Scholarly article on topic 'Foreign Gastronomic Lexicon in Linguistic Environment in the Conditions of Globalization'

Foreign Gastronomic Lexicon in Linguistic Environment in the Conditions of Globalization Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Ismailova Nurgul, Suleimenova Eleonora, Belentschikow Renate

Abstract This article deals with foreign borrowings in the sphere of gastronomy of the Kazakh language. The study was carried out among citizens of Kazakhstan and students of the faculty of philology of Kazakh national university. The study presents the overall results of the study of the latest foreign words in the Kazakh language. Analysis of foreign borrowings use in the gastronomic discourse and in speech of informants shows that there is a big gap between them. Despite of that foreign words are included into the Kazakh language dictionary, their level of semantic acquisition is quite low.

Academic research paper on topic "Foreign Gastronomic Lexicon in Linguistic Environment in the Conditions of Globalization"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 105 (2013) 333 - 343

AicE-Bs2013London Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies University of Westminster, London, UK, 6-8 September 2013 "From Research to Practice"

Foreign Gastronomic Lexicon in Linguistic Environment in

the Conditions of Globalization

Ismailova Nurgul , Suleimenova Eleonora, Belentschikow Renate

Faculty of Philology, Literary Studies and World Languages, _Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan_


This article deals with foreign borrowings in the sphere of gastronomy of the Kazakh language. The study was carried out among citizens of Kazakhstan and students of the faculty of philology of Kazakh national university. The study presents the overall results of the study of the latest foreign words in the Kazakh language. Analysis of foreign borrowings use in the gastronomic discourse and in speech of informants shows that there is a big gap between them. Despite of that foreign words are included into the Kazakh language dictionary, their level of semantic acquisition is quite low.

© 2013The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selection andpeer-review underresponsibilityofCentreforEnvironment-Behaviour Studies(cE-Bs),FacultyofArchitecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Linguistic environment; foreign gastronomic lexicon; globalization

1. Introduction

The modern researchers, Linguists and Methodologists, Sociologists, Psychologists, associate the linguistic environment state with the great stream of borrowed lexicon flooded into the Kazakh speech. The rise of a number of the foreign words and the increase of intensity of their use are one of the brightest signs of the modern speech. Impact of the loan process on the modern educational environment is diverse. For organic existence in the environment filled with loans, person has to orient freely in a wide stream of new words. Good language taste and language competence are necessary for this orientation, in particular, knowledge of foreign languages and ability to use this knowledge for the communicative activity in the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +7 727-377-33-39 (13-29); fax: +7 727-377-34-75. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.035

native language. The loan is a mean of cultural interaction, mean of introduction to foreign culture. After gaining its independence Kazakhstan took its prominent place in economic, educational, cultural and diplomatic space as a sovereign state. In its own turn, the Kazakh language has been taking part in the globalization process as a state language in order to identify its place in the result of man-triggered development in the world as Internet and social network, information and other type of technology, mass media, cellular communication and others. Alongside this, on the cross-cultural and consumption basis the Kazakh language is quite active in borrowing foreign words of different fields like culinary and gastronomy, fashion and textile, entertainment industry, music, arts, sports, youth movement, as well as new technology.

The intensification of cross-cultural contacts accelerated the process of borrowing. Elements of the traditional cuisine of different nations are actively transported and partially assimilated into Kazakh culture. This process is supported by the media, the strong development of restaurants and cafes of national cuisine, as well as new technologies preservation and storage of foods. Thanks to the latter it became possible to enter valuable seafood, vegetables, fruits, oils and thus diversify the table dishes of them into the diet of the Kazakh people. In the result of the globalization process, foreign words of gastronomy enter the contemporary Kazakh language faster and easier than before; gastronomy vocabulary is widely borrowed without control not only by Kazakh, but many other languages through new food names, culinary recipes, restaurant and cafe menus, TV programs, special pages of newspaper and magazines, as well as endless websites of consumption market. The gastronomy tradition formed by national-directional and idiomatic forms of the Kazakh language proved to be open for cross-cultural transmission of gastronomy discourse. The gastronomy discourse of the Kazakh language forms several groups including exotic fruit and vegetables, spices and names for nuts.

The globalization process intensifies the market economy; nowadays supermarket shelves are full of food, fruit and vegetables, berries and nuts imported from different corners of the world. Alongside with the artifact, their names are also imported. At first, the names enter the passive vocabulary, later on they start to be used by some people as sellers, chefs, authors of recipes, custom service officers and alike. Thus, including gastronomy units into dictionaries and their linguistic analysis became one of the unsolved problems of the contemporary linguistics. These problems are urgent for the theory and practice of the contemporary Kazakh language as well as gastronomy loan words allow identifying the linguistic mechanism of wide spread entering of foreign vocabulary into the Kazakh language. Lexical units collected from culinary websites, lexicography resources and newspaper and magazines in Kazakh allow making the conclusion about the mutual relation of inner and outer linguistic factors of the process of cross-cultural entering and linguistic adaptation of foreign vocabulary of the modern Kazakh language. The importance of the research work is defined by the process of foreign vocabulary entering and the intensification of interest into the original culture of loan words.

2. Literature review

Any foreign word reflects the modern shape of the society and meet the requirements of the integrated society. Process of globalization has dramatically altered government policies with unprecedented effects on societies and cultures, ecosystems and health. Such occurrences precipitated a search for new economic, cultural, and political options in the face of conflicting world views (Aleya Abdel-Hadi, 2012). As foreign vocabulary is usually first met on mass media, it is quite reasonable to start from analyzing the linguistic purism of these information means. Despite the fact that adherents of linguistic purism oppose the entering words of foreign origin and try to translate them, they are quite helpless in implementing this process. It is because it is quite difficult to control the ways of foreign words entering the language. We reckon that it is not convenient to isolate a language from outer changes as borrowed words enlarge the

vocabulary and: consequently, it obtains the progressive character. Numerous new words entered the language may be left outside the use or, on the contrary, become inseparable and active units of the vocabulary. The lexical layer of any language undergoes great changes. According to V.V. Kolesev, each generation accepts about two thousand loan words at its time (Kolesev, 2001).

Linguists relate the phenomenon of borrowings with the globalization, namely with the extra linguistic factors. It is out of doubt that English as a lingua franca influence on every each language in the world and change vocabulary system of a language taking part in the cross-cultural communication.

The past decades have changed the status of former borrowed innovations: most of them have become an integral part of the vocabulary of an educated native Kazakh language speaker. At the same time, new borrowings are the object of ongoing public debate. A huge number of loan words, having appeared in a language, (about 30,000 in the past 15 years) make the speakers to protect it from invasion by the "foreign bodies". Y.D. Apresyan considers abuse of borrowings the hallmark of "half-educated language proficiency" (Apresyan, 1992). Y.N. Karaulov emphasizes that "the introduction of foreign words comes from laziness of mind, reasoning conservatism of a speaker and writer, a reluctance to "perk up" the resources of the native language and look into his storerooms, sometimes, however, it results from the desire for elitism in the text, from pride of knowing foreign languages in front of others who do not know them. All these are petty human weaknesses that are amenable to educative and awareness impact" (Karaulov, 1995).

The vocabulary is a linguistic structural layer the most open for borrowing loan words. It is quite evident that social factors never cease influencing on the development of vocabulary. When linguists start expressing their opinions on the impact of social factors, they, at first, name new words emergence.

In his monograph "Foreign word in a context of the modern social life" L. P. Krysin stresses on the necessity to study loan words from a sociolinguistic perspective as loan words are accepted as a linguistic object reflecting various social opinions (Krysin, 1996). He also makes a stress on multiplied character of loan words and borrowing process. The scientist considers that it is insufficient to study loan vocabulary only from a linguistic perspective in order to disclose the whole image of loan vocabulary in a language accepting them. In G.V. Pavlenko's work "The problems of loan words acquisition", he studies the acquisitions stages of words of English origin in various linguistic structural levels. A questionnaire conducted among university students demonstrated that only ten out of twenty words of foreign origin used in newspaper pages and registered in an explanatory dictionary of Russian had been acquired up to 80-90%. Only 30-50% of respondents knew the connotation of seven words while three words were unknown for them (Pavlenko, 1999).

The speaker's attitude towards alien's word is embodied in the perception of borrowings. Problems of dialogic, organically linked with the possibilities of interpretation of "foreign word" have been key in many interdisciplinary researches like cultural, philosophical, cognitive, psychological and linguistic itself in the last decade. In contrast of "own - alien", as noted above, socio-linguistic aspects of speech behavior of a native speaker are reflected. As the writer Z. Zhuravleva noted exactly, foreign words are "mysterious and fresh, in some irrational way they already ascribe us to "the whole civilized community" by his presence among us and, most importantly, they do not have roots in our culture" (Zhuravleva, 1998).

Of course, the problem of replenishment of the vocabulary by borrowed words is not new. The intensification of the borrowings occurs in a period of rapid social, political and economic changes associated with globally significant areas of science. One should distinguish between the natural tendency of people to the international community and the desire to preserve the richness and traditions of their native language. At different periods of the language history one or the other tendency wins.

Exposing the inner workings of borrowings, B.A. Serebrennikov says: "It is not correct to consider that borrowings will certainly fill the "empty space" in the language, or certainly, that they will finally replace

the old, "own", and the primordial element. Borrowing may be caused by the need to differentiate the values in a cognitive adequate transfer of a structure, and so forth. "At the same time, "every language is characterized by its own degree of intolerance to borrowings (a kind of "linguistic chauvinism"), to a large extent related to the extra linguistic attitudes of society" (Serebrennikov, 1988). It is often well-mastered loan words seem more acceptable than the native lexical units to a native speaker.

The process of activation of borrowings is particularly intensive in the newspaper discourse that reflects not only the objective increasing demand in naming new realities or clarification of already existing notions, but also special psychological, ideological preferences on the perception of foreign words as a more socially relevant. In the choice of lexical items, including a preference for foreign-language word to Kazakh, the value orientation of the language person is reflected. In an interview linguist V. Zhivov called borrowing "symbolic language capital of human", indicating that it belongs to a particular language interlayer. Borrowings are activated when the national culture is discredited (Zhivov, 2006).

"One of the sources of attraction of foreign words is exotic nature of forms. Culturally distant, "strange" for a fashion object is always positively stained. This remoteness compensates temporary intimacy. Therefore, in the corpora of buzz words new loan words, which in combination with the subjective feeling of novelty attach aesthetic modality of the unusual word to the word, are abundant" [Vepreva, 2006].

The result of the abuse borrowed vocabulary often becomes information "emptiness" of the material and thus its complete uselessness, as for the majority of readers borrowings remain obscure, especially new ones, which are not yet reflected in dictionaries and references. This should be considered in order to achieve successful communication, especially in the field of education.

The fact that borrowings, actively used in different areas of speech, are unclear or half-clear for many native speakers, makes the study of their place in the vocabulary the problem not only the linguistic and psycholinguistic, but common educational and even social.

Sociolinguistic study of loan words entering a language shows that the age, educational level and specialty of the representative of a language accepting loan words influence on this process. It was identified that the older the recipient, the higher his negative opinion on loan words. The higher is the educational level, the more words of foreign origin are used. Humanitarians compared with specialists of other fields are more resistant to loan words, while a specialist may not pay attention to loan words of his field unaware of their origin and have a negative attitude towards loan words of other fields and everyday communication.

Many studies, observations of teachers and psychologists strongly suggest that the level of assimilation of borrowings, most of which are often used not only in journalism and scientific style, but also in everyday speech, is low. In many cases, an approximate knowledge of the meaning of the word is observed, where only some components of meaning or a part of semantic structure of an ambiguous word are acquired. One cannot disagree with the fact that when the excessive use of foreign vocabulary begins to acquire a mass character, the semantic closeness of many of the new borrowings complicates the communicative act and violates the speech quality and largely affects the loss of efficiency of communication. Contemporary media demonstrates many cases of unjustified use of borrowings, excluding the upcoming understanding of the reader, without orientation on his vocabulary.

Introducing foreign words, which have not become internalized language borrowing and having well-defined Kazakh equivalents, into a text without the need for them can cause communication interference.

Social and psychological reasons hold a special place among the factors that contribute to such a massive and relatively easy penetration of foreign language neologisms in our language. Many native speakers believe foreign word more prestigious compared to the corresponding word of the native language.

Thus, the rapid growth of borrowing in the last decade to a large extent determines the speech portrait of a young citizen of Kazakhstan. On the one hand, this is manifested in a regular mined internationalization of terminology of modern science, in introducing to modern technology (particularly revealing the rapid enrichment of that part of the lexicon, which is related to computer technology), on the other hand, in unjustified Americanization of everyday speech.

The impact of borrowing on the modern educational environment is diverse. For organic existence in an environment filled with borrowings, one must navigate freely in the broad stream of new words. Good taste of the language and language competence (in particular, knowledge of foreign languages and the ability to use this knowledge to communicative activities in their native language), and also personal settings (on the one hand, respect for the native language, awareness of language as a major factor national culture, on the other hand, an understanding that borrowing is a means of cultural interaction, the means of initiation to a foreign culture) are necessary for this orientation.

Of course, excessive and inappropriate use of foreign words is unacceptable, but the excesses and impropriety are harmful and the use of each word. Of course, no linguistic scholars nor journalists and writers do have to sit idly watching impassively as the language is filing up with foreign words. But the ban is not the correct and meaningful measure to solve this problem. Systematic and painstaking scientific and educational activities are necessary; whose ultimate goal is education of good linguistic taste. A good taste is the main condition for the proper and appropriate use of language tools, like foreign, borrowed, and one's own vocabulary.

3. Methodology

A statistical research design by means of experimental and survey were used to answer the research questions. The population of the study consists of students of Kazakh national university, Faculty of Philology, Literary Studies and World Languages, Almaty and representatives of four regions of Kazakhstan. The age span is between 16-33, including man - 31,3%, women - 68,7%. Respondents who gave non response to the "'sex" answer question are 4%. The total number of respondents is 220. Division of respondents according to regions of Kazakhstan is the following: Southern Kazakhstan - 50 people, Western Kazakhstan - 50 people, Northern Kazakhstan - 50, and Eastern Kazakhstan - 50. Number of Philology faculty students is 20.

The respondents are specialists of various fields as linguists, energetics, economists, translators, journalists, techinicians, mathematics, historians, lawyers, doctors of medicine and alike, who have completed high and higher Kazakhschools.

4. Research instrument

The research instrument is a questionnaire, where 220 respondents between 16 and 33 years old took part. This age limit was selected taking into account the fact that a linguistic system is constantly changing, and these changes are usually reflected in speech activity of a new generation. Numerous experiments demonstrate that linguistic material is first introduced among the youth and then spreads to other age layers of a society. Names of exotic fruit and vegetables are widely used in everyday speech of linguistic staff and youth.

The questionnaire has the following tasks for the respondents: time limit is 10-15 minutes, directory or any other sources are prohibited to use, consulting or discussing with other respondents are also banned. The questionnaire contains a list of words and application rules. The scope is limited only by exotic fruit and vegetables as it is impossible to cover all gastronomy vocabulary of foreign origin. Words are given separately without any context.

The questionnaire respondents are asked to complete the following tasks:

• To mark if the word is familiar or unfamiliar;

• To mark if the respondent use or does not use the given word in everyday speech;

• To group the word according to the headings.

5. Data collection and analysis

The questionnaire aims at solving the following tasks:

• To evaluate foreign words of gastronomy according to their level of novelty;

• To define the use differences between men and women;

• To define the frequency rate of foreign words depending on the gender of the respondents;

The results of the first task above mentioned allow making the conclusion on the degree of novelty of foreign words of gastronomy. To identify the level of it is necessary to divide the number of negative answers to the total number of answers.

The purpose of the second task is to define the frequency rate of use by the speakers of the recipient language. The frequency rate of foreign words is calculated by dividing the number of positive answers to the total number of answers. The third task suggests respondents to group the lexical items under given headings and dedicated to identifying the respondents' knowledge about new gastronomy words. The explication gained from this task allows making the conclusion on the respondents' personal knowledge about concrete meaning of each lexical item, even if they use them in everyday communication. This information is necessary to compare the information kept in the linguistic mind of representatives of a recipient language with the dictionary meaning of foreign words in identification of foreign units. The results were then analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

6. Findings and discussions

In the result of the experiment among Kazakh speaking 16-33 year old group 1 male and group 2 female respondents demonstrates that the first group has 17% of words of highest novelty, 20% of words of high novelty, 14% of words of intermediate level of novelty, 14% of words of low novelty, and 32% of words which have "zero" level of novelty. The second group marked 8% of words as the newest, 23% of words as new, 11% of words as of intermediate level of novelty, 14% of words as less new, and 41% of words as of "zero" level of novelty. Unfamiliar and less frequent words are higher in the first group compared with the second group; this shows that gastronomy vocabulary is less active among men than women. Those words which are new in the word stock of the Kazakh language have the same rate in both groups. Absolutely new gastronomy vocabulary for both groups is "mangostin " - mangostin, "pecan " -pecan, "tamarillo" — tamarillo, "batat" - sweet potato, "marakuya" - passion fruit and "porei" - leek are absolutely unfamiliar for women.

Foreign words of gastronomy less familiar for both groups are "artichok" - artichoke, "kolrabi" -kohlrabi, "kress-salat" — garden cress, "lichi" - litchi, "pâtisson"- bush pumpkin, "pomello" - pomelo, and "sparzha " — asparagus for men, and "batat" — sweet potatoes, "po rei" - leeks for women.

Words of intermediate level familiar for both groups are "papaya" - papaya, "broccoli" - broccoli, "avocado" - avocado, "keshu" — cashew, "flnik" - dates for men, "marakuya" - passion fruit, "sparzha " - asparagus for women.

Both groups are familiar with the words as "apelsin"- orange, "ananas"-pineapple, "baklazhan" -eggplant, "banan" — banana, "kivi" — kiwi, "cocos"- coco, "hurma"-persimmon, "limon"- lemon, "mango" - mango, "mandarin" - tangerine, "fiinduk" - filbert while the most frequent words among women are "greipfrut" — grapefruit, "kynzhyt" — sesame, and "redis"-garden radish.

Table 1. The frequency of use of foreign words in speech by two groups of respondents

Words of highest activeness in use

Names Respondents of the group I (men) Names Respondents of the group II (women)

+ Total number of answers Frequency coefficients + Total number of answers Frequency coefficients

Orange 96,9 100,0 0,96 Eggplant 97,0 99,3 0,97

Banana 95,2 98,4 0,96 Banana 96,2 98,6 0,97

Persimmon 93,6 100,0 0,93 Orange 95,5 98,6 0,96

Lemon 93,7 100,0 0,93 Pineapple 93,3 97,8 0,95

Pineapple 93,6 100,0 0,93 Tangerine 94,0 98,5 0,95

Eggplant 93,6 100,0 0,93 Lemon 94,1 99,3 0,94

Tangerine 90,5 98,4 0,91 Kiwi 94,0 99,3 0,94

Kiwi 84,1 96,8 0,86 Persimmon 93,3 99,3 0,93

Coco 76,2 95,2 0,80 Coco 84,3 97,1 0,86

Words of high activeness in use

Filbert 68,2 93,6 0,72 Filbert 73,1 94 0,77

Mango 66,7 95,2 0,70 Garden radish 63,5 93,3 0,68

Grapefruit 62,7 93,3 0,67

Mango 59,8 96,3 0,62

Words of intermediate activeness in use

Sesame 52,4 96,8 0,50 Sesame 52,2 94,0 0,55

Lime 49,2 96,8 0,50 Cashew 49,2 89,6 0,54

Grapefruit 42,9 87,3 0,49 Lime 50,0 91,8 0,54

Date 42,9 88,9 0,48 Date 48.5 91,1 0,53

Garden radish 42,9 90,4 0,47 Fig 50,7 94,1 0,53

Fig 41,2 93,6 0,44

Words of low activeness in use

Cashew 34,9 90,4 0,38 Avocado 31,3 91,8 0,34

Avocado 35,0 96,8 0,36 Asparagus 26,9 86,5 0,31

Broccoli 27,0 90,4 0,29 Passion fruit 23,8 91,1 0,26

Litchi 27,0 95,2 0,28 Broccoli 23,8 88,8 0,26

Papaya 19,0 85,7 0,22 Papaya 20,1 87,3 0,23

Artichoke 19,0 93,6 0,20 Garden cress 20,9 89,5 0,23

Garden cress 17,5 87,3 0,20 Litchi 20,2 89,5 0,22

Kohlrabi 18,0 88,1 0,20

Leek 17,9 85,8 0,20

Words of "zero" activeness in use

Kohlrabi 17,4 87,3 0,19 Mangostin 17,2 86,5 0,19

Mangostin 17,5 90,5 0,19 Artichoke 13,8 87,3 0,15

Bush pumpkin 17,4 88,9 0,19 Pomelo 13,4 86,6 0,15

Asparagus 15,8 87,3 0,18 Bush pumpkin 12,7 88,0 0,14

Pomelo 14,3 87,3 0,16 Sweet potato 10,4 86,6 0,12

Sweet potato 14,3 90,4 0,15 Pecan 10,5 86,6 0,12

Passion fruit 12,7 87,3 0,14 Tamarillo 7,4 85,8 0,08

Pecan 12,7 87,3 0,14

Leek 9,6 88,9 0,10

Tamarillo 6,4 85,7 0,07

By analyzing the frequency use of foreign words of gastronomy, it is possible to state that the second group used more frequently compared with the first group of respondents. Words of highest activeness in use among respondents are orange, pineapple, eggplant, banana, kiwi, coco, persimmon, lemon, tangerine, and the most frequently words are almost equal in the first and second groups of respondents.

Words of high activeness in use are filbert, mango, radish, and grapefruit.

Words of intermediate activeness in use among both groups are sesame, lime, date, figs, and radish among men, cashew among women.

Words of low activeness in use among men and women are avocado, broccoli, litchi, while artichoke and cashew less active in men's speech, asparagus, passion fruit, kohlrabi, and leeks are less active in women's speech.

Mangosteen, bush pumpkin, pomelo, sweet potatoes, pecans, and tamarillo are considered as foreign words of 'zero' frequency in use among both gender groups, while kohlrabi, asparagus, passion fruit, leeks, are not used by men, artichoke is not used by women.

So, the most active words in use are equal for both groups while words with "zero" level of use differ slightly; mangosteen, bush pumpkin, pomelo, sweet potatoes, pecans, tamarillo, for both groups, kohlrabi, asparagus, passion fruit, leeks, are not used by men, artichoke is not used by women.

The result of the study directed to identifying the level of acquisition of gastronomy vocabulary in speech of the 16-33 year old Kazakh speaking youth is demonstrated in the following table. Foreign words are ordered according to their level of acquisition, viz., starting from the most frequent ones and ending with the less frequent ones, which allow grasping the whole picture. It means that it is impossible to give the certain demonstrator of acquisition in speech.

Table 2. The level of acquisition of gastronomy vocabulary by the respondents

Names Semantic acquisition of foreign words by the respondents (%) Level of use of foreign words in speech (%) Level of acquisition of foreign words in speech

Tamarillo 10,5 7,0 Zero

Pecan 14,5 11,0 Zero

Sweet potato 20,5 11,5 Zero

Pomelo 22,5 13,5 Zero

Bush pumpkin 25,5 14,0 Zero

Artichoke 21,0 15,0 Zero

Leek 16,5 15,0 Zero

Mangostin 15,5 17,0 Zero

Kohlrabi 23,5 17,5 Zero

Papaya 49,5 19,5 Zero

Garden cress 32,0 19,5 Zero

Passion fruit 35,5 20,0 Low

Litchi 32,5 22,0 Low

Asparagus 38,5 24,0 Low

Broccoli 39,5 24,5 Low

Avocado 56,0 32,0 Low

Fig 66,5 42,5 Medium

Cashew 58,0 44,0 Medium

Date 56,5 46,0 Medium

Lime 67,0 49,0 Medium

Sesame 75,5 51,5 Medium

Radish 74,0 56,0 Medium

Grapefruit 71,5 56,0 Medium

Mango 85,0 61,0 High

Filbert 83,0 71,0 High

Coco 95,0 81,5 Very high

Kiwi 98,0 90,5 Very high

Tangerine 98,0 93,0 Very high

Pineapple 99,5 93,5 Very high

Persimmon 98,5 93,5 Very high

Lemon 96,5 94,0 Very high

Orange 99,0 96,0 Very high

Banana 98,5 96,0 Very high

Eggplant 98,0 96,0 Very high

It is possible to conclude the following based on the results of the questionnaire. A part respondent is familiar with some of foreign words of gastronomy. For example, 95 % of the respondents use the following words quite frequently in speech: tangerine, pineapple, persimmon, orange, banana, eggplant, mango, filbert.

The most difficult words are tamarillo, pecans, sweet potatoes, pomelo, bush pumpkin, artichoke, leeks, mangosteen, kohlrabi, papaya, garden cress, passion fruit, litchi, asparagus, broccoli, and avocado, while the following words hold an intermediate position: figs, cashews, date, lime, sesame, radish, grapefruit.

The third task is dedicated to grouping the given words under the headings. The aim of this task is to identify the degree of knowledge of the given words and to compare the gained information with the dictionary definitions.

83,0 % of respondents grouped tangerine, 89,5 % grouped pineapple, 72,0 % grouped persimmons, 85,5 % grouped lemon, 90,5 % grouped orange, 88,0 % grouped banana, 69,5 % grouped mango under the heading "fruit" while 81,5 % grouped eggplant under vegetables, and 52,5 % grouped filberts under nuts.

One of the most difficult tasks for the questionnaire respondents was grouping fruit and vegetables. Only 8.0 % of the respondents grouped tomarillo, 16,5 % grouped pamelo, 28.5 grouped the mangostin34.0 % grouped passion fruit, 36,0 % grouped papaya, 49,5 % grouped avocado, 19,0 % grouped litchi under fruit while 21,0 % grouped bush pumpkin, 22,5 % grouped sweet potatoes, 19,5 % grouped artichoke, 23,0 % grouped leeks, 13,0 % grouped kohlrabi, 31,5 % grouped garden cress, 28,0 % grouped asparagus, 36,0 % grouped broccoli under vegetables, and only 12,0 % of respondents grouped pecan as nut. Lexical items holding intermediate position were grouped by the questionnaire respondents as the following: 54,0 % grouped lime and 62,0 % grouped grapefruit under fruit, 65,0 % grouped radish under vegetables, 40,5 % grouped sesame, 32,0 % grouped cashew under nut. And 10,0% of the respondents grouped figs under berries while 19,0 grouped it under fruit. Alongside this, 20,5 of respondents grouped date as fruit, and 24,5 % grouped it under nuts.

In contrastive analysis of the questionnaire results shows that a part of foreign vocabulary of gastronomy is widely used in everyday speech of Kazakhstan population while such lexical items as artichokes, sweet potatoes, broccoli, cashews, kohlrabi, litchi, mangostin, tamarillo, figs are less met in everyday speech.

7. Conclusion

Variability in the allocation of words with different degrees of assimilation in four regions of Kazakhstan is quite commensurate; a noticeable discrepancy between them noted in relation to the last three groups. It allows supposing that, for example, southern citizens do not know names of "exotic" fruits and vegetables very well, and these products themselves do not comprise their diets.

Language system is not rigid, it is a continual device, and it is natural that during its implementation the intermediate events of syncretic character arise; in specific cases, signs of one degree of development of borrowings join signs of another degree.

The process of acquisition of foreign vocabulary at different levels of the language system is not primarily uniform; relatively small number of words are mastered evenly, that is characterized by the same degree of development at all levels of the language system.

It is believed that the inclusion of foreign language vocabulary borrowing in the Kazakh language is a sign of tightness in his language and is usually perceived as an indication of the full development of the borrowing. Foreign words included in the Dictionary of Kazakh language show that some of them have not yet reached even the average degree of development.

In speech word functions in different conditions. Analysis of foreign language borrowings use in the gastronomic discourse and in speech informants shows that there is a big gap between them. Despite the fact that such words as sweet potato, bush pumpkin, leaks, papaya, garden cress, asparagus, given in a questionnaire, are included into the Kazakh language dictionary, their level of semantic acquisition is quite low. In order to consolidate foreign words in the Kazakh language, it is necessary to include them into dictionaries; while in order to acquire them in a speech, informants need to use them in a speech frequently.

Intensive penetration of products, courses, elements table manners of other nations enriches and promotes not alienation, but rather an increasing interest in other cultures and interchange.


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