Scholarly article on topic 'Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions'

Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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{"Sub tropical region" / Strawberry / "Maturity stage" / "Postharvest quality" / "Shelf life"}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — M. Moshiur Rahman, M. Moniruzzaman, Munshi Rashid Ahmad, B.C. Sarker, M. Khurshid Alam

Abstract The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April) of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3days of storage.

Academic research paper on topic "Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions"

JSSAS 124 3 June 2014 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 10

Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences (2014) xxx, xxx-xxx

King Saud University Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences

www.ksu.edu.sa www.sciencedirect.com

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SAUDI SOCIETY FOB A ULTUItAL SCIENCES

2 FULL LENGTH ARTICLE

4 Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality

5 and shelf-life of strawberry genotypes growing

6 Q1 in subtropical regions

7 Q2 M. Moshiur Rahman a *, M. Moniruzzaman b, Munshi Rashid Ahmad

8 B.C. Sarker a, M. Khorshid Alam c

9 a Pomology Division, Horticulture Research Centre (HRC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Centre (BARI), Gazipur 1701,

10 Bangladesh

11 b Physiology Section, Horticulture Research Centre (HRC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Centre (BARI), Gazipur

12 1701, Bangladesh

13 Q3 c Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Centre (BARI), Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh

14 Received 27 February 2014; revised 19 May 2014; accepted 21 May 2014

20 21 22 23

KEYWORDS

Sub tropical region; Strawberry; Maturity stage; Postharvest quality; Shelf life

Abstract The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December-April) of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh strawberries of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content, while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

© 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.

* Corresponding author. mobile: +880 1716838586. E-mail address: moshiur.bari@yahoo.com (M.M. Rahman), URL: http://www.bari.gov.bd (M.M. Rahman). Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.

29261667,

1. Introduction 25

Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) are rich in ascorbic 26

acid, secondary metabolites, simple sugars and acids (Perez 27

et al., 1997; Wang et al., 2002) but are highly worsening, with 28

soft texture, high softening rate and highly susceptible to 29

fungal attack (Shin et al., 2008). 30

1658-077X © 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.jssas.2014.05.002

JSSAS 124 3 June 2014 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 10

2 M.M. Rahman et al.

31 Appearance quality, firmness, and shelf life are important

32 from the point of view of consumer's choice. Consumers judge

33 the quality of fresh fruits on the basis of appearance and firm-

34 ness at the time of initial purchase (Kader, 1999). Shelf life and

35 fruit qualities fully depend on maturity stages. If strawberries

36 are harvested before optimum maturity its shelf life is extended

37 but nutritive value and quality become reduced. On the other

38 hand, fully matured fruits of strawberry possess high nutritive

39 value with limited shelf life. So, it is necessary to balance

40 between maturity stage and nutrient content of fruits.

41 Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit and harvested at dif-

42 ferent stages of maturity, depending on the cultivar and mar-

43 ket preference. However, maturity indices as well as

44 harvesting time mostly varied with cultivars (Kafkas et al.,

45 2007; Kader, 1999) and to some extent with location and

46 weather conditions. Unripe fruits are more prone to shriveling

47 and physical injuries, and have poor flavour quality when ripe.

48 Overripe fruits become soft and mealy with insipid flavour

49 soon after harvest. Fruits picked either too early or too late

50 in their season are more susceptible to postharvest physiolog-

51 ical disorders than fruits picked at the proper stage of maturity

52 (Kader, 1999). Ripe strawberries have high soluble solids, total

53 sugars, total ascorbic acid, and pH, and have low firmness and

54 acidity. Thin cell walls in strawberry fruits lead to fruit soften-

55 ing and high level of susceptibility to physical fruit injuries

56 (Kader, 1991). Strawberries are highly perishable which is

57 accelerated under subtropical high humid climate of Bangla-

58 desh. Strawberries are susceptible to fungal decay, which is

59 speed up under subtropical high humid climate like Bangla-

60 desh. As it is a new crop in Bangladesh, no information is

61 available on maturity stages and post harvest quality.

62 Temperature management during storage is the single most

63 important factor in minimizing the deterioration of fruit qual-

64 ity and extending the shelf life of strawberry. However, in

65 Bangladesh most of the growers and retailers store their prod-

66 uct at ambient condition due to lack of cooling facility. Stor-

67 ing at ambient temperature makes postharvest management of

68 strawberries very difficult (Asrey et al., 2004), as higher stor-

69 age temperature results in higher respiration rates, which is

70 associated with reduction of fruit quality (Ayala-Zavala

71 et al., 2004). While, cultivar quality is defined by different

72 parameters, which unitedly gives an integral picture of selected

73 fruit. However, this research was undertaken to examine the

74 effect of maturity stage and cultivar on selected qualitative

75 parameters in strawberry fruits at ambient temperature and

76 determine the proper harvesting time so that optimum state

77 of their combination can be attained under sub tropical

78 climate.

79 2. Materials and methods

80 2.1. Site of the experiment and duration

81 The studies were carried out at the Fruit Research Farm of

82 Horticulture Research Centre in the Bangladesh Agricultural

83 Research Institute, (Latitude 23059' N, Longitude 90°24'

84 E, Altitude 14.33 m), Gazipur, Bangladesh during the winter

85 season (December-April) of 2010-2011 to 2011-2012. The

86 area belongs to sub-tropical zone having hot summers

87 (May-August) and mild winter (December-February).

Cumulative mean rainfall was about 119 mm during August- 88

May with an average of 82.9% relative humidity. The mean 89

maximum and minimum temperatures during cropping period 90

were 26.29 and 15.75 0C, respectively. Soil of the experimental 91

farm was clay loam, having pH 6.2 (slightly acidic), which was 92

low in organic carbon (0.95%), very low in available phospho- 93

rus (9 ppm) and low in potash (0.17 meq/100 g soil). The fruit 94

quality, chemical composition and nutritive value were 95

evaluated at the laboratory of Pomology Division, HRC and 96

Postharvest Technology Division, BARI. 97

2.2. Treatment of the experiment 98 The experiment consisted of two factors which were: 99

• Factor A: Three maturity stages viz. 1/3rd maturity, 2/3rd 100 maturity and full maturity stage. 101

• Factor B: Five germplasm viz. BARI Strawberry-1, Sweet 102 Charlie, Festival, Camarosa and FA 008. Therefore, treat- 103 ment combinations were 15 consisting of factor A and fac- 104 tor B. 105

2.3. Harvesting 107

Fruits were harvested at three different maturity stages deter- 108

mined on the basis of colour by eye estimation. The character- 109

istics of different maturity stages are given below: 110

Stages of maturity Surface colour Days after anthesis 114

1/3rd maturity stage Fruit surface turns 20 days ± 3 days 127

white to pink colour 119

2/3rd maturity stage Fruit surface turns 25 days ± 3 days 122

pink to red colour 123

Full maturity stage >80% of the fruit 30 days ± 3 days 12s

surface showing deep 127

red colour 128

Immediately after harvest, strawberries were sorted to elim- 131

inate damaged fruits. Fruits were selected on the basis of uni- 132

form size, shape and colour. 133

2.4. Experimental design 134

The experiment was carried out in a factorial completely ran- 135

domised design (CRD) with three replications. 136

2.5. Storage conditions 137

Uniform and more or less similar 15 fruits of each treatment 138

combination (three maturity stage of each germplasm) were 139

randomly selected for storage. Fruits were placed in each of 140

2 L plastic box having some holes, which were weighed before 141

and after keeping the fruits. Boxes were kept in ambient room 142

conditions (25 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% RH). Each treatment 143

contained 10 boxes of strawberries and kept in a separate desk. 144

Three replicated boxes were observed every day up to 60% 145

rotting for collecting data. 146

JSSAS 124 3 June 2014 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 10

Effect of maturity stages on postharvest quality and shelf-life of strawberry genotypes 3

147 2.6. Collection of data

160 161 162

180 181 182

184 Q5

200 201

Data were collected from the randomly selected five fruits of each replicate box every day. Data were recorded on the following parameters as described below:

(i) Loss of visual quality

The visual quality losses of fruits were determined by visual inspection on alternate days during the storage period on the basis of visible fruit surface damage including fungal decay. Fruits with visible mycelia growth and/or at least 1/3 damaged surface area including bruising, softening or easily ruptured skin surface were removed and the loss of fruit was determined as the percentage of the number of berries.

(ii) Weight loss of fruit

Strawberries were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and thereafter every alternate day during the storage period. Weight loss was expressed as the percentage weight loss of initial total weight.

(iii) Shelf life

Shelf life of the strawberries was determined by observing and judging the quality parameters like rotting, shriveling, incidence of diseases, etc. with respect to storage days. It was detected when most of the fruits under a treatment were still marketable.

(iv) Total soluble solids (TSSs)

Ten grams of pulp tissues was homogenised in 50 ml of distilled water for 2 min using a kitchen blender and filtered through a Whatman filter paper No. 2. The supernatant was collected in order to measure total soluble solids using a digital refractometer (Model NR151) and expressed as percentage.

(v) Total sugar

Total sugar content of strawberry pulp was determined calorimetrically by the following method describe by Jayaraman (1981).

Aliquot of 1 ml of pulp extract was pipetted into test tubes and 4 ml of the anthrone reagent was added to each of this solution and mixed well. Glass marbles were placed on top of each test tube to prevent loss of water through evaporation. Then the tubes were placed in a boiling water bath for 10 min, and then it was removed and cooled. A reagent blank was prepared by taking 1 ml of water and 4 ml of anthrone reagent in a tube and treated similarly. The absorbance of blue-green solution was measured at 620 nm in a colorimeter.

A standard curve of glucose was prepared from different standard glucose solution in different test tubes containing 0.0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ig of glucose respectively and the volume was made up to 1 ml with distilled water. Then 4 ml of the anthrone reagent was added to each test tube and mixed well. All these solutions were treated similarly as described above. Absorbance was measured at 620 nm using the blank containing 1 ml of water and 4 ml of the anthrone

reagent. The amount of total sugar present in the extract was calculated from the standard curve of glucose. Finally the percentage of total sugar was determined.

(vi) Titratable acidity

The titratable acidity expressed as citric acid (%) was determined by titration with 0.1 mol L_1 NaOH and pH 8.1 according to the method by Ranganna (1986).

(vii) Ascorbic acid content

For ascorbic acid measurement, 10 g pulp tissue was homogenised in 50 ml of 3% cold metaphosphoric acid (HPO3) using a blender for 2 min and filtered through a Whatman filter paper No. 2. The clear supernatant was collected for assaying ascorbic acid by 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol titration following the method of Ranganna (1986). Ten millilitres of aliquot was titrated with 0.1% 2,6-dichlorophenolindophe-nol solution until the filtrate changed to pink colour that persisted for at least 15 s and the titration volume of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol was recorded. Prior to titration 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol solution was calibrated by ascorbic acid standard solution. Ascorbic acid content was calculated according to the titration volume of 2,6-dichlorophe-nolindophenol and results were expressed as mg 100 g_1 fresh weight.

2.7. Statistical analysis

Two year's data of various parameters were pooled and analysed for analysis of variance according to Gomez and Gomez (1984) with the help of MSTAT-C programme. Means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Percent fruit decay

Fungal decay was the major contributor to the loss of strawberry quality and a considerable variation in percent fruit decay was found due to various maturity stages (Table 1). Decay of 1/3rd and 2/3rd matured strawberries during day-1 were 0.88% and 3.00%, respectively, while during day-2 those were 10.20% and 18.60%, respectively. Decay of 1/3rd and 2/ 3rd matured fruit increased thereafter and reached 66.0% and 74.0%, respectively by the day-4 of storage. Fully matured fruit under ambient room temperatures showed 15.20% decay during one day after harvest and 55.60% decay by the second day of storage which sharply increased over time and reached up to 99.40% during the day 4. Decay incidence was found higher at fully ripe fruits than three-quarter ripe fruits (Nunis and Moris, 2002).

The high percentage of decay loss was found in FA 008 followed by BARI Strawberry-1 from day 1 to day 4 of storage. At day-2 decay of FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 was manifested with values 31.67% and 56.0%, respectively and this decay attained 83.33% and 82.33% after day-4, which were statistically higher than those of other germplasm. Among the germplasm, fruits of Camarosa showed minimum fruit

210 211 212

220 221 222

250 Q6 251

M.M. Rahman et al.

Table 1 Effect of maturity stages and germplasm on percent decay and weight loss of strawberry during storage at ambient

temperature.

Treatment Percent fruit decay Weight loss (%)

Day-1 Day-2 Day-3 Day-4 Day-1 Day-2 Day-3 Day-4

Main effect of maturity stages

1/3rd matured 0.88 c 10.20 c 24.40 c 66.0 c 2.58 c 4.46 c 6.00 c 7.03 c

2/3rd matured 3.0 b 18.60 b 45.80 b 74.0 b 3.56 b 7.10 b 9.85 b 11.82 b

Fully matured 15.20 a 55.60 a 87.40 a 99.40 a 4.42 a 7.58 a 11.42 a 14.56 a

Levels of significance

Main effect of germplasm

BARI Strawberry-1 10.17 b 30.67 b 56.0 b 82.33 a 3.70 a 6.80 a 9.40 a 11.53 a

Sweet Charlie 5.83 c 27.67 c 52.33 c 80.0 b 3.53 b 30 d 8.97 b 11.0 b

Festival 4.83 d 26.0 d 49.67 d 77.33 c 3.40 c 6.55 b 8.85 bc 10.82 bc

Camarosa 3.63 e 24.67 e 46.67 e 76.0 c 3.23 d 6.38 c 8.73 c 10.67 c

FA 008 11.17 a 31.67 a 58.0 a 83.33 a 3.73 a 6.87 a 9.50 a 11.67 a

Levels of significance

Interaction effect of maturity stage and germplasm

¡¡3rd matured

BARI Strawberry-1 1.50 J 12.0 k 28.0 l 70.0 d 2.70 h 4.70 f 6.20 fg 7.10 f

Sweet Charlie 0.50 k 10.0 l 24.0 m 66.0 e 2.60 hi 4.40 g 6.00 gh 7.00 f

Festival 0.50 k 9.00 m 22.0 n 62.0 f 2.50 hi 4.30 gh 5.80 hi 6.95 f

Camarosa 0.40 k 8.00 n 18.0 o 60.0 f 2.40 i 4.10 h 5.70 i 6.90 f

FA 008 1.50 J 12.00 k 30.0 k 72.0 cd 2.70 h 4.80 f 6.30 f 7.20 f

2/3rd matured

BARI Strawberry-1 7.00 f 20.00 g 50.0 g 77.0 b 3.80 e 7.20 d 10.00 cd 12.50 d

Sweet Charlie 5.00 g 18.00 h 45.0 h 74.0 c 3.60 ef 7.10 de 9.80 de 11.50 e

Festival 4.00 h 17.00 i 42.0 i 71.0 d 3.40 fg 7.05 de 9.75 de 11.30 e

Camarosa 2.50 i 16.00 J 40.0 J 70.0 d 3.20 g 6.95 e 9.60 e 11.10 e

FA 008 8.00 e 22.00 f 52.0 f 78.0 b 3.80 e 7.20 d 10.10 c 12.70 d

Fully matured

BARI Strawberry-1 22.00 b 60.00 b 90.0 b 100.0 a 4.60 ab 8.50 ab 12.00 a 15.00 a

Sweet Charlie 12.00 c 55.00 c 88.0 c 100.0 a 4.40 bc 4.40 g 11.10 b 14.50 b

Festival 10.00 d 52.00 d 85.0 d 99.0 a 4.30 cd 8.30 bc 11.00 b 14.20 bc

Camarosa 8.00 e 50.00 e 82.0 e 98.0 a 4.10 d 8.10 c 10.90 b 14.00 c

FA 008 24.00 a 61.00 a 92.0 a 100.0 a 4.70 a 8.60 a 12.10 a 15.10 a

Levels of significance ** ** ** ** * ** ** **

CV (%) 3.36 1.30 1.87 1.46 2.57 1.40 1.35 1.67

Figures having the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly by DMRT

Mean significance at 1% and 5% level, respectively.

** Levels of significance.

decay (24.67%) during the second day of storage, and it attained 76.0% during the fourth day of storage which was significantly lower than those of others.

Fruit decay of all the germplasm increased sharply over the storage period. When 2/3rd matured fruits were stored the rate of fruit decay was higher than 1/3rd matured fruits. Considering 2/3rd matured fruits throughout the storage period, maximum decayed fruits were recorded from FA 008 which ranged from 8.0% to 78.0% during day-1 to day-4, respectively followed by BARI Strawberry-1 (7.0-77.0%, respectively), while minimum was from Camarosa (2.50-70.0%, respectively).

At full maturity, FA 008 had maximum and Camarosa had minimum fruit decay throughout the storage period. When fully matured fruits of FA 008 were stored, only 24.0% decayed fruits were observed at day-1 and at day-4 100% fruits were perished. In contrast, fully matured fruits of Camarosa showed a range of 8.0-98.0% fruit decay during day-1 to day-4, respectively. From this study it was revealed that percent fruit decay was the highest in fully matured fruit, and there was a wide variation in fruit decay among the

germplasm. According to Kader (1991), as strawberry fruit ripens, an increase in anthocyanin content is accompanied by a decrease in firmness and chlorophyll content. The declining effects of firmness enhance fruit rotting. Similar type of variation was observed by Kader (1991). El-Kazzaz et al. (1983) observed a drastic increase in disease development on fruits in the presence of 20 ppm C2H4 (ethylene), which suggests that increased C2H4 leads to enhanced fungal decay.

3.2. Weight loss of fruits

Weight loss from the strawberries gradually increased over time and was affected by the stages of maturity (Table 1). After 2 days of storage at room temperature (25 ± 1 0C) a clear increase in weight loss was observed. Fully matured fruits suffered and had high rate of weight loss as compared to 2/3rd and 1/3rd matured fruits. During day-2, fully matured fruit lost 7.58% weight, while at the same time, 1/3rd matured fruit lost only 4.46% weight, during day-4 the weight loss of 1/3rd and fully matured fruits were 14.56% and 7.03%, respectively.

JSSAS 124 3 June 2014 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 10

Effect of maturity stages on postharvest quality and shelf-life of strawberry genotypes 5

294 Fruits of different germplasm under study exhibited a pro-

295 gressive weight loss during storage and it varied among germ-

296 plasm. The germplasm FA 008 had the highest rate of weight

297 loss as compared to those of other germplasm throughout the

298 storage period and it ranged from 6.87% to 11.67% during

299 day-2 to day-4 of storage. In contrast, fruits of Sweet Charlie

300 significantly reduced the loss and it ranged from 3.0% to

301 11.0% during day-2 to day-4 of storage. From this study it

302 was revealed that Sweet Charlie, Festival and Camarosa

303 showed lower weight loss with a better visual quality than

304 those of FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1.

305 Significant variation in weight loss among strawberry germ-

306 plasm as well as maturity stages were found throughout the

307 storage period. When 1/3rd matured fruits were stored, the

308 weight loss varied between 2.70% and 7.20% after 1-4 days

309 of storage for FA 008, respectively and it ranged from

310 2.40% to 6.90% after 1-4 days of storage for Camarosa,

311 respectively.

312 Q8 During storage of 2/3rd matured fruit FA 008 and BARI

313 Strawberry-1 suffered maximum weight loss during the storage

314 period and it was 3.80% during day-1 and 2.70% and 2.50%,

315 respectively during day-4 while Camarosa had minimum

316 weight loss and it was 3.20% during day-1 and 11.10% during

317 day-4.

318 In the present study it was found that weight loss is higher

319 in fully matured berries. The highest reduction was found in

320 FA 008. It was 4.70% during day-1 and increased up to

321 15.10% during day-4 while fully matured fruits of Camarosa

322 lost minimum weight which was 4.10% during day-1 and

323 14.00% during day-4. Among the germplasm, the rate of

324 weight loss was higher in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1.

325 This might be due to more succulence. Harvested fruits and

326 vegetables continue to respire and lose water to the environ-

327 ment, which cannot be replaced and weight loss occurs

328 (Thompson, 2003). The rate of water loss is largely controlled

329 by the storage temperature and humidity. Possibly, high rate

330 of transpiration at room temperature could be the major rea-

331 son for higher weight loss. Kumar et al. (1999) also reported

332 that storage duration and temperature had significant effect

333 on weight loss. Fruits of all the germplasm lost their weight

334 incessantly and it was noted maximum at fully matured stage.

335 According to Szczesniak and smith (1969), epidermis of straw-

336 berries consists of polygonal cell having larger stomata and

337 pith of strawberries consists of thin-walled cells often sepa-

338 rated during growth, leaving large cavities. The large cells

339 and thin cell walls in strawberry fruits contribute to their high

340 level of susceptibility to weight loss. Softening of the fruits as

341 they ripen involves thinning of cell walls and liquidification of

342 cell contents (Szczesniak and smith, 1969; Kader, 1991) which

343 lead to weight loss from fully ripe fruit.

344 3.3. Shelf life of fruits

345 Shelf life of fruits varied significantly (P 6 0.01) at different

346 maturity stages (Fig. 1). Fruits harvested at 1/3rd maturity

347 stage exhibited the highest shelf life (7.80 days), while fully

348 matured fruits had the lowest shelf life, which was only

349 2.40 days. The decrease in shelf life may have reflected

350 degradation and solubilization of cell wall polyuronides and

351 hemicelluloses associated with fruit softening (Huber, 1984).

352 This result supported the findings of Shin et al. (2008) who

found that shelf life of fruit at the white tip (less matured) stage 353

was higher than that of the red ripe (more matured) stage. 354

Among the genotypes, shelf life of fruits varied signifi- 355

cantly. Fruits of Camarosa had the maximum shelf life 356

(5.67 days) which was statistically identical to those of Festival 357

(5.33 days) (Fig. 2). The fruits of BARI Strawberry-1 and FA 358

008 had the lowest shelf life (4.33 days) (Fig. 2). Nunes et al. 359

(2006) found a wide variation in shelf life of strawberry fruits 360

among the varieties which was in agreement with the present 361

findings. 362

Significant differences (P 6 0.01) in shelf life of fruits were 363

observed for interaction effect of maturity stages and geno- 364

types (Fig. 3). The fruits of Festival and Camarosa harvested 365

at 1/3rd maturity stage exhibited the longest shelf life 366

(8.5 days) followed by FA 005 (7.0 days), while the fruits of 367

BARI Strawberry-1 and FA 008 showed the shortest shelf life 368

(7.0 days). At 2/3rd maturity Camarosa had the highest shelf 369

life (5.50 days) and BARI Strawberry-1 and FA 008 had the 370

lowest shelf life (4.0 days). On the other hand, fully matured 371

fruits of Camarosa also exhibited the highest shelf life 372

(3.0 days), while matured fruits of BARI Strawberry-1 and 373

FA 008 had the lowest shelf life (2.0 days) (Fig. 3). Shin 374

et al. (2008) stated the necessity of harvesting of less ripe fruit 375

to extend the storage period of strawberry irrespective of geno- 376

types. Strawberry harvested at three quarter red ripe stage can 377

be stored for a longer period with a better colour and firmness 378

than the fruit harvested at full red stage (Nunes et al., 2006). 379

3.4. Total soluble solids (TSS) 380

From this experiment it revealed that TSS content of fruits was 381

noted the highest (7.46%) in fully matured berries and it was 382

the lowest (6.13%) in 1/3rd matured fruits at fresh condition 383

and increased in all treatments during the storage period 384

(Table 2). Salamat et al. (2013) stated that, as fruit maturity 385

progresses and sugar content increases, total soluble solids will 386

also increase. The increase in soluble solid contents may be due 387

to hydrolysis of sucrose to invert sugars as reported by Bhatti 388

(1975) and Ullah (1990). The highest percentage of TSS was 389

obtained from fully matured fruits, followed by 2/3rd maturity 390

and the lowest from 1/3rd matured fruits throughout the stor- 391

age period. Nunis and Moris (2002) found significantly higher 392

TSS in fully red than in three-quarter coloured strawberry. 393

Changes in TSS at the storage period are due to respiration, 394

inversion of insoluble compounds to soluble forms and mois- 395

ture loss by evaporation (Miaruddin et al., 2011). Increase in 396

TSS observed in the present study is in agreement with the 397

report of Abdullah et al. (1985) and Tripathi et al. (1981). 398

The TSS percent in all the germplasm was increased during 399

the storage period. The initial TSS was noticed maximum in 400

Camarosa (7.33%) followed by Festival (7.27%) and mini- 401

mum in FA 008 (6.03%), during storage the increasing trend 402

of TSS content was similar, and after 3 days of storage it 403

was the highest in Festival (7.83%) followed by Camarosa 404

(7.80%), while the lowest TSS was found in FA 008 405

(7.07%). This result is in conformity with the findings of 406

Kafkas et al. (2007) who observed considerable variation in 407

TSS content among different genotypes. The maximum TSS 408

was noted in Osmanli (10.6%) followed by hybrid 12 409

(9.07%) and minimum in Camarosa (7.07%). Cordenunsi 410 et al. (2005) revealed that the effects of temperature on SSC Q9 411

JSSAS 124 3 June 2014 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 10

6 M.M. Rahman et al.

1/3rd matured

2/3 rd matured Maturity stage

Figure 1 Effect of maturity stages on shelf life of strawberry.

BARI Strawberry-1

Sweet Charlie

Festival Germplasm

Figure 2 Effect of germplasm on shelf life of strawberry.

V) 3 -

8.s 8.s т=г

1/3rd matured fruits

и BARI Strawberry-1 Q Sweet Charlie a Festival П Camarosa о FA 008

2/3rd matured fruits Maturity stage

Full matured fruits

Figure 3 Effect of maturity stage and germplasm on shelf life of strawberry.

412 can be affected by cultivar, which corroborated with the pres-

413 ent findings.

414 During storage TSS content was found to increase irrespec-415Q10 tive of genotypes (Table 2). In all the germplasm, TSS was

416 manifested with minimum at 1/3rd matured stage and attained

417 maximum at fully matured stage with a similar rising tendency.

During 1/3rd maturity stage initial TSS attained the highest in 418

Sweet Charlie and Festival (6.50%), while it was the lowest in 419

FA 008 (5.60%). After 3 days of storage the TSS was increased 420

in all the germplasm and it arrived at maximum in Festival 421

(7.50%), while it was minimum in FA 008 (6.80%). At 2/3rd 422

maturity stage, fresh fruits of Festival exhibited maximum 423

Full matured

Ï 3 -

FA DD8

Effect of maturity stages on postharvest quality and shelf-life of strawberry genotypes

Table 2 Effect of maturity stages and germplasm on TSS and total sugar of strawberry during storage at ambient temperature.

Treatment TSS (%) Total sugar (%)

Fresh Day-1 Day-2 Day-3 Fresh Day-1 Day-2 Day-3

Main effect of maturity stages

1/3rd matured 6.18 c 6.44 c 6.80 c 7.20 c 4.05 c 4.12 c 4.21 b 4.31 c

2/3rd matured 6.80 b 7.10 b 7.36 b 7.62 b 4.30 b 4.41 b 4.57 ab 4.64 b

Fully matured 7.46 a 7.70 a 7.93 a 8.28 a 4.40 a 4.60 a 4.71 a 4.80 a

Levels of significance "

Main effect of germplasm

BARI Strawberry-1 6.50 c 6.80 c 7.10 c 7.43 c 4.03 d 4.20 d 4.36 b 4.54 d

Sweet Charlie 6.93 b 7.23 b 7.50 b 7.83 b 4.28 c 4.43 c 4.53 ab 4.64 c

Festival 7.27 a 7.57 a 7.83 a 8.07 a 4.63 a 4.75 a 4.86 a 4.94 a

Camarosa 7.33 a 7.60 a 7.80 a 8.10 a 4.37 b 4.49 b 4.60 ab 4.71 b

FA 008 6.03 d 6.20 d 6.58 d 7.07 d 3.94 e 4.01 e 4.13 b 4.09 e

Levels of significance

Interaction effect of maturity stage and germplasm

1/3rd matured

BARI Strawberry-1 6.00 f 6.30 e 6.70 f 7.10 f 3.90 k 3.95 J 4.02 4.12 h

Sweet Charlie 6.50 e 6.70 d 7.00 de 7.30 ef 4.05 i 4.10 i 4.18 4.30 g

Festival 6.50 e 6.80 d 7.20 d 7.50 e 4.40 e 4.48 e 4.58 4.65 e

Camarosa 6.30 e 6.60 d 6.90 ef 7.30 ef 4.10 h 4.17 gh 4.28 4.43 f

FA 008 5.60 g 5.80 f 6.20 g 6.80 g 3.80 l 3.88 k 3.98 4.04 i

2/3rd matured

BARI Strawberry-1 6.50 e 6.70 d 6.90 ef 7.10 f 4.00 J 4.15 h 4.35 4.65 e

Sweet Charlie 7.00 d 7.40 c 7.70 c 7.90 d 4.30 f 4.44 f 4.55 4.67 e

Festival 7.30 c 7.60 c 7.80 c 8.00 d 4.70 b 4.78 b 4.89 4.99 b

Camarosa 7.20 cd 7.50 c 7.70 c 8.00 d 4.40 e 4.52 d 4.65 4.78 d

FA 008 6.00 f 6.30 e 6.70 f 7.10 f 4.10 h 4.18 g 4.39 4.10 hi

Fully matured

BARI Strawberry-1 7.00 d 7.40 c 7.70 c 8.10 cd 4.20 g 4.50 de 4.70 4.85 cd

Sweet Charlie 7.30 c 7.60 c 7.80 c 8.30 c 4.50 d 4.75 c 4.86 4.94 b

Festival 8.00 b 8.30 b 8.50 b 8.70 b 4.80 a 5.00 a 5.10 5.18 a

Camarosa 8.50 a 8.70 a 8.80 a 9.00 a 4.60 c 4.78 b 4.88 4.92 bc

FA 008 6.50 e 6.50 de 6.85 ef 7.30 ef 3.91 k 3.96 J 4.02 4.12 h

Levels of significance ** ** ** ** ** ** ns **

CV (%) 1.54 1.71 1.28 1.40 1.50 1.52 7.98 1.50

Figures having the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly by DMRT.

'ns' mean significance at 1% and non significance at 5% level, respectively.

Levels of significance.

TSS (7.30%) followed by Camarosa (7.20%), and it was minimum in FA 008 (6.00%) and these TSS contents of all the studied germplasm attained the highest at the end of storage and it was found maximum in Festival and Camarosa (8.00%), while it was minimum in BARI Strawberry-1 and FA 008 (7.10%). At fresh condition, fully matured strawberries of Camarosa contained maximum TSS (8.50%) and it was increased to 9.00% after 3 days of storage, while fresh fruits of FA 008 contained minimum TSS (6.50%) and after 3 days of storage it was 7.30%. Salamat et al. (2013) stated that total soluble solids were influenced by variety and stage of maturity.

3.5. Total sugar

Total sugar content of fruits was found to be higher at full maturity stage (4.40%) and it was increased in storage condition and attained 4.80% after 3 days of storage (Table 2). Fresh fruits of 1/3rd maturity stage exhibited a lower total sugar content (4.05%) and it was increased with storage duration and reached up to 4.31% after three days of storage.

Fresh fruits of Camarosa contained the highest amount (4.63%) of total sugar followed by Festival (4.37%), while FA 008 exhibited the lowest (3.94%) total sugar content. After 3 days of storage Festival resulted in maximum total sugar content (4.94%), while FA 008 contented minimum sugar content (4.09%). Kafkas et al. (2007) found that total sugar content of different strawberry germplasm varied significantly and recorded the highest (69.60 g kg-1) in cv. Osmanli and the lowest in hybrid 2 (45.00 g kg-1).

Total sugar content of all the germplasm was noted minimum at 1/3rd matured stage and attained maximum at fully matured stage (Table 2). During 1/3rd matured stage, fresh fruits of Festival exhibited a higher sugar content (4.40%) followed by Camarosa (4.10%) and their total sugar content were 4.65% and 4.43%, respectively after 3 days of storage. Fresh fruits of FA 008 produced a lower amount of total sugar content (3.80%) and it went up to 4.04% after 3 days of storage. At 2/3rd maturity stage, fresh fruits of Festival had maximum total sugar content (4.70%) followed by Camarosa (4.40%), and it was noted minimum in BARI Strawberry-1 (4.00%).

M.M. Rahman et al.

After 3 days of storage, the total sugar content followed similar trend in the same germplasm i.e. Festival that showed maximum sugar content (4.99%) followed by Camarosa (4.78%), while the lowest was in FA 008 (4.10%). Fully matured fresh strawberries of Festival contained maximum total sugar content (4.80%) and it was 5.18% after 3 days of storage, while fresh fruits of FA 008 contained minimum total sugar (3.91%) which attained 4.12% after 3 days of storage. Cordenunsi et al. (2005) showed the strawberry cultivar Oso Grande, as a more stable cultivar in terms of texture up to 30% increase in total sugar during storage, this finding to some extent supported the present investigation. Watson et al. (2002) stated that sugar compound of strawberry varied considerably between the fruits and harvests might be the reason for apparent discrepancies between the total soluble sugar contents.

3.6. Titratable acidity

Titratable acidity of fresh fruits was recorded higher at 1/3rd maturity stage (0.89%) and decreased in storage and becomes 0.78% at 3 days of storage (Table 3). Fully matured fresh fruits

showed lower titratable acidity (0.80%) and it reached 0.72% 481

after three days of storage. In a previous study, similar results 482

were obtained with strawberry stored at 10 and 20 0C temper- 483

ature (Nunes and Morais, 2002). 484 The titratable acidity of fresh fruits of BARI Strawberry-1 Q11485

and FA 008 attained a higher titratable acidity (0.89%) and 486

after 3 days of storage it was 0.78% in BARI Strawberry-1 fol- 487

lowed by FA 008 (0.81%), compared to a lower titratable acid- 488

ity (0.80%) in fresh fruits of Festival and Camarosa. After 489

3 days of storage, titratable acidity of Festival was 0.71% 490

and 0.74% in Camarosa. Kafkas et al. (2007) recorded a signif- 491

icant variation in titratable acidity of different strawberry 492

germplasm, where hybrid 5 exhibited the highest (0.973%) 493

and hybrid 6 exhibited the lowest (0.602%) titratable acidity, 494

which corroborated the results of the present investigation. 495

The titratable acidity of all the germplasm was manifested 496

with maximum at 1/3rd matured stage and decreased gradually 497

and became minimum at fully matured stage. During 1/3rd 498

matured stage, fresh fruits of BARI Strawberry-1 and FA 499

008 show a higher titratable acidity (0.93%) and after 3 days 500

of storage FA 008 had 0.83% titratable acidity, followed by 501

Table 3 Effect of maturity stages and germplasm on pH and titratable acidity of strawberry during storage at ambient temperature.

Treatment Titratable acidity (%) Ascorbic acid (mg/100 g)

Fresh Day-1 Day-2 Day-3 Fresh Day-1 Day-2 Day-3

Main effect of maturity stages

1/3rd matured 0.89 a 0.85 a 0.80 a 0.78 a 63.60 b 64.60 b 64.90 b 63.00 a

2/3rd matured 0.84 b 0.81 b 0.78 b 0.77 b 68.40 a 68.30 ab 66.80 a 63.00 a

Fully matured 0.80 c 0.77 c 0.74 c 0.72 c 72.40 a 71.20 a 67.80 a 59.60 b

Level of Significant " " "

Main effect of germplasm

BARI Strawberry-1 0.89 a 0.85 a 0.80 b 0.78 b 59.00 c 58.67 d 57.17 d 50.33 d

Sweet Charlie 0.83 b 0.80 b 0.77 c 0.75 c 72.00 ab 72.00 ab 71.33 a 67.00 a

Festival 0.80 c 0.78 c 0.73 e 0.71 e 75.00 a 733 a 72.83 a 68.33 a

Camarosa 0.80 c 0.77 c 0.75 d 0.74 d 68.00 b 68.00 bc 66.83 b 63.67 b

FA 008 0.89 a 0.85 a 0.83 a 0.81 a 66.67 b 66.17 c 64.33 c 60.00 c

Levels of significance "

Interaction effect of maturity stage and germplasm

¡¡3rd matured

BARI Strawberry-1 0.93 a 0.90 a 0.84 ab 0.82 a 54.00 55.00 56.00 e 54.00 gh

Sweet Charlie 0.88 b 0.86 bc 0.82 bc 0.79 bc 68.00 69.00 70.00 c 68.00 bc

Festival 0.83 c 0.78 ef 0.71 gh 0.70 e 70.00 71.00 69.50 c 65.00 cd

Camarosa 0.88 b 0.83 d 0.79 d 0.77 c 64.00 65.00 65.00 d 65.00 cd

FA 008 0.93 a 0.88 ab 0.85 a 0.83 a 62.00 63.00 64.00 d 63.00 de

2/3rd matured

BARI Strawberry-1 0.88 b 0.85 cd 0.80 cd 0.81 ab 60.00 59.00 56.50 e 52.00 h

Sweet Charlie 0.83 c 0.78 ef 0.75 ef 0.74 d 72.00 73.00 74.00 ab 70.00 ab

Festival 0.80 d 0.78 ef 0.75 ef 0.73 d 76.00 77.00 75.00 a 73.00 a

Camarosa 0.79 d 0.77 f 0.75 ef 0.74 d 68.00 67.00 64.50 d 60.00 ef

FA 008 0.89 b 0.86 bc 0.84 ab 0.82 a 66.00 65.50 64.00 d 60.00 ef

Fully matured

BARI Strawberry-1 0.85 c 0.80 e 0.76 e 0.72 de 63.00 62.00 59.00 e 45.00 i

Sweet Charlie 0.78 de 0.76 f 0.73 fg 0.72 de 76.00 74.00 70.00 c 63.00 de

Festival 0.76 ef 0.77 f 0.73 fg 0.70 e 79.00 78.00 74.00 ab 67.00 b-d

Camarosa 0.74 f 0.72 g 0.70 h 0.70 e 72.00 72.00 71.00 bc 66.00 cd

FA 008 0.85 c 0.80 e 0.79 d 0.77 c 72.00 70.00 65.00 d 57.00 fg

Levels of significance ** ** ** ** ns ns ** **

CV (%) 2.97 2.66 2.60 2.52 6.92 5.50 2.93 3.64

Figures having the same letter(s) in a column do not differ significantly by DMRT.

'ns' mean significance at 1% and non significance at 5% level, respectively.

Levels of significance.

JSSAS 124 3 June 2014 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 10

Effect of maturity stages on postharvest quality and shelf-life of strawberry genotypes 9

502 BARI Strawberry-1 (0.82%). Fresh fruits of Festival recorded

503 a lower amount of titratable acidity (0.83%) and it was 0.70%

504 after 3 days of storage. At 2/3rd maturity stage, titratable acid-

505 ity was found higher in the fresh fruits of FA 008 (0.89%) fol-

506 lowed by BARI Strawberry-1 (0.88%), and lower titratable

507 acidity resulted in Camarosa (0.79%). After 3 days of storage

508 the titratable acidity was noted the highest in FA 008 (0.82%)

509 followed by BARI Strawberry-1 (0.81%) and was noted the

510 lowest in Festival (0.73%). Fully matured fresh strawberries

511 of BARI Strawberry-1 and FA 008 contained maximum titrat-

512 able acidity (0.85%) and after 3 days of storage FA 008 exhib-

513 ited the highest titratable acidity (0.77%) followed by BARI

514 Strawberry-1 and Sweet Charlie (0.72%), while fully ripe fresh

515 fruits of Camarosa contained minimum titratable acidity

516 (0.74%) which was reduced to 0.70% after 3 days of storage.

517 3.7. Ascorbic acid content

518 The ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits was recorded the high-

519 est at fully matured stage. Strawberry contained 72.40 mg

520 ascorbic acid per 100 g of pulp and it was decreased in storage

521 and reached 59.60 mg 100 g_1 after 3 days of storage. Fresh

522 fruits of 1/3rd maturity stage contained minimum amount of

523 ascorbic acid (63.60 mg 100 g_1) and it was increased with

524 storage and reached maximum in 2nd day of storage

525 (64.90 mg 100 g_1) then decreased and it became 63.0 mg

526 1 00 g_1 in the 3rd day of storage.

527 The ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits of Festival was

528 noted to be the highest (75.00 mg 100 g-1), followed by Sweet

529 Charlie (72.00 mg 100 g-1), while fresh fruits of BARI Straw-

530 berry-1 had the lowest ascorbic acid (59.00 mg 100 g_1). The

531 ascorbic acid content of fruits gradually decreased in storage

532 and after 3 days of storage, fruits of Festival contained maxi-

533 mum ascorbic acid (68.33 mg 100 g_1) followed by Sweet

534 Charlie (67.00 mg 100 g-1), while BARI Strawberry-1 con-

535 tained minimum ascorbic acid (50.33 mg 100 g_1) at 3rd day

536 of storage. Haffner et al. (1997) found a wide variation in

537 ascorbic acid content which ranged from 30 to 70 mg

538 1 00 g_1 in fifteen strawberry cultivars.

539 Ascorbic acid content of all the germplasm attained mini-

540 mum at 1/3rd matured stage and maximum at fully matured

541 stage. Strawberry fruits of 1/3rd maturity stage exhibited a

542 minor change in ascorbic acid content. The ascorbic acid con-

543 tent in fresh fruits increased slightly up to 2nd day of storage

544 after that it decreased. During 1/3rd maturity stage, fresh fruits

545 of Festival showed high amount of ascorbic acid (70.0 mg

546 1 00 g~*) followed by Sweet Charlie (68.00 mg 100 g~*) and after

547 3 days of storage the highest amount of ascorbic acid was

548 recorded in Sweet Charlie (68.00 mg 100 g_1). Cordenunsi

549 et al. (2005) stated the fluctuations in the ascorbic acid content

550 and observed that ascorbic acid synthesis took place during 551Q12 the storage period. Room temperature-stored Campineiro and

552 Oslo Grand fruits showed no significant change in ascorbic acid

553 content while Dover showed a distinct decrease, while change in

554 ascorbic acid content during storage on different germplasm is

555 in agreement with Lee and Kader (2000) and Wills et al.

556 (19 84). According to Lee and Kader (2000), cultivar type can

557 be an important factor affecting vitamin C content.

558 The fresh fruits of BARI Strawberry-1 showed lower amount

559 of ascorbic acid (54.00 mg 100 g_1) and it was slightly increased

up to 56.00 mg 100 g_1 after 2 days of storage. At 3 days of stor- 560

age 100 g fruits of BARI Strawberry-1 contained 54.00 mg 561

ascorbic acid. At 2/3rd maturity stage, fresh fruits of Festival 562

exhibited the highest ascorbic acid content (76.00 mg 100 g_1) 563

followed by Sweet Charlie (72.00 mg 100 g-1), compared to min- 564

imum in BARI Strawberry-1 (60.00 mg 100 g_1). After 3 days of 565

storage the ascorbic acid content offruits exhibited similar trend 566

and the same germplasm i.e. Festival exhibited maximum ascor- 567

bic acid content (73.00 mg 100 g_1) followed by Sweet Charlie 568

(70.00 mg 100 g-1), while it was the lowest in BARI Straw- 569

berry-1 (52.00 mg 100 g_1). Fully matured fresh strawberries 570

of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content 571

(79.00 mg 100 g_1) and it was 67.00 mg/100 after 3 days of stor- 572

age, on the contrary fully ripe fresh fruits of BARI Strawberry-1 573

contained minimum ascorbic acid (63.00 mg 100 g~*) which was 574

reduced to 45.00 mg 100 g_1 after 3 days of storage. Otta (1984) 575

found that the ascorbic acid was decreased (65-44 mg/100) in the 576

samples stored at room temperature. The decrease in ascorbic 577

acid was due to prolonged storage at high temperature. 578

4. Conclusion 579

Considering weight loss, fruit decay and change in nutritive 580

value during storage, it was concluded that fruits of the germ- 581

plasm under study harvested at 2/3rd maturity stage was suit- 582

able for storing at room temperature up to 3 days. One third 583

matured fruits showed a longer shelf life under room temper- 584

ature but the quality degraded. The decay of fruit and reduc- 585

tion of ascorbic acid content were more pronounced at fully 586

matured stage, on the other hand weight loss of fruits occurred 587

sharply when harvesting was done at 1/3rd maturity stage, 588

regardless of germplasm. 589

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