Scholarly article on topic 'Formability and Grain Size of AZ31 Sheet in Gas Blow Forming Process'

Formability and Grain Size of AZ31 Sheet in Gas Blow Forming Process Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Engineering
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{Formability / "Gas blow forming" / Microstructure / "AZ31 alloy" / superplasticity}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Youngseon Lee, Jae-Jung Kim, Yong-Nam Kwon, Eun Yoo Yoon

Abstract Initial microstructural effect on mechanical properties and high temperature formability was investigated by experiments such as uniaxial tensile test at room temperature and 400°C and biaxial gas blow forming at 400°C. To observe distinct microstructural effect, three types of AZ31 alloy sheets which have different average grain size as 16.41μm (type-A), 11.02μm (type-B), and 7.58μm (type-C) were investigated. Among the three types of AZ31 alloy sheets, Type-A and Type-B was the partially hardened specimens containing twins (AZ31-H) and Type-C was fully annealed specimen with equiaxed grains (AZ31-O). At room temperature tensile test, initial microstructural features such as twin density, dislocation density, and grain size affected mechanical properties. However at 400°C tensile test and gas blow forming, only initial grain size affected mechanical properties due to the fact that the original microstructures of AZ31-H alloy sheets evolved into recrystallized microstructures with equiaxed grains. Accordingly, AZ31-H magnesium alloys, which have improved mechanical properties at room temperature, could not affect superplastic formability and mechanical properties of post-superplastic formed microstructures.

Academic research paper on topic "Formability and Grain Size of AZ31 Sheet in Gas Blow Forming Process"

CrossMark

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía Engineering 81 (2014) 748 - 753

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

11th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, ICTP 2014, 19-24 October 2014,

Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan

Formability and grain size of AZ31 sheet in gas blow forming

process

Youngseon Leea, Jae-Jung Kimb, Yong-Nam Kwona, Eun Yoo Yoona*

aMaterials Deformation Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science(KIMS), 797Changwondaero,Changwon, 641-831, Korea bTechnical Research Laboratories, Steelmaking Research Group, POSCO, Gwangyang,545-090, Korea

Abstract

Initial microstructural effect on mechanical properties and high temperature formability was investigated by experiments such as uniaxial tensile test at room temperature and 400 °C and biaxial gas blow forming at 400 °C. To observe distinct microstructural effect, three types of AZ31 alloy sheets which have different average grain size as 16.41 ^m (type-A), 11.02^m (type-B), and 7.58^m (type-C) were investigated. Among the three types of AZ31 alloy sheets, Type-A and Type-B was the partially hardened specimens containing twins (AZ31-H) and Type-C was fully annealed specimen with equiaxed grains (AZ31-O). At room temperature tensile test, initial microstructural features such as twin density, dislocation density, and grain size affected mechanical properties. However at 400 °C tensile test and gas blow forming, only initial grain size affected mechanical properties due to the fact that the original microstructures of AZ31-H alloy sheets evolved into recrystallized microstructures with equiaxed grains. Accordingly, AZ31-H magnesium alloys, which have improved mechanical properties at room temperature, could not affect superplastic formability and mechanical properties of post-superplastic formed microstructures.

© 2014 Publishedby ElsevierLtd.Thisisan open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya University Keywords: Formability; Gas blow forming; Microstructure; AZ31 alloy; superplasticity

■ * Corresponding author. Tel. :+82-055-280-3437; fax:+82-055-280-3499.

■ E-mail address: eyyoon@kims.re.kr

1877-7058 © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya University doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.071

1. Introduction

Magnesium alloys have drawn a lot of attention due to low density and good specific strength performance or the ratio of yield stress to density compared to those of steel alloys. Hence, magnesium alloy has shown excellent potential for thin-walled components and sheet compartments in the automotive industry [1, 2]. However, magnesium alloy sheet's poor formability and ductility at room temperatures imposed limitations to cold metal forming processes. Therefore, forming at elevated temperature became a promising candidate in forming magnesium alloy due to the activation of additional slip systems and other deformation mechanisms that arise at increased temperature. Among the magnesium alloys studied recently, the AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet has received great attention due to excellent formability at elevated temperatures [2, 3]. The AZ31 alloy sheet can easily refine its grain size by dynamic recrystallization during elevated temperature forming. However, the finer grains of AZ31 alloy sheet not only improved the alloy's resistance to crack initiation, but also enhanced its formability.

The partially strained-hardened AZ31-H alloys containing twins have been paid attention to increase the strength of final products without much loss of ductility. However, several investigations on the deformation behavior of the H material at elevated temperature, the twins have disappeared during the relatively high-temperature(> 250 °C), resulting in the similar micro structure to that of the O materials even prior to the deformation. The role of pre-existing twins on deformation phenomena, i.e., DRX mechanism, micro structure homogeneity and plastic flow was affected at temperatures below 200 °C [4, 5]. Moreover, Valle et al. [6] reported results regarding grain size effect on superplastic forming in magnesium alloys. Fine and ultra-fine grain sized AZ31 alloy materials were investigated and the results concluded that the better strategy of formability is using fine grain sized AZ31 alloy rather than using ultrafine sized AZ31 alloy due to thermal stability. Thus, researchers have gained significant interest in initial microstructures on formability.

The objectives of the present study were to elucidate the microstructural effect on mechanical properties and high temperature(400°C) formability was investigated by experiment of tensile test and gas blow forming. Three types of AZ31 alloy sheets were tested. Each type had different grain size of 16.41 (Type-A), 11.02 (Type-B), and 7.58 ^m(Type-C), respectively. Among the three types of AZ31 alloy sheets, Type-A and Type-B was the partially hardened specimens containing twins (AZ31-H) and Type-C was fully annealed specimen with highly equiaxed grains (AZ31-O). Both elongation by tensile test and formability by gas blow forming were compared against each type of AZ31 alloy sheets.

2. Experiments

Fig. 1 shows the microstructures of three different types of AZ31 alloy sheets. The initial average grain size are 16.41 ^m (type-A), 11.02 ^m (type-B), and 7.58 ^m (type-C). Both type-A (Fig.1(a)) and type-B (Fig. 1(b)) AZ31 alloy sheets exhibited the microstructures containing heavily fragmented grain structure with scores of twins (AZ31-H) and the micro structure in Fig. 1(c) (type-C) displayed twin-free highly equiaxed grains (AZ31-O) depending on heat treatment for relieve stress after rolling. Type-A and B were heat treated at lower temperature (H24) and remain twins. However Type-C was fully annealed with absence of twins at high temperature (O) for a longer time. For the analysis of tensile properties of three different types of AZ31 alloy sheets, specimens with a gage length of 20 mm and width of 5 mm were fabricated parallel to the rolling direction. Tensile tests were performed at strain rate of 0.01/s and room temperature of 400 °C. The tensile tests were repeated three times minimum for each condition and the averaged values were recorded for this study.

Blow forming at the elevated temperature (400 °C) was carried out by using a cylindrical die with a diameter of 55 mm and a depth of 50 mm. Constant pressure blowing method was used to compare formability of different types of AZ31 alloy sheets by measuring each specimen's dome height. Preheating time was 20 minutes and constant forming pressure was 10 kgf/cm2 controlled by Ar gas. Fig. 2 exhibited the four microstructure observation points (from center to 30°, 60° and 90°, and fracture part) of microstructures from blow formed domes. Microstructural examination of cross-sections of the blow formed domes was conducted under optical microscopy after polishing and etching.

Fig. 1. Optical microstructure of three different types of AZ31 sheets (a) Type-A: average grain size of 16.41 |im, (b) Type-B: average grain size of 11.02 |im, and (c) Type-C: average grain size of 7.58 |im.

Fig. 2. Observation points of microstructure from blow formed domes

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Tensile tests.

The uniaxial tensile stress-strain curves in Fig. 3 display mechanical properties, such as yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and total elongation (El) for type-A (line), type-B (open symbol) and type-C (closed symbol) material. All tensile tests were performed at strain rate 10-2 s-1 at two different temperatures- RT and 400°C.

The flow curves at RT, both AZ31 alloy sheets of type-A and type-B materials exhibited higher YS (213.3 and 224.9 MPa) and UTS (294.5 and 312.8 MPa) than those of type-C AZ31 sheet (YS of 187.5 MPa and UTS of 282.1 MPa) owing to higher density of twin and dislocation, even though the average grain sizes of type-A and type-B materials were bigger than that of type-C material. Moreover, the flow hardening of type-A and type-B materials compared to type-C material was less pronounced. Interestingly, type-A material exhibited lower UTS values than type-C material in spite of its higher YS. The strain-hardening of a material after yielding is related to the dislocation strain field interactions. The applied stress necessary to deform a material is the proportional to the dislocation density inside the materials, resulting in a high and nearly constant strain-hardening rate. Therefore, the high initial dislocation density of type-A and type-B materials may have contributed to the less pronounced hardening effect at room temperature. This suggests that much higher activation energy is required for the plastic flow due to very strong barriers to the dislocation movement [7]. Due to flow hardening, type-C material showed higher elongation up to 24.3 % compared to 12.1 % of type-B material.

Compared to type-A, the average grain size of type-B was smaller, but both type-A and type-B exhibited similar twin density of 22.3 and 24.3 vol. %, respectively, by image analysis. Moreover type-B material exhibited higher tensile strength than type-A material did. In this point, it could be notice that higher tensile strength of type-B material could be achieved by refining grain size below that of type-A material.

From elevated temperature tensile test at 400 °C and strain rate 10-2 s-1 (Fig. 3(b)), it was evident that all materials gradually lose their strength while experiencing increase in ductility. The flow hardening behavior up to

UTS values followed by extensive flow softening until failure was observed for all material types. Meanwhile, the elongation was increased up to 105 % compared to elongation in RT. At high temperature, a fine grained materials would give superplastic behavior due to grain boundary sliding. Also, at elevated temperatures, ductility improvement is related to dynamic recrystallization (DRX).

Galiyev et al. [8] investigated the plastic deformation and DRX in Mg alloy ZK60. Both bulging of original grain boundaries and sub-grain growth are the operating mechanisms of DRX, and these mechanisms are controlled by dislocation climb at 300-450 °C. Furthermore, Kim et al. [9, 10] provides deformation mechanism map (DMM) to forecast the dominant deformation mechanism by using constitutive equations for various creep mechanisms in Mg alloy. At DMM, the variables to be considered for deformation are temperature, stress, and grain size. From DMM, dominant deformation mechanism in this tensile test could be dislocation climb creep. Among the three types of materials, type-C showed highest UTS value which well matched with what was expected considering initial average grain sizes.

Fig. 3. True tensile stress-strain curves for type-A(line), type-B(open symbol), and type-C(closed symbol) AZ31 alloy obtained by tensile tests along the rolling direction.

Fig. 4 shows the microstructures prior to the tensile tests for the specimens tested at 400 °C for type-A (Fig. 4(a)) and type-B (Fig. 4(b)) materials. Clearly, the original micro structure s evolved into recrystallized micro structure s of highly equiaxed grains. The average grain size was 16.3 p.m and 11.1 p.m, and comparing to those from Fig. 1(a) and (b) the grain sizes were maintained. No twins were observed, indicating the occurrence of complete static recrystallization before testing. Accordingly, AZ31-H24 alloys, which have improved mechanical properties at room temperature by twins, could not affect mechanical properties at 400°C.

Fig. 4. Microstructures prior to beginning the tensile tests for the specimens tested at 400 °C of (a) type-A and (b) type-B after annealing and stabilizing period.

3.2. Gas blow forming and microstructures

Fig. 5. Blow formed domes with different types of AZ31 sheets.

Biaxial formability of three types of materials was measured by gas blow forming process at 400 °C. Fig. 5 shows the typical blow formed domes with different initial grain size of three types of materials. Type-C material, which had smallest grain size, exhibited highest dome height of 31.72 mm while type-B and type-A exhibited dome height of 27.60 mm and 24.23 mm, respectively. Moreover inset images showed the crack parts of the domes' top. The AZ31 alloy sheet with better formability, presenting little more large elongation and finer grain size was sustained after gas blow forming comparatively.

The post-blow forming microstructures of four observation points from blow formed domes are illustrated in Fig. 6. Microstructural examination of cross-sections of the deformed domes reveals evidence of some cavitation and grain growth. Internal cavities, resulting from grain boundary sliding, after superplastic forming were observed, thus enhancing formability. The extents of cavitation and grain coarsening tend to increase in point 3 and 4 (Fig. 6(g-l)) as thickness decreases. Most of the cavities nucleated at grain boundaries or triple junction of grains, with few occurrences in the grain interior. Coalescence of the closely nucleated cavities can be seen to form elongated cavities.

All types of materials showed decreased average grain sizes as the deformation strain increased in point 1 and 2 (Fig. 6(a-f)). However, near the fracture part (point 4), grain coarsening was detected. Yi et al. [11] reported that the degree of DRX is associated with the amount of non-basal slip activated, and that the deformation accommodated by non-basal slip, especially <c+a> slip, is higher at elevated temperature. Thus, completely recrystallized grain structures with some grains growth were observed.

Moreover, comparing the fracture part images (Fig. 6(j-l)), one can recognize the heterogeneous grain size structures for type-B and type-C. The measured grain sizes of type-B and type-C were 3.34 p.m and 2.96 p.m for fine grains and 54.96 p.m and 102.33 prn for coarse grains, respectively. However type-A material showed more homogeneous gain size structure. That is, the grain size difference between fine end (10.35 prn) and coarse end (51.23 p.m) has been significantly reduced compared to those of type-B and type-C. This indicates that premature fracture occurred in type-A material before complete recrystallization of grains, and therefore showed less formability than other types of materials.

4. Conclusion

In this study, three different types of AZ31 alloy sheets were investigated. Their uniaxial tensile properties and biaxial gas blow formability were evaluated. At room temperature tensile test, initial microstructure of twin density, dislocation density, and grain size affected the mechanical properties of AZ31 alloys. However, at high temperature of 400 °C, only initial grain size affected mechanical properties of the alloys due to the original microstructures of AZ31-H sheet's microstructure evolved into recrystallized microstructures (AZ31-O) of highly equiaxed grains. Accordingly, AZ31-H magnesium alloys, which have improved mechanical properties at room temperature, could not affect superplastic formability and mechanical properties of post-superplastic formed AZ31 alloys. Thus, initial grain size had an effect on formability, and the finest grain size of AZ31 alloy sheet exhibited highest dome height at the 400 °C gas blow forming.

Fig. 6. Optical micrographs showing grain structure of type-A (left), type-B (middle), and type-C (right) from blow formed domes at different points; Point 1 (a, b, c), Point 2 (d, e f), Point 3 (g, h i), fracture parts (j, k, l).

References

[1] Yoshihara S, Nishimura H, Yamamoto H, Manabe KI. Formability enhancement in magnesium alloy stamping using a local heating and cooling technique: Circular cup deep drawing process. J Mater Process Technol 2003;142:609-13.

[2] Tabacaru V, Oancea N. Sheet metal forming of magnesium wrought alloys - Formability and process technology. J Mater Process Technol 2001;115:14-9.

[3] Chen FK, Huang TB. Formability of stamping magnesium-alloy AZ31 sheets. J Mater Process Technol 2003;142:643-7.

[4] Wu HY, Lin FZ. Mechanical properties and strain-hardening behavior of Mg alloy AZ31B-H24 thin sheet. Mater Sci Eng A 2010;527:1194-9.

[5] Wu HY, Sun PH, Lin FZ. Anisotropic and tensile flow behaviors of Mg alloy AZ31B thin sheet in H24 condition at elevated temperatures. Mater Sci Eng A 2011;528:2522-31.

[6] del Valle JA, Penalba F, Ruano OA. Optimization of the microstructure for improving superplastic forming in magnesium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 2007;467:165-71.

[7] Luo J, Mei Z, Tian W, Wang Z. Diminishing of work hardening in electroformed polycrystalline copper with nano-sized and uf-sized twins.

Mater Sci Eng A 2006;441:282-90.

[8] Galiyev A, Kaibyshev R, Gottstein G. Correlation of plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization in magnesium alloy ZK60. Acta Mater 2001;49:1199-207.

[9] Kim WJ, Chung SW, Chung CS, Kum D. Superplasticity in thin magnesium alloy sheets and deformation mechanism maps for magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures. Acta Mater 2001;49:3337-45.

[10] Kim WJ, Park JD, Yoon US. Superplasticity and superplastic forming of Mg-Al-Zn alloy sheets fabricated by strip casting method. J

Alloys Compd 2008;464:197-204.

[11] Yi S, Bohlen J, Heinemann F, Letzig D. Mechanical anisotropy and deep drawing behaviour of AZ31 and ZE10 magnesium alloy sheets.

Acta Mater 2010;58:592-605.