Scholarly article on topic 'Evaluation of the Correlation between Decision-making Styles and Burnout Levels of the Team-trainers who Competed in Regional Amateur League'

Evaluation of the Correlation between Decision-making Styles and Burnout Levels of the Team-trainers who Competed in Regional Amateur League Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Mahmut Gülle, Menderes Kabadayı, Özgür Bostancı, Mehmet Çağrı Çetin, Ramazan Şeker

Abstract The current study was done in order to discover whether or not there was a difference between decision-making styles and burnout levels of the team-trainers who competed in regional amateur league. The population of the study was composed of 160 team-trainers who competed in regional amateur league of Turkish Football Federation during 2012-2013 football season. The sample of the study was consisted of 95 team-trainers who were selected from the population with random sampling method. As the data collection tool; “Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire” Turkish adaptation of which was performed by Deniz (2004) and “Maslach Burnout Inventory” and Turkish adaptation of which was performed by Ergin (1992) were employed. According to the findings obtained from the study; it was found out that there was a correlation between subscales of self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making scale, and their burnout levels as far as correlation coefficient results were concerned.

Academic research paper on topic "Evaluation of the Correlation between Decision-making Styles and Burnout Levels of the Team-trainers who Competed in Regional Amateur League"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 152 (2014) 483 - 487

ERPA 2014

Evaluation of the correlation between decision-making styles and burnout levels of the team-trainers who competed in regional

amateur league

Mahmut Gullea*, Menderes Kabadayib, Ôzgur Bostancib, Mehmet Çagri Çetina,

Ramazan §ekera

aMustafa Kemal University School of Physical Education and Sports, 31000, Hatay, Turkey b19 Mayis University School of Physical Education and Sports, 55000, Samsun, Turkey

Abstract

The current study was done in order to discover whether or not there was a difference between decision-making styles and burnout levels of the team-trainers who competed in regional amateur league. The population of the study was composed of 160 team-trainers who competed in regional amateur league of Turkish Football Federation during 2012-2013 football season. The sample of the study was consisted of 95 team-trainers who were selected from the population with random sampling method. As the data collection tool; "Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire" Turkish adaptation of which was performed by Deniz (2004) and "Maslach Burnout Inventory" and Turkish adaptation of which was performed by Ergin (1992) were employed. According to the findings obtained from the study; it was found out that there was a correlation between subscales of self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making scale, and their burnout levels as far as correlation coefficient results were concerned. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the ERPA Congress 2014. Keywords: burnout;decision-making; burnout among trainers; decision-making among trainers.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0-000-000-0000 ; fax: +0-000-000-0000 . E-mail address: ustat444@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the ERPA Congress 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.237

1. Introduction

Individuals have numerous decision-making experiences on daily basis. Human beings; who are able to make flexible adaptations in environment, demonstrate decision-making behaviors in order to continue the efforts to meet the needs. Decision-making can be defined as a solution that eliminates a problematic situation that occurs when there are many ways to answer a need. When it is necessary to make a decision for an important situation that requires decision-making; it becomes more important to get the most effective way that enables the power that attains the objectives and predicts outcomes (Kuzgun, 1992). Studies on decision-making represent different approaches. For example; since the end of 1940s; decision-making has been investigated by many different disciplines such as mathematics, sociology, medicine, politics, geography, engineering, administrative sciences and psychology. Glovich (1984) emphasizes that sportive world is the most ideal field for studies on decision-making because it is a potential laboratory where cognitive structures related with decision and decision-making are investigated (Bar-Eli and Raab, 2006). It is known that not only physiologic, psychological and technical and tactical exercises/efforts are necessary in sportive success but cognitive factors are also effective. Decision-making ability as a dimension in establishing sportive success plays a key role (Egesoy vd., 1999). Indeed; it is a significant research area that should be discussed under laboratory conditions to understand how people think during sportive situations and how they analyze and judge the current situation (Bar-Eli and Raab, 2006).

Maslach (1982) defines burnout as a syndrome that is seen in those who are subjected to intense emotional demands and are obliged to work with others and that involves a state of physical fatigue or persistent exhaustion and hopelessness-feelings that occur as negative attitudes towards occupation, life and others (Maslach and Jackson, 1981). It is identified that burnout syndrome is not an instantly rising event but occurs as a result of successive events (Surgevil, 2006). Many studies have addressed the relationship between burnout and decision making styles (Price & Weiss, 2000). Sport Psychologist]. Research has shown that autocratic decision making increases burnout in athletes, while democratic behaviors decrease athlete burnout (Harris & Ostrow, 2008). In this sense; signs of burnout can be examined under three titles: physical signs, behavioral signs and psychological signs (Surgevil, 2006). At first; effects of burnout is seen at personal level but in time, these effects go beyond personal level and cause some negative outcomes in individuals' professional life, too (Ardi? & Polatfi, 2008).

In short; it is concluded that trainers should be happy and get satisfied with the institutions where they work and thus should tolerate their burnout and continue positive decision-making mechanisms so that their decision-making mechanisms can work well.

2. Method

2.1. Population and sample

The population of the study designed in survey model was composed of 160 team-trainers who competed in regional amateur league of Turkish Football Federation during 2012-2013 football season. The sample of the study was consisted of 95 team-trainers who were selected from the population with random sampling method.

2.2. Data collection tools

Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire I-II (MDMQ I-II):

"Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire" which was designed by Mann et al. (1998) was adapted into Turkish in order to discover decision-making styles of the Turkish university students and to conduct comparative studies where these styles are compared to the decision-making styles of other nations (Deniz, 2004). Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire involves two parts: the first part measures self-esteem in decision-making (self-confidence) and is consisted of six items and one sub-scale. The second part includes 22 items addressing decision-making styles and four sub-scales: 1) vigilance, 2) buck passing, 3) procrastination and 4) hypervigilance. Upon the administration on 154 university students, internal consistency coefficients of the MDMQ I-II were found by Deniz

(2004) as follows: Cronbach Alpha self-esteem in decision making: .72; vigilance: .80; buck-passing: .78; procrastination: .65; and hypervigilance: .71 (Deniz, 2004).

Maslach Burnout Inventory It was designed by Maslach and Jackson in 1981. The inventory was adapted into Turkish by Ergin (1992). The inventory was consisted of 22 items and three subscales. These subscales are emotional burnout (EB), depersonalization (D) and personal accomplishment (PA). Emotional burnout subscale was composed of 9 items, depersonalization of 5 items and personal accomplishment of 8 items. While adapting the inventory; Ergin (1992) employed two methods to assess the reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficients were .83 for emotional burnout, .65 for depersonalization and .72 for personal accomplishment. In test/retest method; 99 subjects were recruited after 2-4 weeks after the first implementation and coefficients were found to be .83 for emotional burnout, .72 for depersonalization and .67 for personal accomplishment.

2.3. Data analyses

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test were employed in order to determine whether or not the data concerning decision-making in self-esteem and burnout levels followed a normal distribution. Spearman Brown rho correlation coefficient (r) analysis was used in order to discover the correlation between the participant trainers' self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles and burnout levels. In the analysis; if the finding is between 0.70-1.00 it is a high level of correlation; if the finding is between 0.70-0.30 it is a medium level of correlation and if the finding is between 0.30-0.00 it is a low level of correlation (Buyukozturk 2007).

3. Findings

Table 1. n, , SD, Min. and Max. values of the football trainers in terms of mean scores obtained from self-esteem in decision-making and

decision making scale

n X SD Min Max Minimum and maximum scores.

Self-esteem in decision-making 95 10.01 1.78 3 12 0-12

Vigilance 95 8.56 1.55 5 11 0-12

Decision-making Buck passing 95 4.69 1.63 2 9 0-12

subscales Procrastination 95 6.10 1.49 2 9 0-10

Hypervigilance 95 3.86 1.91 0 7 0-10

According to the findings shown in Table 1; means scores of the football trainers were found to be as X =10.01 (SS=1.78) in_self-esteem in decision-making, as X =8.56 (SS=1.55) in vigilance, as X =4.69 (SS=1.63) in buck passing, as X =6.10 (SS=1.49) in procrastination and as X =3.86 (SS=1.91) in hypervigilance.

Table 2. n, X , SD, Min. and Max. values of the football trainers in terms of mean scores obtained from Subscales of Maslach Burnout

Inventory

N X SD Min Max Minimum and maximum scores.

Emotional Burnout 95 13.30 3.25 8 24 0-36

Depersonalization 95 8.67 1.78 5 11 0-20

Personal Accomplishment 95 4.54 1.99 1 10 0-32

According to the findings shown in Table 2; means scores of the football trainers were found to be as X =13.30 (SS=3.25) in emotional burnout, as X =8.67 (SS=1.78) in depersonalization and as X =4.54 (SS=1.99) in personal accomplishment.

Table 3. Results of Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient done to determine the correlation between subscales of self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making scale of football trainers and Subscales of Maslach Burnout Inventory.

MBI Subscales Emotional burnout Depersonalization Personal Accomplishment

r -0.355** 0.020 -0.180

Self-esteem in decision-making p 0.000 0.847 0.080

r 0.264** 0.388** -0.443**

e Vigilance

c S g n akin p 0.010 0.000 0.000

Buck passing r -0.168 -0.368** 0.430**

Ma- -n io p 0.104 0.000 0.000

ci e Q Procrastination r -0.121 0.243* 0.038

les al c bs u p 0.242 0.018 0.713

r 0.634** 0.384** -0.141

S Hypervigilance p 0.000 0.000 0.173

* significant at P<0.05 ** significant at P<0.01

In Table 3, it was seen that there was a significant correlation between subscales of self-esteem in decisionmaking and decision-making scale of football trainers and Maslach Burnout Inventory.

4. Discussion and Result

According to these results; as football trainers' self-confidence (self-esteem in decision-making) increases during decision-making process, we may argue that the situations in which their energy runs out due to excessive psychological and emotional demands (emotional burnout) -particularly in their professional lives- will decrease and be experienced less. It is known that emotional burnout emerges as a result of excessive work load and over-load (Ta^döven, 2005). As a conclusion; a person who suffers from emotional burnout tries many way-outs in order to take the emotional-load off his shoulders. One of these way-outs is to minimize his relations with people around. He categorizes people in his mind and treats the people he meets with certain patterns. Thus; the individual in a sense becomes a bureaucrat who acts with strict rules and principles (Sürgevil, 2006).

In light of the findings obtained; we may suggest that the football trainers' approaches to conduct a meticulous investigation for knowledge before reaching a decision and to make a selection after a careful assessment of the alternatives is called as vigilance decision-making style. However; it may be said that football trainers experience emotional burnout due to excessive psychological and emotional demands and thus demonstrate a specific depersonalization behavior because they suffer from excessive psychological and emotional (negative) situations -particularly in their professional lives-.

The results showed that the increased level of such behaviors of football trainers as leaving decisions to others and thus avoiding responsibility results in buck passing decision-making style for those whom they serve and care. When the term burnout is analyzed; it is defined as inability to function owing to excessive emotional fatigue caused by over-work (Gümü§, 2006) and therefore, these people demonstrate buck-passing decision-making styles by leaving decisions to others and thus avoiding responsibility in their professional lives.

According to another finding obtained; the fact that football trainers' delaying and postponing decisions without a good cause makes us think that the procrastination decision-making style increases by becoming insensitive in

workplace where they work. It may be thought that demographic differences of the trainers and their use of procrastination decision-making style may cause insensitiveness in provision of services. As emphasized by Maslach and Jackson (1984); a person who suffers from emotional burnout uses "way-outs" in order to decrease the burden and generally minimizes his relations with others as low as possible simply to do the tasks and business.

Another finding of the study showed that with the increase in such behaviors as hypervigilance decision-making style in which the football trainers feel under time-pressure in case of making-urgent decisions and thus they tend to behave thoughtlessly and to reach hurried decisions; we may argue that they run out their energy due to excessive psychological and emotional demands (emotional burnout) -particularly in their professional lives-; treats the other whom they serve and care without any emotion and taking care of them as a unique individuals (depersonalization).

A person with emotional burnout -on the one hand- helps others but -on the other hand- feels worn out and used up due to lack of energy and emotional sources caused by excessive psychological and emotional demands that others want from them. A person with heavy emotional burden feels like that he is not devoted and self-sacrificing as much as before and is incompetent and feels tension and frustration (Aydm, 2004). Depletion of emotional sources and decrease in energy results in that employees with emotional burnout have difficulty concentrating on the job (Wright and Bonett 1997).

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