Scholarly article on topic 'A DNS-assisted Simultaneous Mobility Support Procedure for Mobile IPv6'

A DNS-assisted Simultaneous Mobility Support Procedure for Mobile IPv6 Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

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{"Mobility management" / "Mobile IPv6" / "Simultaneous handover" / DNS}

Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Peer Azmat Shah, Halabi B. Hasbullah, Low Tang Jung, Ibrahim A. Lawal, Abubakar Aminu Mu’azu

Abstract Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6 based mobile devices. It includes a route optimization procedure, to overcome the problem of triangular routing, which allows the correspondent node to send packets directly to the mobile node's care-of address. However, when both communicating devices are mobile, Mobile IPv6's route optimization can not handle the handover thus service disruption occurs and communication is stopped. This paper presents a new DNS-assisted solution for Mobile IPv6 to overcome the problem of simultaneous mobility. The proposed mechanism makes some necessary changes in the Mobile IPv6's route optimization procedure and executes handover differently in different scenarios depending upon the type of mobility of communicating nodes in overlapped or non-overlapped coverage access networks. Simulation results show that when proposed mechanism was used for simultaneous mobility, it successfully resumed the communication as compared to Mobile IPv6 where communication was stopped.

Academic research paper on topic "A DNS-assisted Simultaneous Mobility Support Procedure for Mobile IPv6"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 129 (2014) 536 - 545

ICIMTR 2013

International Conference on Innovation, Management and Technology Research,

Malaysia, 22 - 23 September, 2013

A DNS-assisted Simultaneous Mobility Support Procedure

for Mobile IPv6

Peer Azmat Shaha*, Halabi B. Hasbullahb, Low Tang Jungc, Ibrahim A. Lawald,

Abubakar Aminu Mu'azue

a,b,c,d,eDepartment of Computer & Information Sciences (CIS), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia aDepartment of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Pakistan e Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Umaru Musa Ya 'radua University Katsina, Nigeria

Abstract

Mobile IPv6 was proposed to provide mobility support to IPv6 based mobile devices. It includes a route optimization procedure, to overcome the problem of triangular routing, which allows the correspondent node to send packets directly to the mobile node's care-of address. However, when both communicating devices are mobile, Mobile IPv6's route optimization can not handle the handover thus service disruption occurs and communication is stopped. This paper presents a new DNS-assisted solution for Mobile IPv6 to overcome the problem of simultaneous mobility. The proposed mechanism makes some necessary changes in the Mobile IPv6's route optimization procedure and executes handover differently in different scenarios depending upon the type of mobility of communicating nodes in overlapped or non-overlapped coverage access networks. Simulation results show that when proposed mechanism was used for simultaneous mobility, it successfully resumed the communication as compared to Mobile IPv6 where communication was stopped.

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selectionandpeer-review under responsibility of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan Keywords: Mobility management; Mobile IPv6; Simultaneous handover; DNS

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +92-321-582-2507 E-mail address: peer.azmat@comsats.edu.pk

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.711

1. Introduction

Mobility on the Internet has turned into an important problem with the increase of mobile computing use in everyday life and due to the evolution of ubiquitous networking technologies over the past decade. From the viewpoint of network, mobility support can be defined as the ability of a node to change the network points of attachment while maintaining any existing connections alive. As mobility management is such a feature that has no well defined position in classical TCP/IP protocol stacks (Eddy, 2004), hence there are many ongoing researches for this problem at different layers. At the network layer, a common solution is Mobile IP (MIP) (Perkins, 2002).

It is a standard proposed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that provides mobility services to IPv4 hosts for mobile communication. MIP introduces a point of indirection into the routing architecture thus providing transparent support for host mobility. It sets up a home agent (HA) that intercepts packets destined for a mobile node (MN), which is currently away from its home network, and forwards them to the mobile node via a foreign agent (FA). However, MIP is known to suffer from the problem of triangular routing, high latency and high packet loss rate at the IP layer.

Mobile IPv6 (Perkins, 2011) was proposed by the IETF to support mobility services for IPv6 based clients. Mobile IPv6 proposed a route optimization procedure using Return Routability to remove the problem of triangular routing by making direct communication between mobile and correspondent nodes (CN). The Return Routability has its own pros and cons (Arkko, Vogt & Haddad, 2007) and many variants have been proposed in literature (Vogt & Arkko, 2007). Some other end-to-end mobility management protocols were also proposed in the literature and a performance comparison of these end-to-end protocols for TCP is made in (Shah, Yousaf, Qayyum & Hasbullah, 2012).

All the solutions, discussed the mobility management in reference to one node being mobile and the other node as the static node. A common feature that a mobility management solution should provide is simultaneous mobility support, that is, two communicating devices may move simultaneously and may initiate handover. When the two nodes move simultaneously, then both become unreachable from one another, because no one has the information of the other node's movement.

In this paper, we have proposed a new scheme to support simultaneous mobility for communicating mobile nodes. This scheme is proposed for Mobile IPv6 but it is a generic approach and can be used in any mobility management protocol that allows direct communication between mobile node and correspondent node and is operating from Network or upper layers of the TCP/IP protocol stack.

Organization of the rest of paper is as follows: Section 2 describes the related work done so far in literature for simultaneous mobility management. In Section 3, we have discussed the basic handover mechanism of Mobile IPv6 and the problem of mobility handling in case of simultaneous mobility. Section 4 presents the proposed idea and in section 5 simulation and results have been presented. Section 6 concludes the paper.

2. Related Work

Simultaneous mobility support solutions have been discussed in literature but different from our proposed approach in the sense that majority of the approaches require additional network entity. e.g. Host Identity Protocol (Nikander et.al. 2008) require a Rendezvous Server in the network. Similarly local connection translation (LCT) based handoff protocol (Guo, Guo, Zhang & Zhu, 2004) also requires

Subscription/Notification (S/N) server in the network to support simultaneous mobility support and problem of mobile devices behind network address translation (NAT) box.

An improved version of TCP-Migrate was proposed in (Wu, Le, & Zhang, 2007) that attempt to handle the problem of simultaneous movement of two communicating nodes with DNS handover assistance. The idea is based on the assumption that whenever a node moves away from an access network and is going to initiate vertical handover, it should query DNS about the status of peer node. After getting reply from the DNS, vertical handover should be triggered. As a practical experience it is possible that when a mobile node queries DNS then the peer node was in an access network and after that it moves to some other access network. Thus before initiating handover each time, querying the DNS is much costly in respect of time.

A new simultaneous handover scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs with IEEE 802.21 triggers was introduced in (Przemyslaw & Wo'zniak, 2010). The solution is for Mobile IPv4 and involves the home agent. It has nothing to do with the route optimization. Another solution which is based on home agent to solve Mobile IPv6 simultaneous mobility problem uses multiple bindings of care-of addresses for a mobile node (Liu, Li, He & Wang, 2006) This solution has improved the MNs' handoff performance but the problem is, as mobile node might be reachable through a single care-of address and sending copies to every care-of address consumes considerable wireless network resources.

3. Mobility Management in Mobile IPv6

Mobile IPv6 is intended to enable IPv6 nodes to move from one IP subnet to another while they are away from their home. It sends information about its current location to a home agent (HA). The HA intercepts packets addressed to the mobile node and tunnels them to the mobile node's present location. The tunneling of packets results in triangular routing. To overcome this problem, route optimization is proposed.

Mobile IPv6's route optimization uses return routability procedure to secure the communication (Perkins & Arkko, 2011). This procedure is accomplished through home test and care-of test. For the home test, Home test Init (HoTI) and Home Test (HoT) messages are exchanged between the mobile node and correspondent node via the home agent. Care-of test includes Care-of Test Init (CoTI) and Care-of Test (CoT) to be exchanged between mobile node and correspondent node directly.

After the successful completion of home test and care-of test, mobile node sends Binding Update (BU) to correspondent node directly. This is responded with Binding Acknowledgement (BA). After receiving BA, now mobile node can receive data from corresponding node directly without involving the bidirectional tunneling through HA. Fig 1 shows the handover procedure of Mobile IPv6 handover with route optimization.

Fig 1. Mobile IPv6 handover with route optimization

In case both the communicating nodes moves simultaneously, then node A sends CoTI and HoTI and HA forwards HoTI messages to the node B, which is no longer available at its previous location. Hence these messages are lost. Similarly, node B sends same messages which are lost. Hence, both the communicating ends have become unreachable from each other and communication stops, as shown in Fig 2. Mobile IPv6 has no well defined procedure to handle this problem.

Node A (New location]

Node A HA Nodo A

lOld location]

Node B Node G

told location] {New location)

Communication session in normal state

(Exchanging IP packets) i r

Í > BU__-

^__BA_____—- ---------- BA

_______HoTI Holl_______

1-loTI____

Lost X *---— coti coti - X Lost

Lost X —-----~ • X L°«

Both nodes can not find each other'

'Handover hailed

Fig 2. Problem with Mobile IPv6 handover for simultaneous mobility

4. Proposed Idea for Simultaneous Mobility Support

To overcome the problem of simultaneous mobility handling in Mobile IPv6, a new mechanism has been proposed. The proposed mechanism behaves differently in different scenarios and may take help from DNS in the case when both nodes become unreachable in the old access network. In case of mobility, after getting a new live IP address, mobile node performs the DNS dynamic updates to update its current location with the DNS [10]. Different scenarios for the simultaneous movement of two communicating nodes are as follows.

4.1. Scenarios for Simultaneous Movement

The mobility of mobile nodes may be across access network with overlapped and non-overlapped coverage access. Hence, on the basis of this mobility, three different scenarios are possible for simultaneous mobility. Fig. 3 shows the scenarios for simultaneous movement of two communicating nodes. In the first case, both communicating nodes enter into some other access network while remaining in the old access network. Here both nodes are present in the overlapped coverage regions of two different access networks and are accessible through both, old and new, access networks. This is shown as M1 and M2 in Fig 3(a).

In the second case, node A, while moving, looses connectivity in old access network and then enters into some other access network, whereas node B enters into the overlapping region of two different access networks. This is shown as M3 and M4 in Fig 3(b).

In the third case, both of the communicating nodes move simultaneously out of their attached network and loose connectivity. After some time both enter into some other access network and get connectivity. This is shown as M5 and M6 in Fig 3(c).

Fig. 3(a). Mobility in overlapped coverage access networks

Fig. 3(c). Mobility in non-overlapped coverage access networks

4.2. Proposed Simultaneous Mobility Support Algorithm for Mobile IPv6

To decide for the type of mobility whether it is normal or simultaneous, proposed solution uses the IP addresses of other node. The IP address of remote node helps to decide whether the handover initiated is simultaneous or not. My_old_IP and MynewIP are the home and care-of addresses for a node in the old network and in the new network respectively. Similarly, HisoldIP and HisnewIP are the home and care of addresses of the correspondent node in the old and in the new network respectively. ExpectedIP is a list of IP addresses at mobile node which contains the nodes own IP address through which it wants to communicate with the external world and the IP addresses of peer nodes to which node is currently communicating. When an handover is initiated then ExpectedIP = {My_new_IP , His old IP}.

4.2.1. Mobility in scenario I

In this scenario, both of the communicating nodes enter into some overlapped coverage access region. Algorithml shows the details of this procedure._

Algorithm 1: Mobility in overlapped coverage access regions

• Send CoTI()andHoTI() messages to correspondent node and home agent respectively with Source IP=My_new_IP

and Destination IP=His_old_IP

• Change State = HO_Initiated

• Waiting for CoT() with Source IP= His_old_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

• Receive CoTI( ) from other node with Source IP= His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_old_IP

• Check the Source IP and Destination IP addresses of packet received in Expected IP

• IF both Source IP and Destination IP do not exist in Expected IP

◦ Change State = HO_Simultaneous

◦ Send CoT ( ) with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

◦ Receive CoT() with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

◦ Change State= Handover

◦ Send Binding Update with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

◦ Receive Binding ACK with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP=My_new_IP

◦ State=Normal

4.2.2. Mobility in scenario II

In this scenario, node A moves into an overlapped coverage access region and node B moves to a non-overlapped coverage access region. Details of the procedure are presented in Algorithm 2.

Algorithm 2: Mobility in mixed overlapped and non-overlapped coverage access regions At Node A:

• Sends CoTI()andHoTI ( ) messages to correspondent node and home agent respectively with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP=His_old_IP

• Change State = HO_Initiated

• Waiting for CoT() with Source IP= His_old_IP and Destination IP=My_new_IP but Timeout occurs

• Query DNS for correspondent node

◦ Receive His_new_IP as the new IP address of correspondent node

◦ Change State=HO_Simultaneous

• Send CoTI( ) with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

• Receive CoTI( ) from other node with Source IP= His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

◦ Send CoT() with Source IP= My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

• Receive CoT() with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP=My_new_IP

◦ Change State= Handover

◦ Send Binding Update with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

◦ Receive Binding ACK with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP=My_new_IP

◦ State=Normal At Node B:

• Sends CoTI()andHoTI( ) messages to correspondent node and home agent respectively with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP=His_old_IP

• Change State = HO_Initiated

• Waiting for CoT( ) with Source IP= His_old_IP and Destination IP=My_new_IP

• Receive CoTI( ) from other node with Source IP= His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

• Check the Source IP and Destination IP addresses of packet received in Expected IP

• IF Source IP does not exist and Destination IP exists in Expected IP

◦ Change State = HO_Simultaneous

◦ Send CoT() with Source IP= My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

◦ Send CoTI()with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

◦ Receive CoT() with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

◦ Change State= Handover

◦ Send Binding Update with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

◦ Receive Binding ACK with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP=My_new_IP

◦ State=Normal

4.2.3. Mobility in scenario III

In this scenario, both nodes move into non overlapped coverage access regions. Algorithm 3 shows the details of this scenario.

Algorithm 3: Mobility in non-overlapped coverage access regions

• Sends CoTI()and HoTI ( ) messages to correspondent node and home agent respectively with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP=His_old_IP

• Change State = HO_Initiated

• Waiting for CoT() with Source IP= His_old_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP but Timeout occurs

• Query DNS for correspondent node

◦ Receive His_new_IP as the new IP address of correspondent node

• Send CoTI( ) with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

• Receive CoTI( ) from other node with Source IP= His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

◦ Send CoT() with Source IP= My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

• Receive CoT ( ) with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

◦ Change State= Handover

◦ Send Binding Update with Source IP=My_new_IP and Destination IP= His_new_IP

◦ Receive Binding ACK with Source IP=His_new_IP and Destination IP= My_new_IP

◦ State=Normal

5. Simulation and Initial Results

To evaluate the performance of proposed mechanism for simultaneous handover support, implementations were done in widely used ns-2 network simulator. The implementations were based on the mobiwan patch for Mobile IPv6 [13] by making some changes in it. The changes were made in the care-of test (CoTI and CoT). The DNS lookup operation was also incorporated. The simulation model of [9] was used but with a single DNS server instead of using separate DNS servers in each network.

Time(Seconds)

—»—Proposed McbielPvS

Time[Seconda)

—*—Mobile IPrf —Proposed

(a). TCP segment sequence number with time Fig 4. Comparison of Mobile IPv6 and proposed solution

(b). Number of packets loss with time

Results obtained from simulation shown performance improvement with the proposed solution. Fig 4(a) shows the TCP segment sequence number increase with time for Scenarios III. It can be observed that after time t=15 seconds, when handover was initiated then communication was stopped with Mobile IPv6 whereas the proposed solution resumed the communication successfully executing the handover from both sides. Packet loss comparison of proposed solution and Mobile IPv6 is shown in Fig 4(b). Result show that after the initiation of simultaneous mobility Mobile IPv6 was unable to resume the communication but the proposed solution resumed the communication. Hence, all the packets which were destined to mobile node were lost in case of Mobile IPv6.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, we have proposed a new DNS-assisted simultaneous mobility management procedure for Mobile IPv6. The existing work for simultaneous mobility management either use to query DNS for every movement or generates multiple copies of handover signaling message thus resulting in overhead. They also focused only on a single scenario when both of the communicating nodes become unreachable. But in reality, simultaneous mobility can take place in situations where mobile node is still reachable through old network. Proposed solution performs DNS lookup only in the case when mobile node has not received any message from other end and timeout occurs. The handover was successfully executed just making use of care-of test messages and the source and destination IP addresses of packet received. Simulation result shown that the proposed mechanism successfully resumed the communication after simultaneous mobility but communication was stopped when using Mobile IPv6.

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledged Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia for providing financial support as graduate assistance (GA) category-A.

References

Eddy, W. M. (2004). At what layer does mobility belong?. IEEE Communications Magazine, 42(10), 155-159.

Perkins, C. (2002). IP Mobility Support for IPv4. IETF RFC 3344. Perkins, C., & Arkko, J. (2011). Mobility Support in IPv6. IETF RFC 6275.

Arkko, J., Vogt, C., & Haddad, W. (2007). Enhanced Route Optimization for Mobile IPv6. IETF RFC 4866.

Vogt, C., & Arkko, J. (2007). A Taxonomy and Analysis of Enhancements to Mobile IPv6 Route Optimization. IETF RFC 4651.

Shah, P. A., Yousaf, M., Qayyum, A., & Hasbullah, H. B. (2012). Performance Comparison of End-to-End Mobility Management Protocols for TCP. Elsevier Journal of Network and Computer Applications (JNCA), ISSN: 1084-8045, 35(6), 1657-1673.

Nikander, P., Henderson, T., Vogt, C., & Arkko, J. (2008). End-Host Mobility and Multihoming with the Host Identity Protocol. IETF RFC 5206.

Guo, C., Guo, Z., Zhang, Q., & Zhu, W. A. (2004). A seamless and proactive end-to-end mobility solution for roaming across heterogeneous wireless networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (IEEE JSAC), 22(5), 834-48.

Wu, Y., Le, Y., & Zhang, D. (2007). An Improved TCP Migrate Scheme with DNS Handover Assistant for End-to-End Mobility. In proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '07), 24-28 June 2007, Glasgow, 1923 - 1928.

Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., & Bound, J. (1997). Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE). IETF RFC 2136.

Przemyslaw, M., & Wo'zniak, J., (2010). Simultaneous handover scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs with IEEE 802.21 triggers. Springer Journal of Telecommunication System, 43, 83-93.

Liu, Q., Li, S., He, H., & Wang, B., (2006). A Multi-binding Solution for Simultaneous Mobility of MIPv6. In Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE'06).

MobiWAN patch for ns-2.33 and RFC3775 compliance for MobiWAN patch http://www.nicta.com.au/people/mehanio/nsmisc?SQ_DESIGN_NAME=printer.