation and responsibility of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment

2. There is a significant relationship between creativity and innovation of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment

3. There is a significant relationship between participation of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment in decision-making

4. There is a significant relationship between self-control of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment

5. There is a significant relationship between accountability of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment

6. There is a significant relationship between motivation of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment

7. There is a significant relationship between organizational learning of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment

8. There is a significant relationship between HR effective management of Bushehr Health Care Services and Medical Sciences University's Staff and their psychological empowerment

2.2 Literature

Wu and Short(2006), during their studies for identifying the relationship between psychological empowerment ant job commitment of teachers, stated that there would be a relationship between psychological empowerment and professional growth. Spreitzr(1995) found out that staff's self-esteem, availability to the organizational mission, performance of staff, innovative and creative behaviours are related positively to the psychological empowerment. Jay and Allen(2001) concluded that the highest level of empowerment is related to autonomy while the lowest one is related to decision-making.

Studying about nursing students, Diliani et.al (2006) could conclude that students' empowerment would be the best tool for critical thought and optimal learning and it would help knowledge and required skills be gained by the nurses to play their complicated tasks.

Studying about a research entitled" what is the students' empowerment and how can they become empowered?" by Salivan (2006) could result to the following findings:

Those students who were able to pursue the social goals and curricular achievement could possibly experience some Meta individual empowerment.

Some research done byKanter(1983), Bandoura(1986), Hawkman and Oldham(1980) showed at least 9 directions for empowerment growth including competency feeling, choice, affecting, value and security. The 9 directions are as followed:

1-clearing the view and goals 2-developing the individual mastery and experience 3-Modeling 4-supporting 5-motivating emotion 6-preparing required information 7- supplying required resources 8-linking with results 9-making self-esteem

2.3 Methodology

This is a surveying and descriptive study. Data was collected from 420 staff all of them working in Bushehr province medical sciences university. Based on the related formula, 195 employees were randomly chosen as a sample. The tool for gathering data were Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire (PEQ) by which competency dimension, being effective and significance were resulted from Spritzr(1995) psychological questionnaire and confidence dimension was resulted from Mischra(1994) confidence questionnaire.

The validity and reliability of the PEQ was corrected by some experts and its Chronbach's alpha was calculated as 0.832

2.4 Factor analysis

Using multivariate regression could show the effect of predictive variables on criterion variable (empowerment) as shown in Table 1.

3.Tables

Table 1: Multivariate regression between predictive variables & criterion variable

Step Variable R R2 Added to R2 B coefficient ß coefficient t Sig.

First Accountability 0.34 0.116 - 0.766 0.339 4.43 0.000

Second Self-controlling 0.368 0.135 0.019 0.412 0.201 2.63 0.009

Third Creativity and innovation 0.391 0.153 0.018 0.31 0.158 1.97 0.05

Table 2: Correlation between the said variables

Variables Correlation coefficient Significance

Delegation 0.158 003

Empowerment

Creativity and Innovation 0.11 0.13 Empowerment

Staffs participation in decision-making 0.161 0.03 Empowerment

Self-controlling 0.271 0.001 Empowerment

Accountability 0.34 0.001 Empowerment

Motivation 0.15 0.04 Empowerment

Organizational Learning 0.162 0.02 Empowerment

HR effective Management 0.12 0.1

Empowerment

4. Figure

Accountability

\ * \ % &

Cq Ji /

Figure 1.Relation between Accountability, Creativity, Innovation, self-Controlling with Empowerment

5. Findings and Conclusion

Based on the above-mentioned data, it can be said that three predictive variables have been included in regression equation while the other indices have been excluded out of the regression equation.

During the first step, staff's accountability has been included in regression equation and could show and explain the staff's psychological empowerment variance (11.6 %). Beta coefficient explained the positive effect of staffs accountability on their psychological empowerment (p<0.000) meaning that the more staff's accountability the more staff's psychological empowerment.

During the second step, staff's self-controlling has been included in regression equation and could explain and show an increased 1.9% to the model and it could finally become 13.5% while the beta coefficient explained the positive effect of staff's self-controlling on their psychological empowerment (p<0.009) meaning the more staff's self-controlling the more staff's empowerment feeling.

During the third step, staff's creativity and innovation has been included in regression equation and could explain and show an increased 1.8% to the model and it could finally become 15.3% while the beta coefficient explained the positive effect of staff's creativity and innovation on their psychological empowerment (p<0.05) meaning the more staff's creativity and innovation the more staff's psychological empowerment feeling.

References

Blanchard,K.H; Carlos,J.P & Randolph,A.(2003).Empowerment Take More than One Minute. Barret-Kohler.Sanfrancisco. Carrwrite, R.(2003). Empowerment. Easton Publishing.

Conger, J.A. & Kanungo, R.N.(1988). The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory & Practice. Academy of Management Review. Vol.13, No.3, pp.471-474.

Kenneth, T. & Velthouse, B..A(1990). Cognitive Elements of Empwerment: An Interpretive Model of Instrinsic Task Motivation. Academy

of Management Review. Vol.15, No.4,pp.667-675. Savery, K.; Lawson, J; Allen, L.(2001).The Relationship between Empowerment, Job satisfaction & reported Stress Levels. Australian

Evidence Leadership & Organization Development. JournalMCB .University Press. Smith. J.(2002).Empowering People. British Liberary. 2nd Ed.

Spreitzer, G.M(1995).Psychological Empwerment in the Workplace: Dimension, Measurement & Validation. Academy of Management

Journal. Vol.3, No.1,pp.1443.

Spreitzer, G.M; Donson, D(2005). Muzing on the Past & Future of Empwerment. Handbook of Organizational Development.pp. 1 -3.