Scholarly article on topic 'Relations between quality of image of God and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children'

Relations between quality of image of God and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Abstract of research paper on Psychology, author of scientific article — Ali Akbar Haddadi Koohsar, Bagher Ghobary Bonab

Abstract Since parents of exceptional children are exposed to the variety of child raising stressors that impact their psychological functioning, determining factors associated with psychological health of these individuals is an important research endeavour. The aim of the current research was to investigate the relationship between image of God and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children. To accomplish the stated goal 167 parents of exceptional children were selected by means of proportional sampling procedure. The Image of God Inventory (IOG, Lawrence, 1997) and Scale of Psychoticism in Symptom Checklist90-R (SCL-90R, Deragotis et al., 1973) were administered on them. Analysis of data revealed that the magnitude of psychoticism can be predicted from the quality of images of God in parents of exceptional children. Moreover, data revealed that parents of exceptional children who had a positive image of God were lower in psychoticism than parents of exceptional children who had a negative image of God. Authors concluded that positive image of God were associated with lower psychoticism in parents of exceptional children. Theoretical implication and practical application of the finding are discussed in the original paper.

Academic research paper on topic "Relations between quality of image of God and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29 (2011) 223 - 226

International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2011)

Relations between quality of image of God and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children

Ali Akbar Haddadi Koohsar, M.A.a, Bagher Ghobary Bonab, Ph.D.b*

aUniversity of Tehran, Faculty of Psychology&Education, Ale Ahmad Ave, Tehran,P.O.Box.14155-6456, Iran bUniversity of Tehran, Faculty of Psychology&Education, Ale Ahmad Ave, Tehran,P.O.Box.14155-6456, Iran

Received date here; revised date here; accepted date here

Abstract

Since parents of exceptional children are exposed to the variety of child raising stressors that impact their psychological functioning, determining factors associated with psychological health of these individuals is an important research endeavour. The aim of the current research was to investigate the relationship between image of God and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children. To accomplish the stated goal 167 parents of exceptional children were selected by means of proportional sampling procedure. The Image of God Inventory (IOG, Lawrence, 1997) and Scale of Psychoticism in Symptom Checklist90-R (SCL-90R, Deragotis et al., 1973) were administered on them. Analysis of data revealed that the magnitude of psychoticism can be predicted from the quality of images of God in parents of exceptional children. Moreover, data revealed that parents of exceptional children who had a positive image of God were lower in psychoticism than parents of exceptional children who had a negative image of God. Authors concluded that positive image of God were associated with lower psychoticism in parents of exceptional children. Theoretical implication and practical application of the finding are discussed in the original paper. ©2011 Published byElsevierLtd.Selection and/orpeer-reviewunderresponsibility of DrZafer Bekirogullari.

Keywords: Image of God; Psychoticism; Parents of Exceptional Children; Iran;

1. Introduction

Images of God in individuals are their internal experiences with God that are exhibited as individuals as individuals' mental representations. Development of individuals image of God are influenced by their life experiences, and also it can be influenced by quality of individuals' attachment to God. Individuals with a secure attachment to God have more positive images of God; they perceive as God as on available, and accessible figure to themselves who respond to individual's needs, and help them when they need him desperately (Kirkpatrick, 2005). Individuals with psychological problems have more negative image of God (Schaap -Jonker en al, 2002).

Bradshaw and associates (2008) reported that a positive image of God inversely related to variety of psychological symptoms; among these symptoms they mentioned Psychoticism that was higher in individuals with a negative image of God.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +98-912-695-6577; fax: +98-21-882-54734

E-mail address: yamola280@yahoo.com (A.A Haddadi Koohsar), bghobari@ut.ac.ir (B.Ghobary Bonab).

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dr Zafer Bekirogullari. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.228

Ali AkbarHaddadí Koohsar andBaghrrGhobary Bcmab/Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences29 (2011) 223 - 226

Flannelly and associates (2010) also investigated the relation between psychological disorders and image of God in the adult populations. They concluded that individuals with a positive image of God (i.e. individuals who perceive God closer to themselves who forgives their short comings) were lower in psychological symptoms and distresses. These researchers also found that in these individuals Psychoticism were lower, than others. Newton and McIntosh (2010), who explored the relation between image of God and style of coping in parents of exceptional children, reported that positive image of God in these individuals were associated with more effective coping styles. Individuals with a positive image of God evaluated situations more positively.

Belief in a punitive or rejecting God has been associated with verities of psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, paranoia, obsessive- compulsive disorders, and Psychoticism (Mc Connell et al, 2006). Robbins, Francis & Kerr (2006) have studied the relation between image of God with mental health status of individuals, and they found a significant relation between negative image of God and psychoticism.

Braam and colleagues (2008a) in their study discovered that feeling dissatisfied with God was associated with despair, and depression in adults. In this research negative image of God (believing in a punitive God) was strongly associated with feeling guilty and having psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, data indicated that neuroticism was associated with fearfulness from God, anxiety and dissatisfaction of Him, while the better adjustment was associated with the supporting figure of God (Bram and colleagues, 2008b).

Schaap- Jonker and associates (2002), discovered that there was an association between negative image of God and psychoticism. In this study there was a significant relation between image of God, and global index of symptom severity as measured by symptom checklist inventory (r = - 0.395). Investigators also concluded that image of psychiatric patients in compare to normal people were more negative. These findings indicated that there was a significant association between mental health and image of God.

Individuals with a positive image of God were less anxious, and lower in psychoticism. Individuals with a negative image of God (i.e. perceiving God punitive) were more anxious, and were higher in their aggression toward others. These findings reported by Schaap- Jonker and associates (2008a).

Although research findings show that quality of image of God is related to individuals' personal characteristics and their mental health status, most of these investigations have been conducted in the United States and European countries. Since people in Iran are different from Americans and European countries in terms of their cultural and religious backgrounds investigating, the relation of these constructs in individuals who live in Iran is necessary. This study fills the existing gap in the area.

2. Method

2.C. aaytivipaato

Population in the current study was consisted of 167 parents of exceptional children in Iran. A proportional sampling procedure was utilized in this study and 167 parents of exceptional children who were between 25-50 years old have been selected as a sample. 53% of the participants were female, and 47% of them were male, 56% were residing in Tehran (the capital city), and 26% were from other major cities. After preparation of assessment devices, questionnaires were administered on parents of exceptional children by a trained research assistant. In general 167 individuals completed the questionnaires.

2.2. Moaouroo

2.2.C. aoyvOativiom Bealo af Bymptam Checklist - 92R (BCL-92R, Doragatio ot al., C973).

This symptom checklist is consisted of 90 items in which each item requires responding in degree of symptom intensity (from 1-5) in which he/ she have experienced during the past week. This scale-consisted of nine subscale (dimensions) including somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorders, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In order to calculate the internal consistency of the scale cronbach alpha coefficient has been used, and the results indicated that internal consistency for all subscales were at a satisfactory level. The maximum alpha coefficient was 0.90 for depression, and the minimum value was for psychoticism (á = 0.77). Stability coefficient that was computed for test-retest reliability in the interval of one

Ali AkbarHaH-adiKoohsan <md Bagher Ghobaiy Bonab / Procedia - Social andOaGnviaoalOciences29 (2011) 223 - 226

week was between 0.87 and 0.90. In Iran, we obtained Cronbach alphas values for every dimensions (SCL90-R) and total of .88, .87, .81, .90, .90, .81, .76, .77, .82, and 97 for somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorders, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and full symptom checklist respectively (Ghobari Bonab & Haddadi Koohsar, 2011).

2.2.2. The Image of God Inventory (IOG, Lawrence, 1997)

The image of God inventory was used to measure individual's quality of image of God. This inventory consisted of 72 items and six factors: influence, providence, presence, challenge, acceptance, and benevolence. This inventory measures individual's images of God in a Likert type scale. The alpha coefficient for each subscale was 0.92, 0.92, 0.94, 0.86, 0.90, and 0.91 respectively. In Iran, we obtained Cronbach alphas values for every subscale (IOG) of .80, .41, .88, .51, .81, and 82 for influence, providence, presence, challenge, acceptance, and benevolence respectively (Ghobari Bonab & Haddadi Koohsar, 2009).

3. Results

The results have been presented in the following tables:

Table 1. Matrix of correlation between "image of God" and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1. SCL-90R-Psychoticism -

2. IOG-Influence -0.31** -

3. IOG-Providence -0.05 0.29** -

4. IOG-Presence -0.12* 0.69** 0.37** -

5. IOG-Challenge -0.17* 0.46** 0.25** 0.51** -

6. IOG-Acceptance -0.24** 0.65** 0.03 0.58** 0.38** -

7. IOG-Benevolence -0.39** 0.51** 0.23** 0.64** 0.58** 0.50* -

** P < 0.01 * P < 0.05

Table 1 Shows that image of God is associated with psychoticism in parents of exceptional children. Individuals who showed an accepting image of God, were lower in psychoticism, and had a higher health status.

Table 2. Multiple regression analysis method to predict psychoticism from image of God in parents of exceptional children

Variables Dependent Predictor R R2 F P B SEB P

SCL90-R- Benevolence -0.72** 0.13 -0.50

Psychoticism Presence 0.51 0.26 18.77 0.001 - 0.63** 0.15 -0.46

Influence -0.57** 0.14 -0.34

**P < 0/01 * P <0/05

As indicated in table 2 only benevolence, presence and influence were significant predictors of psychoticism (R2=26 %) in parents of exceptional children. In other words psychoticism of parents who perceive God benevolent and present was lower than other parents. Moreover, psychoticism of parents with Inspecting beta analysis shows that positive image of God individuals who perceive God present and benevolent can positively predicts magnitude of psychoticism in parents.

4. Discussion

In the current study relation between image of God and psychoticism in parents of exceptional children has been investigated. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that psychoticism in parents of exceptional children can be predicted by their image of God. Individuals, who held a positive image of God, were lower in psychoticism in compare to others. The results of the current study are consistent with some other investigation (e.g., Flannelly et al. 2010; Bradshaw et al., 2008; Bowman, et al.,1987; Schapp-Jonker et al., 2002; Tisdale et al., 1997; Mc Connel et al., 2006; Robbins et al., 2006).

Ali AkbarHaadadi Koohsar amlBagherGhobary Bonab/Procedia- Socavl arid Behavioral Sciences29 (2011) 223 - 226

Flannelly and associates (2010) studied the relation between mental disorders and image of God in adults with psychoticism. They concluded that individuals with a positive image of God (i.e. individuals who perceive God closer to themselves who forgives their shortcoming) were lower in psychological symptoms and distresses. These researchers also found that in these individuals psychoticism were lower, than others.

Bradshaw and associates (2008) reported that a positive image of God inversely related to variety of psychological symptoms, among these symptoms they mentioned Psychoticism that was higher in individuals with a negative image of God.

Robbins, Francis & Kerr (2006) have studied the relation between image of God with mental health status of individuals, and they found a significant relation between negative image of God and psychoticism. These findings are consistent with result of the current study. Since the current study was an expost facto research developing a causal relation between image of God and psychological distress was not possible. Investigators in the future can design an experimental design in which environmental prompting instigate the image of supportive, caring, and punitive image in individuals, and study their consequence in development or escalation of psychological distress.

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