Scholarly article on topic 'Communicative Structure of the Word'

Communicative Structure of the Word Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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{Communication / conversation / "cognitive linguistics" / socio-psychology / pragmatics / "functional styles" / addressee / adressant}

Abstract of research paper on Psychology, author of scientific article — Nuraly Otegen, Ziyadam Abduljanova Indira Rgizbaeva

Abstract This paper examines that, the Word which was talked is a very difficult communicative structure. A word before being talked, viz.before becoming verbal there will be interest and addresser-author‘s aim about what to say (write), how to say (write), whom to tell (write). At first, especially in ratial communication, communication which is not face to face with addressee adumbrated a future word in the mind of speaker. If the word (conversation) is axial, the speaker inquires into addressee: feature of the years, the social status, familiar or unfamiliar, and, etc.

Academic research paper on topic "Communicative Structure of the Word"


Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 114 (2014) 551 - 558

Available online at



Social and Behavioral Sciences

4th World Conference on Psychology, Counseling and Guidance WCPCG-2013

Almaty State Pedagogical University


This paper examines that, the Word which was talked is a very difficult communicative structure. A word before being talked, viz.before becoming verbal there will be interest and addresser-author's aim about what to say (write), how to say (write), whom to tell (write). At first, especially in ratial communication, communication which is not face to face with addressee adumbrated a future word in the mind of speaker. If the word (conversation) is axial, the speaker inquires into addressee: feature of the years, the social status, familiar or unfamiliar, and, etc.

© 2013 The Authors. PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selection and peer-review underresponsibilityof Academic World EducationandResearchCenter.

Keywords: Communication, conversation, cognitive linguistics, socio-psychology, pragmatics, functional styles, addressee, adressant;

1. Introduction

In response to this question, this paper develops some independent but complementary arguments. In communication thery the communication does not consist of only verbal period, it also consists of periods of before communication and after. Among these communications only the verbal period would be considered as formal language structure, but before communicative period is informal language structure.

In order to pronounce words properly the subject of the word shall have concept or education also language skills about communicative quality of the word as like grinding, accuracy of words, logicality of words. Explaining of the communicative quality of words on theoretical approach is one of the aims of research about culture of words.

In order to check out, characterize one well-known text's word quality and to achieve some reliable results, the daily routine carries out the connection between objective truth psychology, cognition, social, aesthetic, ethic etc. with not language importance.

Usually words that in high or low communicative qualities have own signs and forms of linguistic structure. These signs and forms are considered and concerned the general for all words which characterized as "good" or "bad". That is why there will be knowledge and concept as "s/he told well", "s/he has simple speech" or "s/he has folding speech" and "s/he is an orator" which faced in elementary level in language practice of member of language collective. Certainly, even an evaluating is subjective, but the language index of "good" or "bad" might be objective. And not only to accept them in home sphere or elementary level, but to raise them on scientific and terminological level is one of the duties of scince of culture of words.

Corresponding Author: Nuraly Otegen E-mail:

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.745

Representing Structure

The main means of intra personal relation is a language. A person will be under influence of environment, for this reason the person changes his mind and judgement. The main activity of these developments is a conversation. A conversation is a basic communication for human being. Without conversational relation there was not be macro envirenment which the major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organization's decision making, and affect its performance and strategies. These factors include the economic factors; demographics; legal, political, and social conditions; technological changes; and natural forces [1.38].

Conversation is a phenomenon which is carried out by language activities. With the help of language activity chages there are forms of conversation. Many scientists divide the conversation by form into two large directions. These forms serve equally in social and moral sides. Conversation does not stick out by outside character, but under different language activities sticks out by it's actual phenoumena.

If the written form of speaking has found out as individual material, most of them are orally decorated on domestic operating methods. There is no any material on orally to talk, it mostly comes true in sound type of wave, in the written form there are orders, in other words, there are written actions. It is saved on paper, paint or on electronic backgrounds. And also, this kind of speaking is considered as a keeper of well-known language norm. In Kazakh language internet communication facilities is big news in art of writing in speaking that took place on other languages. If the writing language was important in word distribution of artistic literature, official direction, scientific centre till now, and at present time a world communication is estimated specially.

People went down knees to tradition of talking in the written form through the internet communication. Because local texts are closely situated to the manner of what talks in the written form, communicators talk in the written form.

On word culture it is not enough to investigate the text on a clean language structure, because said (written) word is not only clean language structure. It is connected with true things, phenomenon, and case which have no language importance. Communication is not only verbal structure. A sketch begins from well-known ideas, opinions which are in type of sense through a language to on consciousness. Act of word, structure of a communicator's consciousness, doesn't end with getting down to language code and being an object through a language structure. Information must be adequate opened when a listener (reader) accepts a code and idea-opinion, sense, that were inlaid, on code. Therefore if we limit examining a language communication by a clean language structure, we can not evaluate a text's communicative quality objectively. That is why we should discuss a word communicative quality by a communication before being an object, being an object, after being an object. This is not limited only by text that is a result of an act of word, also communicator's factor, communicative situation are connected with a text. A participant in communication- word subjects, in other word, addresser and addressee, and language not importance talks, first, a word structure a situation, in other words, a social status of a word subjects, years feature, sex difference, acquaintance/unacquaintance, official\non-official language relation etc. circumstances; secondly, the main, cognitive consciousness, of a word structure, word subjects, also knowledge, understandings, haptic, think(concept, reason, an idea works out the total) etc. mutual connection basically is taken. It shows that theoretical questions touching upon the culture of a word follow fundamental concepts of communicative linguistics. [2]

Addressee in communicative relation, addressee factors

Pragmatic factor takes a special role on conversation relation. Pragmatic is addressee (speaker, listener), addresser (listener, reader) and conditions like influences on the state relations of the language structure.

Pragmatic is an act of word, attempt of a word and is direction that examines terms, circumstances, according to saying of, pragmatic is a science of language brands and participants of language. Pragmatic is not only language brand on all levels, also it is a parameters of conversation.Pragmatic shows language use in life, specifies that realize in collective experience. And this is connected with a law of a collective life, by a psychology of

language user, by conformities, by theirs cognitive basis, cultural stereotypes and with a national tradition [3. 165225.].


The theory of pragmatic knows any talk as a speaker's social actions. That is why an addressee creates and assists his words in communicative aim, in strategy with a listener connection on a situation, on motion of case on mutual tactics. Associating with it a word subject in pragmatic theory (addressee) is taken as a category.

The main criterias of a communication are considered when a speaker reaches his aims, investigating a listener (interpretation), correct his ideas.

Mutual influences between communicators, forming a special communicative competence is an important circumstance in act of word forming. Comparing with addressee' word and speaker's word explains direction of word lies down on communicative competence. For example, in the saying this book is interesting speaker could mean illoqual meaning: also, for example, street is cold: speaker could mean illoqual meaning

- It is "cold"

- should "go to the house"

- "going to the and drink a hot tea" etc. addressee word, that was talked; case; intonation of coming forward [4]; compares knowledge area circumference.

In Kazakh language typology of saying that is used in communicative situation is one of the duties of pragmatic investigations. Especially there are a lot of sayings that have no straight meaning in Kazakh language tradition connected with ethic, social, cultural features. For example, to the word, "Are you healthy? " does not answer "Healthy". In the language tradition if we answer "Healthy" it is not etiquette of word.

To Groups of word, opening pragmatic meanings of words that became separated from, inherent brand takes a special importance in a culture of word. In the saying "Are you going, too?" -"too" has a special meaning, the semantic "What is matter to you there?"- "Why don't you calm down" - "Why" do not mean similar. Expresses mean "Disdaining", etc. It is semantics of word component axiology that stood on covering force. As "I delivered the truth, difficult ", to "Delivering a truth got down much to forces," "was very difficult" - semantic component, that stood on covering force.

Place of a word discipline, emphase, intonation, maybe necessary words, that talk, corresponding to the position of syntactic, etc.

To choose linguistic facilities come forward speakers talked things, influences to the thing dialogue participation. Dakes' personal space time types are not only direction to an addressee, also it means speakers' expresses, price, which will give to the thing, to the phenomenon. Dakes' evaluation component twirls to significant meaning: sense to sense: "it is this, my only it, my presence - it, it naming exhibition", etc.

Addressee is a report addressee, reader or listener, central category and fundamental concept of pragmatics, culture, psycholiguistics, social linguistics, psychology of word, cognitive linguistics.

Addressee carries out extremely important role on connection. It influences mutually communicative active to act, because and an addressee, coming forward using form on different level, sense, leans to that.

Speaker can make different unities in communicative quality in accordance with social "I", intellectual "I", psychological "I" personality of addressee, to direction.

Act of addressee connected with an aim of relation, with kinds of dialogues. Nowadays the theory of dialogue Bahteen N.N. [5], Language and its functions Yakubinskii L.P. [6.17-18.] conception was taken. Researchers show dialogue collaboration, to talk, underline, a connection that comes true between two sides (communicators).

Act of addressee is to be active, to show himself, to pay attention, to form acceptance frames.

Adresseer guide a strategyof understanding. A strategy, coming forward what talks is one after one talks brand chain idea understands, idea sieve conducts(by interpretation) closes. To make a character of listener helps to gradation of words.

Nowadays problems connected with addressee investigate "Dialogue," "Interpretation" "Language Competence". Especially to read the text's implectures and understanding texts bear a special interest. [7.2] Parracellias structures, allusion, metaphors influencing the addressee potency are very strong.

Addresser is subject of the word, speaker, and central category of pragmatics and organizer of communication process. In the case of subjective and ability to appreciate the role of alteration of a text is very important.

As the role of word subject in alteration of a text you can see language stereotypes in the independence of word using.

The status of a word subject varies depending on the aim of communication, the direction of addressee, and the communication situations. What the author sees, author's estimate, and participation of the author are legally. Personal assessment, a vision of any phenomenon that is to show him is one way of influencing to the addressee. If the text without "author's face" it will be like an unowned text. "Orphan text" reduces the interest of the addressee. Conversely utterance the opinion of an author will show his quality as person truthfulness. It influences to solidarity with the addressee according to principle of cooperation in the word act theory. Concepts

The authors are aimed to convey his point of view to the addressee. To fully understanding of a text by recipient, author should takes into account the level of education of the recipient. The recipient's amount and level of knowledge in the sphere of communication should be enough. It includes the level of thesaurus, unit of verbal thinking, and the content of knowledge about the truth.

Image of the addressee, the socio-political processes in today's society that is political freedom, freedom of speech, political pluralism, and etc. has brought changes to Kazakh discourse formed new types and forms of discourse. It is clear that this will affect to the formation of the person through the newspaper and journalistic text.

In this case you can see that addressee-language person should be considered by media discourse. Because socio-psychological stereotypes in daily domestic readers/spectators/listeners' consciousness reflected in the texts of the media.

The text is not only created by author, text is the interaction of linguistic thoughts of an author and the recipient. Text is the result of communication, and also unity of communication. To take into account the factor of addressee is the condition profitability of the word acts.

Due to this the notion "portrait of communication" (model) has formed. Necessary system of information in order to show the quality of the addressee as the person who perceives the text is called Portrait of communication. The conceptual system and thesaurus of an author should be equal with the recipient's conceptual system and thesaurus through the text.

To the solving the communicative task author must take into account the specific category of listeners / readers.

In this regard, the author will be forced to create a communicative image of the future recipient in advance. But honestly author could not have exact information about his/her future recipient. So the author has to be limited with the communicative quasi-portrait of the recipient.

The communicative quasi-portrait means the author's subjective understanding about his/her future recipient. Interpreting Structure

According to Yu. M. Lotman, the text is submitted with the ideal audience in parallel. Any text has its own audience. Mastering the language and cultural codes of text, during the analyzing the text we can identify to what audience it was directed.

Identifying the audience depends on memories in the mind. We can expect a text audience defending the general memories of the author and the recipient.

Through the text, we can determine the position of the author and on this basis we can update the text audience. [8] The text is forming the interlocutor of dialogue to the similar audience, also adapting of the audience to the text needs entering to the world of text.

"Every text ... contains what this could mean the image of the audience, and this image of the audience actively affects the real audience, becoming for it some normalizing code", - said the Yu.M. Lotman. [9.91] The dialogue between the text author and reader should be combined with the socio-psychological stereotypes as about their true life, truths about human social circle. They are combined when stereotypes will be common.

A stereotype is a fragment which is fixed on the mind as a mental picture, as fragment of the truth environment, as an invariant of the real world on the human mind.

The images and concepts of the form of a mental picture on the mind have a sign of the national mentality. Some stereotypes have the psychosocial sign. Stereotypes of consciousness stand in sight of text units. In media communication these stereotypes take into account to consider the factor of addressee.

Authors, not for himself but for the readers choose the words. In the opposite side of the author's word stays an addressee. Addressee can be a one person or many people. Although addressee may be different from the author in time and space or could be the same. Addressee can also be a targeted group (scientific conference, poetry event, lecture listeners in the sphere of child upbringing or health care and etc.) or untargeted group (e.g. meeting, gathering, meeting during the political action and etc.). The author's and readers' level of knowledge may be differing and they could be experts of different spheres. These are unspoken importance. They have a big influence to author-addressee. Communicator who can take into account these structures can adapt his/her structure of words to the factor of addressee. If it would not be the word cannot find the address and communication can be completed unfavorable. Taking into account the factor of addressee can influence to choosing the correct word structure. Addresser from the point of view of language before objective opinions and feelings conceptualize about age, gender, knowingness or unknowingness of addressee. This conceptualizing of addresser-author is included to the structure of communication. The factor of addressee is identifying the quality of communication as appropriate to say the word. The language structure of spoken/written word can be right and professional but if do not take into account the factor of addressee the quality of communication can be reduced, and may be a hindrance to the linguistic relations.

You can see that the functional styles of the addressee factor are not similar. Especially in colloquial language, taking into account the factor of addressee has its own features in oral speech, because the social description of an addressee is emphasized; in radio, TV giving a meaning to addressee is necessary; recipient hears spoken with pleasure or get tired of it? Attentiveness of an addressee should be in the attention of communicator; he/she needs to use language methods as dialogic and intimacy of speech in order to saving the viewer in front of the screen and to listen with interest.

Also in official style the addressee factor has its own function. Communicator should speak in democratic way or administrative way or maintain parity depending on social role of addressee.

The factor of addressee is taking into account in literature style also. In any literary works author leaves a feeling as talking with reader, or is near.

In scientific style the addressee factor will correspond to the formula "expert"-"expert", the level of knowledge will be similar; also they have a general wealth of knowledge.

Two minds are working in the word action that is addressers and addressees. The similarity of two minds gives a good result to communication.

The author of a speech put in to the code the processed information in the mind. Addresser depends on opportunities tries to discover information adequately. The processed information in the cognitive mind of an author and addressee's accepted information should be similar. Consequently author and addressee should have the similar wealth of knowledge. Nevertheless the wealth of knowledge in the members of language group is usually complex. They can be divided into three groups as linguistic knowledge, unlinguistic knowledge and voluminous [10].

Linguistic knowledge means the language competence of speaker. The language user should know the linguistic signs, associate linguistic units and express opinion. The meanings of linguistic signs have to have equal understanding as in the mind of addresser and in the mind of addressee. This is a precondition of successful communication.

Having successful communication between authors and addressee depends not only on factors. Especially in "expert" to "expert" communication we can't see difficulties because terms, nomenclatural names are understood in two minds equally.

During the communication the linguistic conflict faces in "expert" - "not an expert" form. For example, "expert" (doctor) and "not an expert" (patient) refers to institutional communication, - conflicts between the "professor and student", "teacher and pupil", "buyer and seller" connected with language. We can see more defects in linguistic relations of to institutional communication. [11]. To preventing this problem the "expert-communicator" should adapt his speech to "not an expert-communicator's" cognitive mind, to level of linguistic knowledge. For example, doctors should use not narrowly used terms, and well-known widely used terms.

Otherwise the information that should be given to patient won't be a fully. Patient does not understand all specific terms. Seller should take into account the callings of buyer (as this thing, that thing and etc.).

If recipient is not considered, and make a word structure according to his/her wealth of knowledge, it calls linguistic egocentrism. If the words of egocentrism are superior it won't be comfortable to addressee. That's why words should form according to "doctor-patient" formula.

During the communicative interaction person's social "I", intelligent "I", psychological "I" and body "I" are connected with expressing opinion "I".

Speaker is aimed to active side of word action. He/she will think about in what style conversation will be, in what rhythm and it helps to convey the main idea of hi/her speech.

During the organization, structuring conveying speech speaker takes into direction education of addressee. Speaker should have brief information about importance of language form his/her reader/listener. To the members of communication the language picture if the world should be general. Mainly, consistent information for the analysis should be announced.

During consideration the verbal action of addressee taking into account two sides of his/her position is necessary: on the one hand, it is object of word influence, on the other, subject of word interaction.

It shows the cognitive and communicative aspects of addressee's verbal action. Addressee as a subject of inter-verbal action is communicative side of word action. Interaction of conversation subject is based on the principle of explication. These principles can be identified by the basis of analyzing conventional words. It means polite words, the types of alternative words from the social side. The basic strategies of conventional relation is implicit, not a final. During the analyzing this kind of strategy-based word 6 kind of maxims can be showed: positive relation maxim, maxim of reducing the negative reaction, maxim of mutual understanding, maxim of giving psychological support to communicator, maxim of being simple, maxim of explication of emotive reactions. Maxim of positive relation is realized by conventional relation. Conventional relation has two types: 1) relation which is influence to information; 2) phatic relation.

The first type of relation communicator influences to addressee by cognitive information. Addressee notes news, concept of communicator about one thing, or other opinions, addressee's supporting by ethical rules. Communicator chooses his/her words in anticipation a positive answer from one addressee. In conventional relations speaker believes that addressee will be agree with him/her. Addressee should make it clear that he understands speaker's trust.

Types of word actions of conventional relation are as followings: to invite, to order, to ask, to expect and etc. word actions may be explicit or implicit. Addressee shows that he/she agrees with communicator's decision: Emphasizes: if not to go when you call; I'll go gladly, I'll go without saying and, etc. Agrees in explicit way: will go, will talk, will invite and, etc. Thankful: thanks to inviting, thank you very much for inviting and etc. Shows that he is ready to comply with the request: ready to do it, as best I can help etc.

When the addressee is not agreeing with communicator's words, according to conventional relation, addressee does not show immediately his/her inconsistency; using the method of soft words he will reduce the negative reaction. If communicator doesn't agree, he will not answer negatively according to ethic norms. For example, "will go gladly, when has a time". To say "no, won't go" is not conventional relation. If he/she cannot do communicator's request, addressee gently refuses with the help of linguistic methods as thanks, unfortunately, can't go, sorry etc. These sorry-types short words make the words softer with the help of word combination. In conventional inconsistency the type will be changed, not the meaning. In conventional relation telling the reasons of inconsistency is necessary. The content of reasons should be significant.

To realize the maxims of reducing negative reactions addressee will use the unique tactics with the word actions. Here, the main factor is to flatly soften called to say the word in implicit type.

Maxim of reducing adheres to the principle of "how you say it will be so". The words of communicator and addressee should be appropriate. If communicator meets, addressee also should do the same and express gratitude. Thanks to invitation, thanks to respect etc. verbalization of soften words is different. By the emphatic words as oh, sorry; excuse me exchange compliments.

To the compliment You're good story teller, the answer as because of you're my reader means to show his/her politeness; it is one form of verbal communication. Verbalization has a wide specter.

The maxim of psychological support based on personal psychology than the ethic rules. To support a person psychologically who had a lot of difficulties in life should be done by addressee as personal action. Explication of understanding speaker's problem: what we can do, life is so; To show your indifference: join to grief; Trying to calm: everything can be in the life, etc.

Speaker's speech may not be monotonous, depending on dramatic or unexpected situations. Joining to the grief of communicator may be as a formal reaction, not truth. Joining to the grief is realized by addressee's emotional appreciative words.

Communicator's joining to the grief is depending on addressee's age, gender, life view, emotional level etc. also it connects with personal relations with communicator. Depending on this the conveying a sense of sympathy can be a different. Addressee can convey a sense of sympathy in implicit way.

Psychological aspects can include solace, reassurance and etc. psychological support is verbalized by introductory words, short words, phraseological units: япырай-э, амал цанша, басца mYCKeH соц, не шара, бэрте кону керек etc.

Maxim of being simple is conventional attention of addressee to the word action of communicator. J. Lentch in his work keeps a proverbs as "A critical looks at yourself', "do not put yourself higher than somebody". It calls a n n i h i l a t i o n [12. 16-17.].


This tactic of addressee is realized relatively with compliment, thankfulness, and request in the word action. Annihilation of addressee about compliments is in the form of antithesis. Addressee usually uses imperceptibly word semantics: just simple thing, its okay, do not flatter; these semantics show the addressee's true face. I steel need to work, being in my place you also would have done so. My moral duty. To the compliments of communicator the addressee supposedly will not notice. In the answers of addressee won't be different. Addressee will try to reduce opportunities to the invitation of communicator to do the important work.

Communicative structures are not composed of actors, yet there may exist a similar "premise of great consequence." Perhaps it is what has been suggested here: The structuring of relations among nodes is a powerful strategic tool unique to communication in WORD which will have important consequences for the way we communicate, and for what we understand as the structure of communication as a whole.


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About the Authors

Nuraly Otegen, Ziyadam Abduljanova (PhD degree students of Almaty State Pedagogical University , Kazakhstan). They have been presenters at numerous conferences and have published several pieces in the area of Communication. Rgizbayeva Indira (PhD) Academy of sciences of Republic of Kazakhstan.