Scholarly article on topic 'Trucks and Bikes: Sharing the Roads'

Trucks and Bikes: Sharing the Roads Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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Abstract of research paper on Social and economic geography, author of scientific article — Warwick Pattinson, Russell G. Thompson

Abstract More cycling in urban areas could alleviate congestion that would benefit logistics operations as well as provide health and environmental benefits to the community at large. However, cycling within many Australian cities is currently being impeded due to poor road design and the absence of best practice freight vehicle standards (amongst other deterrents). Rising levels of fear and road trauma are creating the opportunity to address safety issues associated with the interaction between trucks and bicycles in urban areas. Those involved in city logistics can help to promote cycling and other forms of active transport by participating in the development and implementation of measures that increase the level of safety for cyclists. Measures that could be supported include: intersection design, design modifications for trucks, education of drivers, cyclists and road managers, enforcement aimed at behavioural change, as well as logistics customers requiring the use of safer trucks. Road management approaches with integrated safety benefits include designating routes and times for the movement of freight vehicles to avoid cyclists and requiring the trucks used in urban areas to have better visibility (e.g. lower driver position). This paper discusses several measures for improving the safety of cyclists including freight vehicle engineering and truck driver training programs as well as environmental management and land use changes.

Academic research paper on topic "Trucks and Bikes: Sharing the Roads"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 125 (2014) 251 - 261

8th International Conference on City Logistics

Trucks and Bikes: Sharing the Roads

Warwick Pattinsona*, Russell G. Thompsonb

aMelbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Australia bInstitute of Transport Studies, Monash University,Clayton, Australia 3800

Abstract

More cycling in urban areas could alleviate congestion that would benefit logistics operations as well as provide health and environmental benefits to the community at large. However, cycling within many Australian cities is currently being impeded due to poor road design and the absence of best practice freight vehicle standards (amongst other deterrents). Rising levels of fear and road trauma are creating the opportunity to address safety issues associated with the interaction between trucks and bicycles in urban areas. Those involved in city logistics can help to promote cycling and other forms of active transport by participating in the development and implementation of measures that increase the level of safety for cyclists. Measures that could be supported include: intersection design, design modifications for trucks, education of drivers, cyclists and road managers, enforcement aimed at behavioural change, as well as logistics customers requiring the use of safer trucks. Road management approaches with integrated safety benefits include designating routes and times for the movement of freight vehicles to avoid cyclists and requiring the trucks used in urban areas to have better visibility (e.g. lower driver position). This paper discusses several measures for improving the safety of cyclists including freight vehicle engineering and truck driver training programs as well as environmental management and land use changes.

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organising Committee ofthe 8th International Conference on City Logistics.

Keywords: Road safety; traffic management; cycling; truck crashes

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 3 95982541; fax: +61 3 95982541. E-mail address: warwick.pattinson@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organising Committee of the 8th International Conference on City Logistics. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1471

1. Introduction

The logistics industry is very diverse and its on-road presence ranges from the bicycle courier to the mega truck. City life has become absolutely dependent on these heterogeneous participants in logistics. This paper is concerned with logistics in Australian cities and is focused on larger trucks and the safety issues they can have mixing with cyclists who are part of the group of vulnerable road users (cyclists, pedestrians and motorized open wheelers) experiencing increasing road trauma (WHO, 2013). Cyclists have problems being seen, being afforded rights under the rules of the road, understanding truck movements, and undertaking avoidance maneuvers. An outcome for cyclists of any of these system failures can be a initial knock down impact followed by run over crushing under the heavy trucks wheel(s) (Morgan, Dale, Lee and Edwards, 2010). Cyclists are particularly at risk as they cannot, like pedestrians, move sideways or backwards to avoid an expected encroachment on their space by a truck or trailer as can occur when a large (long) vehicle turns left (right in right hand side drive countries). Cyclists, like motorcyclists are also at risk at intersections when the through cyclist has right of way over turning trucks but may not be seen or may have their approach speed underestimated and/or their capacity to stop overestimated by a truck driver.

In Australian cities the car is the first choice for most personal travel and cars are the main cause of congestion that frustrates logistics operators and increases distribution costs. Many people own bicycles and could use them for short trips but limit their cycling because they fear motor traffic: the speeding cars, the erratic white vans and trucks (Johnson, 2011). Many cycling supportive measures have been used in Northern Europe to provide a safer and sustainable road system and to protect and maintain the health, environmental and economic benefits these populations enjoy from active travel (Pucher and Buehler, 2008). Measures include: innovations in engineering, like intersection designs and modifications to trucks; education of drivers, cyclists and road managers; enforcement aimed at behavioral change, and encouragement to use safer trucks (Mesken and Schoon, 2011). Significant improvements in safety outcomes for cyclists in interactions with trucks have been achieved in northern Europe and Japan by improved visibility and under-run protection. The transferability of such ideas to Melbourne (and other Australian cities) seems to face significant barriers including the invisible contexts: the local culture, political will, institutional inertia, and differences in legal systems.

2. Background

2.1 Context

In 2004 at the 3rd International Conference on City Logistics Taniguchi et al, suggested a vision based on three pillars (guiding principles): mobility, sustainability, and liveability. Supporting the three pillars were eight goals of: global competitiveness, efficiency, environmental friendliness, congestion alleviation, security, safety, energy conservation, and labour force. They saw promise in: establishing effective partnerships between key stakeholder groups; implementing information and communication technology and intelligent transport systems; promoting corporate responsibility; and incorporating urban freight transport as an integral component of urban planning (Taniguchi, Thompson and Yamada, 2004). As a development of that vision, this paper explores the potential for overlapping interests and mutual support in areas of promise between city cycling and urban freight.

In a 2009 study for the World Bank, Dablanc (2009) summarises the challenges for urban freight as being to both serve the urban economy and to contribute to city safety, health and liveability. Many freight issues are shared by cities, including: increased international flow of goods through ports, the dominance of road freight by motorized modes, "Logistics sprawl" (the suburbanization of warehouses) requiring more vehicle-kilometres, and the presence of small operators with old trucks and little training (Dablanc, 2009).

In a 2011 study Mesken et al found that municipalities, key players in city access and safety, tended to be involved with the transport industry to improve efficiency and reduce environmental problems (Mesken and Schoon, 2011) . Some measures, such as reduced emissions by less truck movements also have safety benefits. An approach with integrated safety benefits could include: designating freight times and routes to when and where there are a few cyclists, and requiring trucks to have better visibility (e.g. lower cabins).

Cycling as a way of healthy active travel has gained renewed recognition in the face of global concerns expressed by the World Health Organization (WHO) over an emerging epidemic in lifestyle or non-communicable diseases (Lee, Shiroma, Lobelo, Puska, Blair and Katzmarzyk, 2012; Lim, Vos, Flaxman et al., 2012; Murray, Vos et al., 2012). By regularly cycling to activities, city travellers can get incidental exercise that contributes to fitness and health, reducing the risk of cardio-vascular and many other diseases including, Type 2 diabetes and depression. (Pucher and Buehler, 2012; U S Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Cycling's other potential benefits for an urban community, including lower pollution, reduced congestion, improved economy, affordability and equitable mobility, are also well recorded (Grous, 2011; Illich, 1974; Pucher and Buehler, 2012). While cycling is not suitable for all trips, it is suitable for many short trips.

2.2 Trucks and bikes — diverse system elements

The road system can be considered as a simple model with three components: vehicles, humans and the road environment. The transport industry may be regarded as a fourth component with strong links to the human and vehicle elements. Any simplicity is however an illusion as complexity emerges as soon as the diversity of human interactions and range of vehicles are considered. An example of system complexity is given by Schepers et al who note that personal travel behavior includes consideration of: location of activities, money and time costs, travel resistances (generalized costs and perceived risks), needs, opportunities and abilities (Schepers, Hagenziekerb et al., 2012). The choices for potential cyclists are thus complex and many simply choose the known option of car use.

A wide range of vehicles share the road system with trucks and bikes at the extremes in terms of size, power and vulnerability. People with very different characteristics also usually operate these vehicles; a cyclist may have no training at all and yet a truck driver must have a specific licence appropriate to the size of the vehicle. They however share the road, need to understand each other and have the potential for conflict, particularly at intersections and crossing points.

The traffic engineers who design roads and intersections have historically tended to focus on passenger car capacities (PCU's at intersections), with some consideration of large vehicle turning requirements (e.g. swept path). Until very recently (in Australia at least) these engineers tend to be focused on cars, to acknowledge trucks and buses, but often give low priority to trucks and cyclists, particularly at intersections. They worked to design guidelines focused on traffic capacity rather than safety and that implicitly consider vehicle performance and predominate human abilities, typically to 85th percentile capacities. Individual traffic engineering designers cannot be expected to also be experts in human and vehicle factors, but these factors become very important at the design limits, or system boundaries, presented by truck and cyclist interactions.

A refinement of the road systems approach is the concept of a 'safe system'. Since the mid 1990's road safety improvements in Europe and to some extent in Australia have been influenced by the ideas of Vision Zero (Sweden) and Sustainable Safety (The Netherlands) which embody a Safe Systems philosophy (Mooren, Grzebieta et al., 2011). The four principles of a Safe System (Corben, Logan et al., 2010) are:

1. Recognising the limits of human performance - as distinct from seeking to prevent human failures.

2. Acknowledging the limits of human tolerance to violent forces in foreseeable collisions, both for vehicle occupants and unprotected road users, across the full range of vehicle types and speed zones.

3. Shared responsibility for safe road use - individual users complying with safe design standards and operational rules (for their own safety), and

4. Creating a forgiving road-transport system - by separation (e.g. crash avoidance) or where this cannot be achieved, by injury mitigation (e.g. lower speed limits).

The safe system principles apply to all elements, 'Only when the characteristics of man, the road and the vehicle are adjusted to each other, can the transport and traffic system work as planned.' (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2001).

In Australia the safe system philosophy was not fully embraced. For example the National Heavy Vehicle

Strategy 2003 - 10 stated as one of its principles that, 'there is a balance to be struck between furthering many legitimate community objectives and increasing exposure to the risk of road trauma, including economic and employment benefits associated with greater road freight cartage and other vehicle traffic' (Australian Transport Council, 2003).

In this paper we focus on trucks and bikes as they are at the (neglected) extremes of the road system boundaries and probably the most challenging to potentially accommodate in a safe system. 'The conflict between a truck and a cyclist or pedestrian may not be the most common situation encountered, but it is the most dangerous' (Niewoehner and Berg, 2004). At intersections the special needs of trucks (e.g. manoeuvrability) and cyclists (e.g. to be seen) are very different and rarely are either given priority over the mobility and safety and needs of the car occupants. At crossings and other intersections, cyclists and trucks share road space with all other road users unless separated by time. While the sharing of space is moderated in many Northern European cities, in most other cities, including Australian cities, cyclists generally fend for themselves at intersections. Cyclists are more exposed than pedestrians as they are: on the roadway, often without marked space and in the case of cyclist usually without any special signal phasing. Also, for cyclists at very low speed, balance is an issue, particularly for novice and senior cyclists. Cyclists are very heterogeneous, with wide ranging levels of ability, from fit and aggressive recreational riders, to cautious and in some cases unfit older people simply riding to a local destination. The diversity of ages is also important, ranging from the young who may not know the road rules to some older riders who may have difficulty processing and acting on information as with older drivers (and riders) they may look for hazards but not see (Reed, Kinnear and Weaver, 2012).

3. Four Problems

3.1. Congestion

Most major cities are congested and struggle to provide for the efficient and safe movement of both people and goods. Trucks provide the city with material and goods and have a key role in waste removal. The trend is for more trucks on city roads (Stanley, Hensher and Loader, 2011). Cycling is a highly efficient means of travel and provides incidental exercise for the traveller. In Melbourne, Australia 62% of personal trips are for less than 5 kms (VISTA data quoted in (Stanley, Hensher and Loader, 2011), a range well suited to cycling yet most short trips are made in private motor vehicles. There could be more space for logistics vehicles if a significant minority of personal car trips, say 20+ % as achieved in several northern European cities, could be diverted to cycling by ' making cycling irresistible' , through comprehensive action on legislation, engineering, education and enforcement as in cities in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany (Pucher and Buehler, 2008; Pucher, Dill and Handy, 2010).

3.2. Fear

There are several reasons why people don't cycle, with safety or fear of traffic a key factor. As Jacobsen and Rutter observe, 'the most important issue in bicycle safety is that the danger posed by motorized traffic discourages cycling' and thus a society foregoes the health, social and environmental benefits of cycling (Jacobsen and Rutter, 2012). Simply put, people are not going to get out of their cars and ride bikes to allow more road space for trucks because trucks are feared.

3.3. Externalities and Distrust

Since the 1960's the large vehicle freight industry in Australia has achieved many productivity improvements through governments responding to industry calls for mass and cubic capacity increases. Together with better roads and improved vehicle technology these productivity improvements have contributed to road freight rates being almost halved in real terms over some 40 years (Davis and Ewing, 2005). Consumers benefited by lower prices and most other road users benefited by there being less trucks needed to move any given quantity of freight, but there were no explicit measures to compensate unprotected road users from increased risks from large trucks. This

reliance on market mechanisms alone to provide benefits is, as Khisty notes, a failure in distributive justice in that the majority are winners and gain benefits (slightly lower prices) but unprotected road users are the losers and bear the costs (Khisty, 1997). At least in Australia, gains in safety appear to have been derived in large part from more productive trucks (less trucks needed as noted above) and better roads, rather than say trucks with reduced aggresivity or safer operational behaviour as in Europe (Mesken, Schoon et al., 2012).

An example of community concern is the experience in Australia since 1991 with the requirement for heavy vehicles over 12 tonnes to be fitted with a speed limiter. Speed data (and on-road experience) indicates many non -compliant heavy vehicles on the roads (Australian Transport Council, 2003). While speed limiters obviously have no effect on urban roads (other than freeway and toll roads), the lack of compliance with this safety measure by elements in the industry is a cause for ongoing community concern. The original safety package (in which one author was involved) sought the introduction of monitoring devices (e.g. tachographs) as had then been required in Europe for several years, but this level of accountability was vigorously opposed by the industry in Australia in the late 1980's and to this day.

In Australia it appears that the needs of unprotected road users tend to be neglected relative to efficiency improvements for the industry. For example in the National Heavy Vehicle Strategy 2003 - 2010 the safety of other road users was only specifically considered in a suggestion for better under-run protection, subsequently investigated but only supported for front under-run protection (DOTARS, 2009). In the DOTARS study, industry self-regulation in Australia, such as by 'Truck Safe', was seen as largely ineffective in terms of participation and in the absence of both significant rewards for complying and sanctions for non-compliance. DOTARS quotes National Transport Commission (NTC) estimates of 210,000 trucking establishments, 79% being in the ancillary sector and only 21% in the hire and reward sector and of which only 10%; that is in Australia only about 2% of truck operators participated in the industry Truck Safe scheme.

In the UK a 2012 study by TRL for Transport for London, it was found that potentially effective existing mechanisms to reduce risk such as The Fleet Operator Recognition Scheme (FORS) was used to gain contracts but not followed through, and that Construction Logistics Plans (CLPs), which involved route planning, were generally not followed or monitored (Helman, Delmonte et al., 2013).

These factors point to a future problem for the logistics industry; logistics involves trucks but in terms of trucks on the road, professional logistics operations are in the minority. The trucks and trailers used by logistics operators are ultimately bound by regulations made by elected officials who are subject to community sentiments that are in part shaped in response to road users experience with trucks in general. These sentiments are finding expression in opposition to trucks such as the local Melbourne Bike West group (see http://www.bikewest.org.au) and the European 'No Mega Trucks' (see http://www.nomegatrucks.eu).

3.4. Driver health

A sedentary lifestyle, as with professional drivers, puts health at risk (Manson, Skerrett, Greenland and VanItallie, 2004). Cycling would be an excellent way for truck drivers to exercise, they could even have a bike on their trucks so they could go for a ride when having a break or waiting for the truck to be loaded or unloaded.

The emotional trauma to drivers involved in serious crashes is also a factor that is not to be underestimated, as some drivers are unable to continue working. Any involvement in a workplace death is something people want to avoid (Sinclair and Haines, 1993). The tendency for most people involved in workplace death (and roads are the workplaces of those involved in logistics) is to distance themselves from the fatal event. The problem with this tactic is that there is no learning and no steps taken to reduce the risk of similar future events (Ibid).

4. Solutions

The logistics industries contribution to the economy of cities and nations has been outstanding. In our view the above safety related problems arise in part from: failure by governments (particularly in Australia) to intervene to protect vulnerable road users and a failure by the logistics industry to distinguish itself as a socially responsible

contributor to city safety, health and livability, (as well as the economy) as noted by Dablanc (2009). Some of the opportunities for logistics industry leadership are outlined below.

4.1. Road engineering advocacy

Several road-engineering measures, mostly from Europe and Japan are available, including:

(i) Protected cycle lanes, including providing separation for left (right in Europe) turning cyclist and motor vehicles. More separate facilities for vehicle types (trucks and bikes) could be both cyclists and the industries time and safety advantage. For example the CROW protected lane at intersections provides trucks with a larger radius turn (Center for Traffic Transport and Infrastructure (CROW), 2007),

(ii) Mirrors on signal posts, to enable large vehicle drivers to see in otherwise blind spots,

(iii) Separate signal phases, to separate in time the movements of unprotected road users,

(iv) High deflection/low speed roundabouts, which can be provided with mountable outer perimeters for large vehicles, and

(v) ITS applications including active road markings (in pavement LED's) and unprotected road user presence warning signals.

As noted above, traffic engineers who design the roads and intersections tend to know about cars, a bit about trucks but often very little about cyclists. Traffic engineers work to design guidelines that implicitly consider vehicle dimensions envelopes (e.g. length, width, height and weight) and performance (e.g. acceleration, cornering/tracking and braking) and normal human abilities, typically 85th percentile capacities (e.g. eye height, vision range, memory, reaction time, judgement, expectancy, information processing and sensing - that may all differ by age, gender and experience). Individual traffic engineering designers however know little about human and vehicle factors, nor cannot be expected to know, but these factors become very important at the design limits, or system boundaries, presented by truck and cyclist interactions.

Road design for cyclists is documented in the classic reference book, Traffic Engineering, Design manual for bicycle traffic (Center for Traffic Transport and Infrastructure (CROW), 2007). There is however little support for the Dutch Sustainable Safety philosophy or the Swedish Vision Zero outside of Northern Europe and those North American cities that have endorsed the Copenhagen influenced NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide (see http://nacto.org/cities-for-cycling/design-guide/). It would be very helpful if the logistics industry was to consider the extent to which best practice for providing for cyclists was compatible with best practice for truck operations.

4.2. Vehicle Engineering (purchases and aftermarket equipment)

Some truck manufactures have shown outstanding leadership over many years to design and build safer trucks; but the market has not always rewarded them. Vehicle engineering options for reducing the likelihood of truck and bike crashes, range from short term retrofit options to ITS crash avoidance design solutions, and include:

(i) Volvo's research and development contribution to the Intersafe-2 project that could improve truck safety at intersections by up to 80 per cent. It brings together a number of measures to eliminate blind spots and relay other information (Volvo Trucks, 2011),

(ii) Migration of the Volvo car Cyclist Detection System to detect when pedestrians and cyclists are present and apply an automatic brake in situations where a collision looks likely,

(iii) Additional mirrors or cameras to overcome front and side blind spots: In Australia there is no equivalent to EU Directive 2003/97 for improved mirrors or EU Directive 2007/38 for the retrofitting of indirect vision installation and for Class IV mirrors to all new trucks to improve driver spatial awareness. The Jacobson Consultancy report (2004) for notes that in Japan for the eight years after the 1976 introduction of Class IV mirrors 'the number of fatal accidents caused by left-turning vehicles dropped dramatically' (Jacobs

Consultancy, 2004). Jacobson however note the difficulty of retrofitting mirrors to some truck types and high variability in likely effectiveness between countries (ibid),

(iv) Smart sensors (pedestrian and cyclist detectors), also smart car mirrors like the Ford mirrors that display a symbol on the mirror when an object is in a blind spot (Ford Motor Company, 2008). Also, applications of V2V (vehicle to vehicle systems). However, protection of vulnerable road users does not appear to be a priority with some of these initiatives but they at least under consideration (McCarthy, 2009; U S Department of Transportation, 2011),

(v) Side under- run protection: fitted to some trucks in Japan and successfully retrofitted in the Netherlands to trucks allowed to operate in urban areas, but rejected for Australia by DOTARS (2009),

(vi) Cabin redesign to lower driver eye height and improve short range field of view,

(vii) External air bags as have been introduced for some cars, and

(viii) Autonomous crash avoidance, by breaking or evasive steering (see below).

For automobiles, major advances have been made in occupant protection and with new features brought into production models like adaptive speed control, headway warning, lane departure warnings and road departure warnings (Campbell, Richard, Brown and McCallum, 2007) and recently cyclist detection. Some of these technologies have been migrated to trucks, like lane departure warnings available on most trucks sold in Europe and for Freightliner Trucks in North America.

Active safety systems including automatic braking and/or evasive steering are also in development (Keller, Dang, Fritz, Joos, Rabe and Gavrila, 2011). Unmanned vehicles have been deployed by the military since the 1930's (Thong, Howe and Lee 2013). Since 2008 Rio Tinto in Australia trailed and are still expanding their use of autonomous trucks in mining.

For public road use, working automobile prototypes have been achieved by several companies including: Google, Continental Automotive Systems, Bosch, Nissan, Toyota, and Audi (Volkswagen) and many of these features can be expected to be migrated to heavy vehicles, particularly if such features reduce crashes and downtime and become demanded by customers.

Regarding truck safety advancements, Olaf Persson, President of AB Volvo and C.E.O. of the Volvo Group that now has a broad portfolio of truck bands including: Volvo Trucks, Renault Trucks, MACK, UD (Japan) and Eicher (India), said the firm's core values: "Safety, quality and care for the environment, the fundamental core values of the Volvo Group, which go back to 1972, remain unchanged" (Jariath Sweeney, Fleet Transport, September 2012).

ITS has the potential to transform land transport and to have a substantial positive effect on road safety (Bayly, Fildes, Regan and Young, 2007). Logistics operators can press for these vehicle safety features to be introduced to the trucks they use and for National design rules such as the Australian Design Rules (ADR's) to mandate them. Financial incentives or tax offsets could also be sought to compensate for the cost of safety features that benefit the community at large, but the community needs to understand these issues. A key determinant of community acceptance of further on-road productivity improvements for the logistics industry is likely to be development of community trust in truck operators, by operators demonstrating that they are committed to safety improvements for all road users, including pedestrians and cyclists. An alternative scenario would be for safety innovations to be imposed/mandated on companies by Governments, in response to interest groups, who may not understand the logistics context.

4.3. Behavioural Change (driver selection and ongoing training)

A number of approaches to improve behaviour are available, including:

(i) Education/publicity on understanding and hazards and appropriate behaviour, directed to both cyclists and truck drivers. Some examples are the European Cyclists' Federation pamphlet Lorry/Cyclist Blind Spot Accidents (see http://www.ecf.com/advocary/road-safety/) and Transport for London's HGV's and Road Safety (see http://www.tfl.gov.uk/microsites/freight/hgvs_and_road_safety.aspx),

(ii) Retraining of and ongoing training for truck drivers, for example as required in The Netherlands, that includes cyclist awareness,

(iii) Education aimed at respect (less aggression), understanding mutual responsibilities (care); this would be a big opportunity for the highly visible urban distribution operators. An example is the USA and Canada Share the Road Cycling Coalition between the American Automobile Association (AAA) and the League of American Cyclists. The campaign promotes a shared responsibility beyond just sharing the road to showing common courtesy and respect on the road to ensure the safety of all road users (see http://exchange.aaa.com/safety/bicycle-safety/), and

(iv) Enforcement aimed at changing behaviour by detecting and deterring: impaired driving, time pressured driving, excessive speed, failing to give way, and red light running.

4.4. Environmental and land use changes (cooperation with municipalities)

Approaches have also been used to address environmental issues include:

(i) Restricted truck routes and turns, an annoyance for truck operators but potentially removes manyissues of community concern. If there is a cost to operators then it needs to be reflected in the delivery or pick up cost and the community needs to understand this.

(ii) Liveable city logistics (central city perimeter consolidation and distribution mini terminals) as required by the City of Melbourne for major retail redevelopment, and

(iii) Low emission trucks, contributing to better air quality that will be particularly appreciated by cyclists.

5. Transferability

The successful transfer and adaption of solutions from one country or city does not depend on technical merit alone; many other factors need to be considered and the practical knowledge and wisdom of logistics industry stakeholders would be invaluable to such a process. Drawing on the learning from the EU SaferBrain project in India and Brazil ((Quigley, Sims, Hill, Tripodi, Persia, Pietrantonio et al., 2012) successful transfer of measures needs:

• A clear vision and agreed objectives (e.g. Vision Zero for the road toll),

• Strategic fit with master-plans and design codes,

• Audit process' to ensure that designs will meet local objectives (e.g. European style bike boxes at stop lines at Melbourne intersections were introduced although very few trucks in Australia have a forward mirror to overcome the forward blind spot),

• Appetite for innovation, learning and flexibility,

• Recognition that city-to-city diversity in terms of population, area, urban form, topography, economic activities, income levels and constraints on growth, requires implementation of principles rather than prescriptions. (e.g. Melbourne's protected 'Copenhagen' bike lanes were modified to fit with the local street profile),

• Policies to minimize the need for motorized personal travel (e.g. road user pricing, parking controls, '20 minute city' land use arrangements),

• Clarity in decision making and management,

• Meaningful engagement of stakeholders,

• A supportive enforcement and legal system,

• Permeable institutions, with horizontal and vertical cooperation (as distinct from bureaucratic partitioning of responsibilities),

• Financial resources - a revenue flow to fund research, implement and monitor programs,

• Political will to implement change in the face of minority opposition from vested interests and local pressure groups, and

• Engagement of city residents.

The EU SaferBrain project was also sensitive to the important socio-cultural dimensions described, by Hofstede, that have a strong influence on transferability (Hofstede, 2001). Hofstede's five measures of cultural difference are:

(i) Power Distance: the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally,

(ii) Un-certainty Avoidance: the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations,

(iii) Individualism: pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family,

(iv) Masculinity: the dominant male sex role pattern in the vast majority of both traditional and modern societies, and

(v) Long-term Orientation: long- term versus short-term orientation toward the future.

Boonghee et al. note that this approach to cultural understanding has been widely used to explore consumer perception across a wide range of topics from antismoking, to ethical norms to consumer moral ideologies Boonghee, Donthu and Lenartowicz, 2011). The acceptance by a host country of measures to reduce risk to unprotected road users from the on-road component of logistics could be expected to be related to the cultural fit between the county of origin (e.g. The Netherlands or Japan) and the proposed host country (e.g. Australia) in terms of: democratic power sharing across income and social strata, a sense of collectivism (concern for the general good rather than individualism), caring rather than competitive norms, a willingness to take some risks for the public good (compared to uncertainty avoidance), and generousness to support change that may result in some loss of privilege by the more powerful. Boonghee et al's cultural considerations suggest a somewhat pessimistic prospect for improvements in conditions for unprotected road users in Australia, given privileging of: power, individualism, competitiveness, and reluctance to change. A small number of very significant changes in the road environment to support cycling are however being achieved by some inner city municipalities such as the City of Melbourne and the logistics industry could be part of this change in the future.

6. Conclusions

Change can be led or at least supported by individual firms, in the way vehicles are specified, in the way drivers are trained and by engagement with other road users groups including those who want to cycle. It is hoped that there could be rewards in terms of better community relations, demonstrated fit with the values of ethical customers, reduced insurance premiums or taxation offsets and potential productivity benefits being more readily made to operators who are good corporate citizens.

As Governments appear to have limited access to logistics expertise it may be up to the logistic industry to suggest approaches that could see: safer vehicles, safer drivers and safer road management practices and to ensure that operators who want to use the safest vehicles, well trained drivers and safe operating practices are not disadvantaged in the market.

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