Scholarly article on topic 'Effective Design Principles in Promotion of Children's Creativity in Residential Spaces'

Effective Design Principles in Promotion of Children's Creativity in Residential Spaces Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{Creativity / "promoting children's creativity" / "residential space" / "design principles"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Amir Reza Karimi Azeri, Reza Parvizi, S. Jalal Khaleghi, S. Bagher Hosseini

Abstract Promoting the creativity in children is important. The focus of creativity researchers has been from psychology features to the impact of the physical environment. One of the ways to promote creativity is using the effect of natural or artificial environment to enhance the creativity in children. Literature suggests that the architecture construction is pale to influence the cultivation of creativity. This research has been performed in five steps using the survey method. According to the findings, physical environment in residential spaces affects the development of children's creativity. The present study seeks to achieve the effective design principles of residential space to promote children's creativity.

Academic research paper on topic "Effective Design Principles in Promotion of Children's Creativity in Residential Spaces"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 202 (2015) 31 - 46

ASEAN-Turkey ASLI (Annual Serial Landmark International) Conference on Quality of Life 2014, ABRA International Conference on Quality of Life, AQoL2014, 26-28 December 2014,

Istanbul, Turkey

Effective Design Principles in Promotion of Children's Creativity in

Residential Spaces

Amir Reza Karimi Azeria , Reza Parvizib, S.Jalal Khaleghib, S.Bagher Hosseinic

aArchitecture and Art Faculty, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran bFaculty of Architecture and Urban Design, Deylaman Institute of Higher education, Lahijan, Iran cSchool of Architecture and Environmental Design, IUST, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Promoting the creativity in children is important. The focus of creativity researchers has been from psychology features to the impact of the physical environment. One of the ways to promote creativity is using the effect of natural or artificial environment to enhance the creativity in children. Literature suggests that the architecture construction is pale to influence the cultivation of creativity. This research has been performed in five steps using the survey method. According to the findings, physical environment in residential spaces affects the development of children's creativity. The present study seeks to achieve the effective design principles of residential space to promote children's creativity.

©2015The Authors.Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunder responsibility ofAMER(AssociationofMalaysianEnvironment-Behaviour Researchers) andcE-Bs(Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Creativity; promoting children's creativity; residential space; design principles

1. Introduction

Creativity is a significant and attractive subject for study; however, in practice it is difficult to apply it at different sections (Runco, 2007). Since 1950, psychologists found that intelligence and creativity are not the same, and it was felt to recognize creativity. Gradually, widespread researchers launched in the field accordingly (Shafayi, 2009). Flourishing creativity and innovation are among the most significant ideas of today's world. Promoting the creativity during childhood affects the whole life of an individual and progress and development of any nation

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +989122938113; fax: +98-21-77240336 E-mail address: amirreza_karimiazeri@Guilan.ac.ir

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.206

depends on this factor as well (Guilford, 1968). Gardner believes that the imagination formed during early childhood affects the entire life of an individual (Amabile, 1996). Due to the importance of the subject of creativity, this research intends that from among different areas affecting children's creativity, the domain of environmental psychology and the physical role of the residential space where children spend most of their lifetime will be chosen and studied accordingly. The researches on residential have not paid enough attention to the relation between the quality of the residential spaces and promoting the children's creativity (Hosseini, 2009). Lack of any thought idea for the design of residential spaces and development of the residential spaces without proper criteria (Azemati, 2008) caused that the subject of development of residential space for development of children's creativity has been ignored. This subject is of great importance because from among various factors affecting growth of children's creativity. Researchers have studied many educational methods, emotional-cognitive aspects, and educational issues accordingly. However, the effect of the quality of life physical environment and architectural space in the development of creativity has been considered less while the children's creativity finds practical aspect at the age of 3-7 (Riahi, 2001). During these years, the children's creativity is more affected by the environment. This research is aiming at design of the houses that cause growth and promotion of children's creativity. This aim is realized through analytical study of the relationship between physical characteristics of residential spaces and promotion of creativity. In the next stage achievement of a collection of elements and approaches for design of the residential spaces toward a positive effect on creativity, are noted. Thus, precise application of these elements in design and development of the house and its interior space in particular shall indirectly promote the children's creativity.

1.1. Research hypothesis and questions

Houses and residential spaces may be designed in such a manner as they lead to promotion of creativity among children. This promotion could be through positive effect of physical and functional characteristics of the residential spaces in promotion of individual elements of creativity. This general hypothesis may be presented in the form of the following five hypotheses:

• 1 .Utilization of natural elements in residential spaces leads to promotion of the potential of children's creativity through motivating children's feelings in the environment and a positive effect in promoting the motivation of children to play.

• 2.Development of a safe atmosphere in residential spaces promotes potential of children's creativity through decrease of stress and eventually a positive effect on promoting mental tranquility of children.

• 3.Establishment of complexity (physical variation) in residential spaces leads to promotion of potential of children's creativity through development of a challenge in children and a positive effect on creating initiative.

• 4.Development of flexibility of residential spaces leads to promotion of potential of children's creativity by promoting the capability of environmental manipulation through a positive effect on promotion of inquisitiveness.

• 5.Use of attractive visual tricks leads to promotion of children's creativity by promoting visual thinking among children and a positive effect on children's power of imagination.

In the end, the research questions are stated as follows:

• 1 .Which architectural (physical and functional) characteristics in a residential space influence the variables of children's motivation to play, mental tranquility, initiative, inquisitiveness, and imagination?

• 2.What are the design and architectural approaches for promoting the potential of creativity in residential spaces?

2. Literature review

2.1. Definition of creativity

Scientists have stated creativity using different definitions in such a way as each definition reveals one of the significant aspects of creativity. As it is stated by Guilford, creativity is a collection of abilities and characteristics that may lead to creative thinking (Hosseini, 2009). Creativity is a process whose result is a new work which is accepted by a group at a time as a useful and satisfactory thing (stein, 1974). In the author's viewpoint, creativity is

the result of the imaginary and rational forces of an individual, which overwhelm his mental forms and intellectual limitations by using previous knowledge and new discoveries, presenting fresh approaches for solving the problem.

Table 1. Definition of Creativity from the Viewpoints of Researchers.

Definition of Creativity from Researchers' Viewpoints

Amabile, 1990 Creativity is a combination of capabilities including innovation, flexibility and sensitivity against the viewpoints that allow the learner to think outside unreasonable thinking to different and generative results whose conclusion is satisfactory. Khosrownejad, 2008 Creativity is a process which results in codification or production of ideas, approaches and or new products that enjoy artistic and scientific credibility.

Runco, 2007 Creativity is the capability to solve problems fluently by innovative, new and appropriate solutions. Davoudi, 2006 Creativity is to utilize mental capabilities to establish a new thought or concept.

Robins, 1991 Creativity is to provide new qualities of concepts, meanings and ideas. Hosseini, 2009 Creativity is to pass through a new route or to pass in a new way a route that has been passed through previously.

Taylor, 1988 Creativity is the formation of experiences in new reorganizations. Azemati, 2009 Creativity includes total personal factors, processes and products that interact in a social environment.

Sources: Authors, (2015)

2.2. Effective elements in creativity

Study of the components of creativity reveals that creativity is not a fixed feature of personality, hidden in the nature of humans without any change. But, it is among the items, which may completely be weakened or even destroyed due to the effect of certain elements or obstacles. Some conditions provide suitable grounds for appearance and development of creativity while some other conditions may cause the roots of creativity die in humans (Hosseini, 2009).

Table 2. The effective elements.

The effective elements in creativity

Internal factors External factors

Individual factors Environmental factors

Emotional factors Cognitive factors Thinking factors Skills factors Physical environment Educational factors Social factors Family

Reliance on risk taking Flexibility Intelligence Play Natural elements of an environment Education Freedom Method of child fostering Reward and encouragem ent

2.3. Role of environment in development of creativity

The Environment enjoys a widespread definition that comprises geographical environment, physical environment, social environment, cultural environment and the ones (Lang, 1987). From the most well-known scientists, who studied the effect of the environment on individuals, one may name Amabile. He had a great effect in

the movement of the specialist in creativity toward study of the role of environmental variables in creativity (Azemati, 2008). The Environment has a more clear-cut role in growth and development of creativity compared to the factors of personality. Natural factors vary to a great extent, and they may easily be manipulated in comparison with features of personality and individual aptitudes (Amabile, 1983). Due to the close relationship between human and the environment (in terms of perception and behavior), any of environmental aspects influences the process of creativity (perception, analysis and imagination) (Shafayi, 2008). Upon the development of human communities and change of lifestyle and habitation of people, architects, designers and planners paid attention to quality of built environments and spaces. As researchers in the field of creativity have focused on its personal characteristics, the share of physical potential of the environment has been discarded (Amabile, 1983). If the environment is so simple, theperceptual system of children will not try to complete survival procedures. However, in various world where it is not possible to find the nature of events through usual observation, inevitably, the process must occur to predict ambiguous situations (Thorisson, 2004). Nowadays, architects and urban planners try utmost to establish a logical relationship between structure and nature. Further to putting forward such ideas as building harmony and respecting the nature, they consider sociability of physical and natural environment, considering the cultural, climate and belief conditions of users, including the nature in buildings because of which humans find spirits in the house. Moreover, they study the effective elements in human interaction and natural environment in a physical environment (Daneshgar, Bahraini and Einy Far, 2011). Children like environment in nature and are born with a love toward nature. This love may clearly be found in their sense of curiosity when they face nature and through their brave involvement (Farah Pour, 2009). Concerning the fact that more suitable ground for supervision in a residential space and house is available without interference of parents and that the parents feel more safety through supervision, on the one hand, and on the other, they develop both elements of free and inquisitive activity and safety for promoting the potential of creativity through establishment of suitable grounds for activity, curiosity and intensifying environmental complexity and using the elements of natural environment and making the environment to accept supervision and concerning interior safety of a residential space of which provision is much possible compared to exterior spaces.

3. Research methodology

This research is associated with the three elements of architecture (the concept of residential spaces), children (the concept of growth psychology) and creativity. The method chosen for this research is a combination of qualitative and quantitative one.

Table 3. Research Areas.

Research Areas

Human Sciences Architecture

Psychology Residential Space

Children (psychology) Creativity Functional Physical

Findings

Then, using survey research, which is based on qualitative method, and after choosing the sample subject of study and collecting the data through interview and questionnaire, the most important variables affecting this research are studied using factor analysis method. Afterward, based on the relation among the said variables, the preciseness of the research hypotheses are studied using correlation method of variables. Data collection of this research is based on Delphi Technique (benefiting from the specialists' viewpoint). In this research, the attitude of the specialists in the two fields of psychology and architectures were assessed with respect to any of the hypotheses. The researchers of environmental psychology usually use "Assimilation Technology" only when they want to study the behavior under specific environmental conditions, and the intended conditions have not been developed yet. It is difficult or impossible to experience the intended environmental conditions directly (Sarmad, 2010). Under such circumstances and in order to evaluate the research findings for children, a visual questionnaire may be used

(Maccoy, M. and Evans, 2002). Thus, the results obtained through attitude assessment from specialists are changed to intelligible images, and the children of 3-7 years old were polled with respect to the said results accordingly. Upon data analysis and review of research findings, the effective design principles in the promotion of children's creativity in residential spaces were extracted. Staging this research is given as follows:

• Stage 1: The research literature was studied, and a theoretical framework has been completed and hypotheses were corrected by the help of semi-structuralized interview through psychologists of children's creativity.

• Stage 2: Attitude assessment of psychologists (area: children's creativity) using close response method for confirmation of a theoretical framework and the findings of the previous stage

• Stage 3: Attitude assessment of specialists in architecture (area: housing) at the two preliminary and complementary stages stated below for achievement of architectural principles

• Stage 4: Attitude assessment of children at the age group of 3-7 for implicit confirmation of findings

• Stage 5: Analysis, conclusion and explanation of design principles and corresponding criteria

4. Compiling a theoretical framework

According to the research literature and the effect of the architectural body on creativity, it is necessary to find proper design principles for residential spaces especially for their interior space where children spend most of their time. Through study of the background of the respective researches conducted in this regard, fifty variables and elements have been extracted as indicated in the following table:

Table 4. Effective factors in creativity.

Effective Factors In Creativity

Effective Factors In Creativity (Creativity Variables) Major References

1 Curiosity 26 Motivation for playing (Ana Craft, 2012) (Shibata and Suzuki, 2004)

2 Intellectual playing 27 Democracy and respect (Daneshgar, Bahrein and Einifar, 2011) (Taylor, 1988)

3 Mobility 28 Stress reduction (Shaki, 2009) (Austin, 1974)

4 Participation 29 Challenge (Torrance, 1981) (Vernon, 1989)

5 Imagination 30 Resources (access to suitable and appropriate resources) (Rogers, 1954) (Sternberg, 2001)

6 Security 31 Cooperation (relation with peers freely) (Amabile, 1983, 1989 and 1998) (Khosrownejad, 2008)

7 Comfort 32 Understanding (Farahpour, 2009) (Davoudi, 2006)

8 Control 33 Stimulation of feelings in the natural environment (Kamelnia et al., 2009) (Seif, 2004)

9 Intellect 34 Mental relaxation of the child (Krippner, 1999) (Hosseini, 2009 and 2011)

10 Interest in risk 35 Cheerfulness (Robins, 1991) (Torrance, 1981)

11 No limitation 36 Diversity (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) (Shafayi, 2009)

12 Exploration in environment 37 Child's gender (boy or girl) (Mccoy and Evans, 2002) (Bohem, 1998)

13 Reward and motivation 38 Cultural classes (MacKinnon, 1962) (Cheng and vang, 2001)

14 Freedom 39 Number of children in the family (home) (Barron, 1989) (Rapoport, 2009)

15 Flexibility 40 Extent of the house (Guilford, 1968) (Falahat, 2010)

16 Extent of practice 41 Visual thinking (Ulrick, 1993) (Nasabi, 2012)

17 Talent 42 Coherence (Azemati, 2008) (Dobus, 1971)

18 Competition 43 transparency (Runnco, 2007) (Kristensen, 2004)

19 Evaluation 44 Diverse performance inside the house

20 Getting used to the condition 45 Environment complicatedness

21 Risking 46 Environment manipulation

22 Experience 47 Furniture flexibility

23 Pressure 48 Creating attractive visual effects

24 Habit 49 Natural elements of the environment

25 Innovation 50 Color and texture of surfaces

Sources: Authors, (2015)

4.1. Classification of effective factors in creativity (Based on a Semi-structuralized Interview)

At this stage, a poll was made from 5 psychologists (of the university faculty) who were specialists in children's creativity through a semi-structuralized interview and an open questionnaire. The effective variables in creativity were examined with them, and their viewpoints about the subject and different dimensions of it were received and classified. Finally, the variables were classified by reviewing and confirmation of findings of the research literature.

Final Factors )based on the Review of Subject Literature and a Semi-structuralized Interview( at this stage were selected by summing their viewpoints.

Table 5.Final selected variables.

Structural environment variables Individual variables

Natural elements of environment Increase of activity and playing (motivation for playing)

Safety and security Mental relaxation of a child

Environment complicatedness Increased innovation

Flexibility of interior environment Curiosity

Creating attractive visual effects Imagination

Sources: Authors, (2015)

Table 6. Communication of selected factors, (Interviewing with psychologists and creativity specialists), (theoretical framework).

Architecture Psychology Final goal

Independent variable Interfering factors Effective intermediary variables Dependent variable

1 Natural elements of Stimulation of feelings in the natural Increase of activity and playing

environment environment (motivation for playing) Promoting the

2 Security Stress reduction Mental relaxation of the child potential for

3 Environment complicatedness Challenge Increase of innovation children's creativity

4 Flexibility of the inside environment Environment manipulation Curiosity

5 Creating attractive visual effects Visual thinking Imagination

Sources: Authors, (2015)

5. Opinion poll from psychologists (closed questionnaire - response):

At this stage, an opinion poll was made from another group of psychologists specialized in the field of creativity by using closed questionnaire response and Likert Scale in order to ensure the preliminary findings (theoretical framework) about creativity and individual and environmental variables and factors affecting creativity as well as the effect and mechanism of this effect. In this approach, about 300 psychology professors from domestic and foreign authentic universities (150 from Iranian universities and 150 from the universities abroad) were elected and were asked about the specialty field of the research. Finally, 150 of the specialists who had declared that their research field was children's creativity were elected, and the questionnaire was sent for them. After collecting 108 questionnaires and analyzing the provided information and data, the extracted variables were ranked in the research literature section, and the correlation of provided variables was reviewed in the theoretical framework table. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. Alpha coefficient was obtained at a value of 0.788 which indicates high reliability of the results.

5.1. Friedman's Test

In this section, we rank the effective factors in children's creativity by using Friedman's test. This test is used for prioritizing and ranking the variables based on the highest effect on the dependent variable (children's creativity). The outputs related to Friedman's test are as follows.

Table 7. Ranking the effective factors in children's creativity (questions of the questionnaire) by Friedman's test.

Rank Effective factors in children's creativity Mean ranks Rank Effective factors in children's creativity Mean ranks

1 Motivation for playing 41.74 26 Experience 26.39

2 Innovation 40.89 27 Environment complicatedness 26.37

3 Exploration in the environment 39.91 28 Mobility 26.23

4 Mental relaxation of the child 37.60 29 Understanding 26.23

5 Imagination 37.46 30 Participation 25.83

6 Curiosity 37.39 31 Interest in risk 25.60

7 Environment manipulation 36.56 32 Coherence 24.91

8 Challenge 35.67 33 Cooperation (relation with peers freely) 24.57

9 Creating attractive visual effects 35.13 34 Furniture flexibility 22.30

10 Flexibility 34.73 35 Talent 21.03

11 Cheerfulness 34.30 36 No limitation 19.61

12 Natural elements of environment 33.92 37 Intellect 19.5

13 Motivation of feelings in a natural environment 33.72 38 Control 18.71

14 Visual thinking 31.76 39 Resources (access to suitable and appropriate resources) 18.37

15 Intellectual playing 31.0 40 Comfort 14.43

16 Performance diversity at home 30.43 41 Reward and encouragement 12.79

17 Freedom 29.56 42 Evaluation 12.64

18 Reduction of stress 29.40 43 Habit 12.25

19 Color and texture of surfaces 28.84 44 Home extent 12.24

20 Diversity 28.11 45 Cultural classes 12.01

21 Transparency 28.02 46 Getting used to the condition 11.71

22 Extent of practice 27.86 47 Competition 11.68

23 Democracy and respect 27.66 48 Pressure 9.83

24 Risking 26.70 49 No. of children in the family (home) 9.27

25 security 26.47 50 Child's gender (boy or girl) 5.70

Table 8. Output of the statistic related to Friedman's test.

Number 103

Chi-square statistic 2388,753

Freedom degree 49

sig. 0.0

Considering the amounts of statistic of Chi-square and sig., it can be concluded that the individuals' views on the effect of each factor on children's creativity are different. The order of importance of questions from the views of sample people is shown in Table 4. On this basis, five variables including innovation, exploration in the environment, child's mental relaxation and imagination have the highest scores. Five variables including getting used to the existing condition, competition, pressure, number of children in the family and child's gender have the lowest scores.

5.2. Correlation andMultivariable Linear Regression Tests 5.2.1. Hypothesis 1th test

It seems that there is a significant relation between natural elements of the environment in the residential space and stimulation of feelings in the natural environment.

Table 9. Correlation between natural elements of environment and motivation of feelings in a natural environment and correlation between stimulation of feelings in a natural environment and increase of activity.

Variable Stimulation of feelings in the natural environment Increase of motivation for playing Variable Natural elements of the environment Stimulation of feelings in the natural environment

Stimulation of Spearman 1 0,378* Natural Spearman 1 0.401*

feelings in the correlation Sig=0.039 elements of correlation Sig=0.011

natural coefficient the coefficient

environment environment

Increase of Spearman 0.378* 1 Spearman 0.401* 1

motivation for correlation Sig=0.039 Stimulation correlation Sig=0.011

playing coefficient of feelings in the natural environment coefficient

Considering the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that the variable "natural elements of the environment" has a significant and direct (positive) relation with the variable "stimulation of feelings in the natural environment"; i.e. as natural elements of the environment in the residential space increase, stimulation of feelings in the natural environment increases with a positive proportion. (R=0.401, p-value=0.011). Therefore, the first sub-hypothesis is confirmed.

It seems that there is a significant relation between stimulation of feelings in the natural environment and increase of motivation for playing in the children. Considering the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that the variable "stimulation of feelings in the natural environment" has a significant and direct (positive) relation with the variable "increase of activity and playing in the children"; i.e. as stimulation of feelings in the natural environment increases, activity and playing in the children increases with a low proportion. ((R)=0.378, p-

value=0.039). As a result, natural elements in the environment along with stimulation of feelings in the natural environment by increase of motivation for playing are effective in promoting the potential of children's creativity.

5.2.2. Hypothesis 2th test

1. It seems that there is a significant relation between children's security and reduction of stress in them.

Table 10. Correlation between security and reduction of stress in children and correlation between reduction of stress in children and their mental relaxation.

Variable Reduction of stress in children Mental relaxation in children Variable Children's security Reduction of stress in children

Reduction of Spearman 1 0,372* Children's Spearman 1 0.421*

stress in correlation Sig=0.042 security correlation Sig=0.015

children coefficient coefficient

Mental Spearman 0,372* 1 Reduction of Spearman 0.421* 1

relaxation in correlation Sig=0.042 stress in correlation Sig=0.015

children coefficient children coefficient

According to the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that children's security has a significant and direct (positive) relation with reduction of stress in them. It means that by the increase of children's security, stress increases in them with an average proportion. (R=0.421, p-value=0.015) and, therefore, the hypothesis is confirmed.

2. It seems that there is a significant relation between reduction of stress in children and their mental relations. According to the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that there is a significant and direct (positive) relation between reduction of stress in children and their mental relaxation. (R=0.372, p-value=0.042), therefore, the hypothesis is confirmed. As a result, security and reduction of stress and consequently, mental relaxation of children affect the potential of children's creativity.

5.2.3. Hypothesis 3th test

1. It seems that there is a significant relation between environment complications and communication challenge.

Table ll.Correlation between environment complications and challenge and the correlation between challenge and increase of innovation.

Variable Challenge Increase of innovation Variable Environment complications Challenge

Challenge Spearman correlation coefficient 1 0,299* Environment complications Spearman correlation coefficient 1 0.245*

Sig=0.002 Sig=0.049

Increase of innovation Spearman correlation coefficient 0,299* 1 1 Challenge Spearman correlation coefficient 0.245* 1 1

Sig=0.002 Sig=0.049

According to the results obtained from the correlation coefficient, it can be said that environment complications have a significant and direct (positive) but weak relation with relation challenge. It means that as environmental complications increase, challenge increases with a low proportion. (R=0.245, p-value=0.049), therefore, this hypothesis is confirmed.

2. It seems that there is a significant relation between challenge and increase of innovation. According to the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that challenge has a significant and direct (positive) but weak relation with the increase of innovation. It means that as challenge increases, innovation in the children increases with a low proportion. (R=0.299, p-value=0.002). Therefore, this hypothesis is confirmed. As a result,

environmental complications and challenge and consequently increase of innovation in the children affect promotion of children's creativity potential.

5.2.4. Hypothesis 4th test

1. It seems that there is a significant relation between flexibility of interior space and capability of manipulation in the environment.

Table 12. Correlation between flexibility of interior space and capability of manipulation in environment and correlation between manipulation in environment and curiosity.

Variable Manipulation in Curiosity in Variable Flexibility of Manipulation in

environment children interior space environment

Manipulation in 1 Flexibility of interior 1

environment space

Curiosity in children 0.368 Sig.=0.047 1 Manipulation in environment 0.548 Sig.=0

Considering the results obtained from the correlation table above, it can be said that there is a significant and direct (positive) relation between flexibility of interior space and manipulation in environment; however, there is no significant relation between flexibility of interior space and exploration.

2. It seems that there is a significant relation between manipulation in the environment and children's curiosity. According to the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that children's curiosity has a significant and direct (positive) relation with manipulation in the environment and exploration. It means that as manipulation in the environment and exploration increase, children's curiosity increases as well. Therefore, the hypothesis is confirmed. As a result, flexibility of interior space and manipulation of the environment affect promotion of children's creativity potential by the increase of curiosity in children.

5.2.5. Hypothesis 5th test

1. It seems that there is a significant relation between creating attractive visual effects and increase of visual thought.

Table 13. Correlation between creating attractive visual effects and visual thought and the correlation between visual thought and imagination.

Variable Visual thought Imagination Variable Creating attractive visual effects Visual thought

Visual thought 1 Creating attractive visual effects 1

Imagination 0.095 1 Visual thought 0.086 1

sig.=0.305 sig=0.342

According to the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that there is no significant relation between creating attractive visual effects and visual thought.

2. It seems that there is no significant relation between visual thought and imagination. According to the results obtained from the correlation table, it can be said that there is no significant relation between visual thought and imagination. The hypothesis is; therefore, rejected. As a result, creating attractive visual effects affect promotion of children's creativity by increase of visual thought and positive effect on the child's imagination (no correlation factors). Considering the correlation and multivariable linear regression tests, mechanisms of the effect of variables and different stages of creativity that are presented in the table of the theoretical framework were examined, and the correlations of all stages were confirmed except section 5. For the next stage; therefore, hypothesis No. 5 was set aside, and the research was followed up with the four other variables.

6. Attitude assessment of architectural specialists by using an open-ended questionnaire:

Following the previous stages, the attitude assessment of architectural specialists was conducted using an open-close response questionnaire. In this questionnaire, a brief explanation was given with respect to the obtained variables and the mechanisms of the effect of variables (according to Table 3) as confirmed in the previous stage. Furthermore, the architectural specialists were requested to present manner of the architectural execution and approach and the respective techniques in an architectural system to realize the above-mentioned goal. This assessment has been conducted through 50 specialists in residential architecture, which mainly include the students of postgraduate studies and university professors as well researchers by propounding several questions and collecting their comments on the subject of research in the field of architecture. The questions put forth in this section are given as follows:

• How are natural elements of the environment (water, plants and the ones) used in residential spaces with respect to children as a factor to promote play (children's motivation) leading to promotion of children's creativity by stimulating their sensations in a natural environment?

• How can children's safety be materialized in residential spaces concerning children (interior residential space and an open environment) as a factor for mental tranquility of children, which is an element for the promotion of children's creativity by decreasing stress.

• How can environmental complexity be created in residential spaces concerning children (interior residential space and an open environment) to develop a challenge as a factor for the promotion of children's initiative and also an element for the promotion of children's creativity?

• How can interior space flexibility be created in residential spaces concerning children to create a sense of manipulation in an environment by children as a factor for promotion of children's inquisitiveness and also an element for promotion of children's creativity.

Table 14. Architectural procedures proposed by architectural specialists in relation to the first question..

Analysis of the results of the preliminary questionnaire for Architectural Experts

Architectural Experts Total participants Total agreements with the options Percent agreement with the option

Procedures

1 Using and farming rare plant species and allocating a part of interior space for farming plants (establishment of a greenhouse inside) 50 35 70%

2 Creating small gardens in the balcony or on the roof (green balcony) 50 24 48%

Question No. 1 3 Creating a waterscape in the balcony or open space 50 20 40%

(Natural elements) for a child to play

4 Use of an aquarium inside the house 50 11 22%

5 Building different netted windows for playing with light and creating a window in the roof to see and watch the sky 50 7 14%

1 Design of safe decorations with no sharp edges hindering child's fall from above (bevelled edges) 50 19 38%

2 Flooring and materials of the house should be made from wood which is one of the natural materials (materials should not be breakable, like glass) 50 15 30%

3 Use fences designed proportionally to the child's spirit in open spaces towards the street so that the 50 14 28%

Question No. 2 child does not have a sense of limitation

. 4 (Mental relaxation and One of the most important factors in providing mental security for children is to use sufficient 50 13 26%

security) natural and artificial light

5 Use of light colours in designing preferred by children 50 13 26%

1 By providing a complicated arrangement in his/her room and making him/her to arrange the room based on the previous plan 50 20 40%

2 Design of floor height and surface difference (mezzanine, ramp, etc.) 50 12 24%

Question No. 3 3 Playing with different lights and shadows through use of colourful glasses and roof windows 50 11 22%

(Environment complicatedness) 4 There should be light walls between the spaces so that the child can move them and finds the capability of the environment changing and enjoys that 50 11 22%

5 Establishment of spiral routes and surfaces so that the child passes through them and feels their complicatedness 50 11 22%

1 By using furniture and changeable elements 50 26 52%

2 To make the spaces flexible, one can divide the space into necessary performances in different times and by using moveable elements 50 15 30%

Question No. 4 (Flexibility) 3 By using material, lighting and special colours suitable for the intended environment 50 11 22%

4 The wall of a part of the room can be considered for activities such as painting 50 10 20%

5 By using natural elements, e.g., by combining open and closed spaces 50 6 12%

Finally, after collection of responses for analysis and conclusion of the approaches presented, first, a matrix of the submitted questions and provided responses was developed. Then, the responses presented by any of specialists were given on each row corresponding to each question. The first row of each question of testable and the response to these questions were identified. In the end, through final analysis, the conclusion of replies was made and arranged in clear strains indicating the intention of the replies. A specific mark was put in the corresponding column of each indicating the agreement of each specialist. Finally, using descriptive statistics, the strains were arranged in consideration of the percentage of agreement of the specialists in such a manner as about 10-15 architectural approaches were presented for any of questions. In the end, five main approaches were chosen to continue the process and assessment with another group of architectural specialists by using a close-ended questionnaire. The sample tables used for each hypothesis are given as above.

7. Attitude assessment of another group of architectural specialists using a close-ended questionnaire

At this stage of research and by using an open-close response questionnaire, we assess five architectural suggestions and findings of the previous stage with the highest degree of agreement among architectural specialists in term of priority as compared to the criterion of some other architectural specialists. In the case of confirmation of final results, the corresponding principles shall be extracted. For the statistical population of this part, the researches of well-informed architectural specialists regarding the subject and the researchers of architecture who conducted researches in the field of environmental psychology as an upstream area and especially the concept of creativity was used. The sample selected for this part of the statistical population should have postgraduate degrees in the field of architecture (from among the architectural specialists who have articles and researches published in this field in scientific journals or hold the postgraduate degree in architecture). Then, for control of sufficiency of the sample, the following two methods are used:

• First, assessment of sample sufficiency using SPSS 18

• Control using Morgan Sample Table

The questionnaire was sent to specialists, and about 120 replied questionnaires were received in return. Then, after collection of the questionnaires and analysis of information and data presented, the corresponding approaches were studied, and final rating was finalized and the respective principles were extracted accordingly. Upon confirmation of the main research hypothesis, the conclusion of prioritized result of the sub-hypotheses is given as follows:

• In a residential space associated with children (an interior residential space and open environment), safety upon decrease of stress among children influences the mental tranquility of children- as an element for the promotion of children's creativity.

• In a residential space associated with children (an interior space), use of natural elements of the environment (water, plants and light) has an effect on promotion of children's motivation to play - as an element for promoting the children's creativity by stimulating the sensations in a natural environment.

• In a residential space related to children, flexibility influences the promotion of children's inquisitiveness - as an element for promoting children's creativity- by creating a sense of manipulating the interior space.

• In a residential space associated with children, environmental complexity has an effect on the promotion of children's initiative- as an element for the promotion of children's creativity- by creating a challenge.

8. Rating the approaches

Using the following table (Kruskal-Wallis Analysis), one may find a rating of architectural questions and approaches. Rating the architectural approaches (using the aforesaid tables and statistical test) indicated ten standard priorities listed hereunder:

• Upon the development of a waterscape in the terrace or open space of the house where the children may play with water, it promotes the children's motivation for activity and play (design of a specific space for play with water).

• Using an aquarium inside the house promotes the children's motivation for activity and play (presence of water in different forms such as aquariums, small swimming pools, fountains and a small spring inside the house).

• By using light colors liked by children in the design, mental tranquility of children is promoted.

• By designing interchanging elements and short moving walls, children's curiosity is promoted (for example, one part of the wall of the room may be considered for such activities as painting or collage).

• Designing changeable and flexible furniture that enables children to create diffident layouts, children's inquisitiveness shall be promoted.

• By natural materials, lightening or joyful, specific and proper colors considering the intended environment, the children's inquisitiveness shall be promoted.

• By sufficient natural and artificial light, the element of the children's mental tranquility shall be promoted.

• Through establishment of green spaces and small gardens in terrace or on the top roof (green terrace or green roof), the children's motivation for activity and play shall be promoted (green space and closed spaces are overlapped).

• Designing interchanging elements and using light walls among spaces and changeability (changeability of the environment by children) shall promote children's inquisitiveness.

• Changing the materials and surface texture (floor and wall) and using proper, and various coloration shall promote the children's initiative.

9. Change of the achieved approaches to design techniques by images (pictorial questionnaire) and asking the children about the images, inference and explaining the design principles

Considering the conceptual characteristics of the children of 3-7 years old, a pictorial questionnaire was drawn up to study the extent of their inclination toward the results of the previous stages. For this purpose, the corresponding test was conducted by the photos of the residential spaces with potentials extracting the creativity of children through the instructors, who were present in the nursery and narration and explanation of the said instructors

regarding the said photos to children. They were also asked about their inclination for being present in any of conditions. At this stage, first, 300 photos of the residential spaces were reviewed. For each finding of the previous stage, about 30 photos were reviewed. Then, for any of the findings of the previous stage, ten photos of the residential spaces with the required potentials were chosen. Moreover, for prioritizing these photos, two independents surveyors with expertise in the field of environmental psychology were used. For each case, five prioritized photos were chosen to be used for evaluation of any of the items of the previous findings by children (The prioritized images as appendix were enclosed with research means for evaluation by children). Using random sampling, three nurseries where the children were present, were evaluated with respect to images, proportionate to children's perception by the help of instructors of the nursery and explanation given on the said photos considering the subject and goal of the research. Fifty-five participants (children) participated in the said test. First, the children's motivation for the presence in the said spaces was questioned.

10. Findings and results of children's polling test

According to the results obtained from Polling Test, the majority of children indicated their interest in existence and use of any of the architectural and physical instances at their homes and their inclination presence and played in the said spaces. The following table indicates the results of children's polling test.

Table 15. Level of children's agreement with the obtained results.

Hypotheses Architectural procedures No. of participants No. of agreements Percentage of agreement

1 Increase of child's motivation for activity and playing Design of waterscape inside and outside of residential space 55 55 100%

2 Increase of child's motivation for activity and playing Design of aquarium inside the residential space 55 51 93%

3 Child's mental relaxation Designing the below of residential spaces with the colours mostly preferred by children 55 50 91%

4 Child's curiosity, innovation Design of a changeable and flexible furniture 55 47 86%

5 Child's curiosity, innovation Design of interior bodies of residential spaces using natural and variable materials 55 45 82%

6 Child's mental relaxation Design of residential spaces by diverse lighting (natural and artificial lights) 55 54 98%

7 Increase of child's motivation for activity and playing Design of green space inside and outside the residential space 55 55 100%

It can be said that considering the findings of the present research in residential space and within its dimensional framework, design and establishment of spaces that provide games and help physical activities of children when they are at home will help increasing the potential of their creativity. In the structural space of home, game-making at home is possible by using design principles which can be taken from plants and design of natural views in the residential space as well as maximum use of natural light considering design criteria and use of water characteristics inside and outside the spaces of residential spaces. These principles promote physical activity of the child for playing by motivating the feelings that occur in the natural environment. All these principles and procedures can be applied to the walls and floors and even interior and exterior ceilings of residential spaces including children's book rooms and open areas of residential spaces.

11. Conclusion and presentation of design principles

Based on the research findings, the following principles can be presented for design of residential spaces through the approach of promoting children's creativity in Iran.

11.1. Design and establishment of physical residential spaces by using motivating and game making walls.

• Providing the possibility of the presence of nature and natural elements including plants, green spaces, sky, stars, moon and sunlight in the residential space and design of green space and natural elements inside and outside the residential space by considering supervision principle.

• Architectural use of water by using its different characteristics (transparency and fluidity, movement, flow, noise) in the interior and exterior spaces and landscapes, as well as child's access without any reason.

11.2. Establishment of mental relaxation by designing and establishing secure residential spaces (physical security).

• Maximum use of natural light in residential spaces by using architectural procedures and facilities that natural light can offer to the designer.

• Use of natural materials in the interior and exterior walls of the residential spaces.

• Using specific forms that have tranquility feature and avoiding sharp walls.

• Designing the spaces that may accept supervision.

11.3. Designing and development of complicated and challenging spaces.

• Development of the spaces presenting a great quantity of visual and environmental data in the interior and exterior walls of the residential spaces.

• Development of walls of the residential spaces using natural compound materials using designing approaches and criteria.

• Using a combination of light and form in the interior and exterior walls of the residential space that creates space with physical and complicated variety.

11.4. Design and development of changeable and flexible residential spaces (spatial and shape flexibility)

• Furniture changeability and combination.

• Designing a free plan and space division using movable partitions.

• Extension of open and close spaces and establishment of usable inter-joints.

References

Amabile, T. (1996). Growing up creative. translated by doctor Hassan Ghasemzadeh, Parvin Azimi, Tehran, New World Publisher. Amabile, T. M. (1990). The social psychology of creativity. NewYork: Springer-Verlag.

Amabile, T. M., & Gryskiewicz, N. D. (1983). The creative environment scales: Work environment inventory. Creativity Research Journal, 2, (4), 231 - 253.

Azemati, H. R. (2009). Principles of design the urban parks base on enhancing the children's creativity. PhD thesis, School of Architecture and

Urban Studies, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. Barron, F. and Harrington, D.M. (1989). Creativity Intelligence and Personality. Annual Reviews Psych, 32, 439-476. Bohm, D. (1998). On creativity. edited by lee Nichol, Rout ledge, 8-11.

Cheng and Wang, W. (2001). Factors that facilitate creativity evelopment. The 7th European of congress of psychology, the barbican center, UK. Craft, A., McConnon., Land Paige-Smith, A. (2012). Child-initiated play and professional creativity: enabling four-year-olds' possibility

thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7, (1), 48-61. Daneshgarmoqaddam, Gh. & Bahraini h. Einy Far, A. (2011). The analysis of physical environment socialization affected by nature's perception in man-made environment. Fine-Arts magazine, architecture and urban planning, 45, 25-36.

Davoudi, M. (2006). Creativity in Life. Tehran, nashr.

Dubos, R. (1971). Man Made Environments. Journal of School Health, 41, (7), 339-343.

Falahat, M, Shahidi, s. (2010). Revolution of nature and its role in formation oof the architectural space. Fine-Arts magazine, architecture and urbanism, Issue. 42, 37-45.

Farah Pour bakhtiari, h. (2009). Children's Garden in the third millennium. MSc thesis, perspective, Shahid Beheshti University.

Guilford, J. P. (1968). Intelligence, creativity, and their education implications. California: Robert R. Knapp.

Hosseini, A.a. (2009). The nature of creativity and its development methods. Razavi publisher, behnashr, Page 43.

Kamel-Nia, h.. Haghir, S. (2009). Patterns of landscape design in the Baby Friendly City. Baghe-e-Nazar Journal, 6, (12), 77-88.

Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Khosronejad, m. (1995). elementary education, creativity and socialization; attempt to resolve this paradox. Proceedings of primary education and its place in the community, Isfahan.

Krippner, S. (1999). Dreams and creativity. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.). Encyclopedia of creativity, Vol. 1, 597-606, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Kristensen, T. (2004). The physical context of creativity. creativity and innovation management, 132, 89.-Ackerman, D. (1991). A natural history of the senses. New York: Vintage.

Lang, J. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: The role of behavioral sciences in environmental desighn. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.

MacKinnon, D. W. (1962). The nature and nurture oof creative talent. American Psychologist. 17, (7), 484-495.

McCoy, J. M., & Evans, G. W. (2002). The Potential Role of the Physical Environment in Fostering Creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 14, (3), 409-426.

Nasabi. f. (2012). The perception model of visual quality in traditional homes: Housing in Bushehr Old Texture. Ph.D. dissertation, Architecture, Department of Architecture, University of Science and Technology.

Rapoport, a. (2009). Theory, Culture and Housing. Translated by Emadi Allahyari, l. Abadi magazine, I6, 125-126.

Riahi, A. (2001). The role of play in developing children's creativity. Tehran:published by parnian.

Robins, C.J., Leigh, I.W. and Welkowitz, J. (1991). Impact of communication on depressive vulnerability in deaf individuals. Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association, 23, 68-73.

Rogers, C. R. (1954). Toward a theory of creativity. In A. Rothenberg & C. Hausman (Eds.). The creativity question, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 296-307.

Runco, M. A. (2007). Creativity Theories and Themes: Research. Development and Practice, USA, Elsevier Academic Press.

Saif, .a. (2004). educational psychology. Agah nashr, Tehran.

Sarmad, Z. et al (2010). Research methods in the behavioral sciences. Tehran:Agah Publisher.

Shafayi, M., & Madani, R. (2010). Design of educational spaces for children according to the creativity model. Journal of Technology of Education, 4, (3), 215 - 222.

Shaki, M.h (2009). Factors affecting the growth of children's creativity. Second National Conference of Creativity Studies, Tehran, Iran.

Shibata, S., & Suzuki, N. (2004). Effects of an indoor plant on creative task performance and mood. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 45, (5), 373-381.

Stein, M. (1974). Stimulating creativity, Vol. 1 Individual procedures. New York: Academic Press.

Sternberg, R.J. (2001). What is the common thread oof creativity?. American Psychologist, 360:362.

Taylor, A. (1988). The ecology of learning environments for children. CEFPI J ournal, 26, (4), 23-28.

Thorisson, H. T. (2004). A framework for exploring the evolutionary roots of creativity. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ECCBR 2004), 179-190.

Torrance, E. P. (1981). The Torrance tests of creative thinking: Technical-norms manual. Princeton. NJ: Personnel Press.

Ulrich, R. S. (1993). Biophilia, biophobia, and nature landscapes. In S. R. Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis, Washington, DC: Island Press/Shearwater Books, 73-137.

Vernon, P.E. (1989). Nature-Nurture in creativity in glover. J.A, and other hand book of creativity, new york, plenum press.