Scholarly article on topic 'Success in learning English as a foreign language as a predictor of computer anxiety'

Success in learning English as a foreign language as a predictor of computer anxiety Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Procedia Computer Science
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"English as a foreign language" / "Computer anxiety" / "Frequency of computer use" / "Computer ownership" / "High-school students"}

Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Mehrak Rahimi, Samaneh Yadollahi

Abstract This study investigated the relationship between success in English as a foreign language and the degree of computer anxiety, frequency of computer use, and computer ownership among Iranian high-school students. Eight hundred and nineteen highschool students were selected from eight cities across the country. They completed Computer Anxiety Rating Scale and a personal information questionnaire. School achievement in English was established based on formal grades students received at the end of the academic year. The results revealed that computer anxiety and achievement in English were inversely related. High achievement students in English used computers (both online and offline) more than low achievement students. Computer ownership was also significantly related to students’ success in English. It was also found that except gender, achievement in English, PC time, and computer ownership were predictors of computer anxiety.

Academic research paper on topic "Success in learning English as a foreign language as a predictor of computer anxiety"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía Computer Science 3 (2011) 175-182

Procedía Computer Science

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

WCIT-2010

Success in learning English as a foreign language as a predictor of

computer anxiety

Mehrak Rahimi a *, Samaneh Yadollahi a

aEnglish Department, Faculty of Humanities, ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, 1678815811, Iran Abstract

This study investigated the relationship between success in English as a foreign language and the degree of computer anxiety, frequency of computer use, and computer ownership among Iranian high-school students. Eight hundred and nineteen high-school students were selected from eight cities across the country. They completed Computer Anxiety Rating Scale and a personal information questionnaire. School achievement in English was established based on formal grades students received at the end of the academic year. The results revealed that computer anxiety and achievement in English were inversely related. High achievement students in English used computers (both online and offline) more than low achievement students. Computer ownership was also significantly related to students' success in English. It was also found that except gender, achievement in English, PC time, and computer ownership were predictors of computer anxiety.

© 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editor. Keywords: English as a foreign language; computer anxiety; frequency of computer use; computer ownership; high-school students

1. Introduction

In the age of globalization, the world has been changed into a village where English is perceived as a universal language for international communication and cooperation. English is considered as the dominant language of technology [1] and computer because "instructions, messages, and Internet texts are generally in some variant of the English language" [2], p. 1113. Also, English is the most commonly used language among ten top languages exploited for communication and interaction via the internet [3] and almost two-third of websites on the Internet are in English [4]. As a result of this widespread presence of English in technology, the successful integration of ICT tools in educational settings necessitates a threshold of English knowledge and skills [5].

As a result of that, a number of researchers have focused on this issue and have taken the relationship between linguistic knowledge (especially English) and computer variables into account. However, research on the relationship between computer and English has usually taken the direction of effect to be from computer use to success in English, suggesting a persuasive argument to support the fact that using technology and computermediated communication tools can impact second or foreign language learning [6]; [7]; [8]; [9]; [10]. As a consequence, the bidirectionality of this relationship is taken for granted, that is, achievement in English can be a

* Mehrak Rahimi. Tel: +982122970035 ; fax: +9821 22970033 E-mail address: mehrakrahimi@yahoo.com; rahimi@srttu.edu

1877-0509 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.030

contributing factor to ease of technology use, perceived ease of use, positive attitudes, and even purchasing computers (PC ownership). The main aim of this study is, thus, to investigate the relationship between Iranian high school students' achievement in English as a foreign language and computer variables such as computer anxiety, use, and ownership considering their age and gender.

1.1. English and computer use

A body of research has focused on the relationship between students' linguistic knowledge and its role in working efficiently with technological tools and the time users spend on working with computers. Healey [11] asserts that linguistic knowledge helps students use educational and non-educational software and utility programs, communicate through Internet-based interaction types (e.g., the Web, synchronous chat, asynchronous discussion groups, and audio/video interactions with text chat), play educational-aided games, and search information easily and quickly on the Internet.

As computer literacy contributes to computer ease and frequency of use, some studies have focused on the relationship between English and computer familiarity. Taylor et al. [12], for instance, investigated the relationship between computer familiarity and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) scores and found a positive relationship between them, supporting the fact that linguistic knowledge and computer knowledge are related. Goldberg and Pedulla [13] found that computer familiarity and examinees' performance in both the paper-and-pencil and computer based versions of the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) were related. Similarly, Satharasinghe [14] found a significant positive relationship between computer literacy and English language literacy. In another study carried out in a bilingual community in US, Stanley [15] concluded that language barrier presents an unavoidable and obvious obstacle to computer literacy.

There has also been a surge of interest in finding the role of English as a foreign language proficiency and internet and computer use among university students and instructors. Mashhadi, Rezvanfar, and Yaghoubi [16] studied the effective factors that influence IT application by university instructors in Iran and found a significant relationship between computer use, internet skills, English proficiency, and computer attitude. The same results were also reported by Yaghoubi and Shamsai [17]. Movahed Mohammadi and Irvani [18] investigated the patterns of the Internet use by Iranian university students and reported that proficiency in English, computer proficiency, students' discipline of study, and internet attitude were significantly related. Similarly, Karimi and Mokhtarnia's [19] findings supported the fact that there was a relationship between English proficiency, the Internet skills, and frequency of computer use among Iranian teachers of technical schools.

Computer use has also been found to be associated with computer access and ownership [20]. However, there is only one research done on computer ownership and English achievement [2]. The results of this study showed that there was a significant relationship among computer ownership, use and English achievement.

1.2. English and computer anxiety

Computer anxiety is "the tendency of individuals to be uneasy, apprehensive, or fearful about current or future use of computers" [21], p. 375. It has been found that highly computer anxious learners would exhibit the following behaviour when they are in the environment of a computer [22]: avoidance of computer and where they are located, excessive caution using computers, negative attitudes toward computers, and shortening the periods of working with computers. As a result of these reactions, computer anxious learners may be at a significant disadvantage compared to their peers in computer-mediated communication environments [23]. As a quarter to half of student population show some level of anxiety when they face information technology [24], investigating factors that impact reducing computer anxiety is of great value for educationists.

Language is a key factor in computer system interfaces and much of computer use entails language including "reading texts and instructions, seeking information, following hyperlinks and sending and receiving messages" [25], p. 2. Thus, students that have language problems and low English proficiency may be particularly vulnerable to experiencing anxiety in computer use [25]. As English is ''the main computer language'' [26], and as "PC users are forced into this language by necessity, if they want to master the most elementary dialogue with their computers or

to understand the information they seek" [2], p.1113, it is quite arguable that those who are more successful in learning English may experience less anxiety when they are working with computers and vice versa.

Although from theoretical perspective it has been postulated that those who are not very proficient in using English or have language problems are more likely to feel anxious when they read and write with computers, very few empirical studies are available regarding this matter. In an early study addressing this issue, Chapelle and Jamieson [27] investigated the use of computer in English classes and found that students who worked harder at learning English spent a lot of time using computers for their learning and had a more positive attitude toward it. Korukonka [28] reported that verbal skills in comparison to math skills seem to contribute more to reducing computer anxiety and thus, increasing computer confidence. In another study, Conti-Ramsden et al. [25] compared computer anxiety in adolescents with and without a history of special needs related to language difficulties and found that adolescents with specific language impairment experienced more computer anxiety than typically developing peers.

Moreover, reviewing studies done with regard to computer variables and language learning shows that a growing number of them have focused on the relationship between computer attitudes in CALL environment [29]; [30]; [31], and computer anxiety seems to be taken for granted as a result of the fact that computer anxiety and attitudes are assumed to be related. As a consequence, this study focuses on finding answers to the following questions:

1. Is there any relationship among Iranian students' demographic variables (age and gender), computer use, ownership, anxiety, and achievement in English?

2. How much of the variance in the dependent variable (computer anxiety) can be predicted by the independent variables of this study?

2. Method

2.1. Participants

The participants of this study were 819 high school students who were selected according to stratified random sampling from central cities of eight provinces across the country. Of the sample, 54.7% (n=448) were boys and 45.3% (n=371) were girls. 16.7% of the participants (n=137) were freshmen, 36.4% (n=298) were sophomores, and 46.9% (n=384) were juniors. Students were selected from four majors of study including mathematics (26.9%), natural sciences (35%), humanities (21.4%), and general subjects (freshmen) (16.7%).

Of the sample, 56.8% (n=465) reported to have computers at home. 35.5% (n=291) of the sample reported that they never used their computer, 17.4% (n=143) used it for half an hour per week, 31.8% (n=161) used it for one hour per week, 25.3% (n=207) used it for two hours a week, and 21.7% (n=178) used it for more than two hours per week. Of the sample, 58.1% (n=475) reported that they never used the internet, 23.3 % (n=191) used the internet for half an hour per week, 12.4% (n=101) used the internet for one hour per week, and 6.2% (n=51) used the internet for two hours per week. 55.9% (n=458) of the respondents were found to be non-technophobic, 24.4% (n=200) found to have low levels of computer anxiety, and 19.7% (n=161) were found to have moderate to high levels of technophobia.

2.2. Instruments

To assess computer anxiety, Computer Anxiety Rating Scale (CARS) developed and validated by Rosen and Weil [32] was used. CARS is a 20-item scale that asks participants to express how anxious (nervous) each of the items would make them in real time of filling in the questionnaire. The participants rate themselves on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 'not at all' to 'very much'. The norms established by empirical research reported by Rosen and Weil for computer phobia are: no technophobia: 20-41; low technophobia: 42-49; and moderate to high technophobia: 50-100. Rosen and Weil [32] used internal consistency method to estimate the reliability of CARS by administering it across the United States and more than 20 groups in different cultures and countries. They reported alpha coefficients of 0.90-0.95 for their studies. Other researchers have also reported high alpha coefficient of 0.91 for this measure [33]; [28]. The developers of CARS used factor analysis technique to investigate its factor structure

and construct validity. Three factors were reported to be found which accounted for 42% of the variance. Reliabilities of 0.80, 0.70 and 0.60 for the three factors have been reported [34].

CARS has been translated into Persian and its psychometric characteristics have been calculated [35]. The construct validity of the Persian version has been estimated by factor analysis, revealing four underlying factors for the instrument that explain more than 55% of the total variance. The reliability of the instrument has also been reported to be 0.89 using the internal consistency method. The Cronbach's alpha of CARS in this study revealed to be 0.88.

Furthermore, a personal information form was used to make a profile of participants' demographic including gender, major, computer use (PC time) (never, half an hour, one hour, two hours, three hours, more than three hours specified by respondents), computer ownership, and the internet use (never, half an hour, one hour, two hours, three hours, more than three hours specified by respondents). School achievement in English was established based on formal grades students received in English at the end of academic year 2008-2009 through oral performance and written tests.

3. Results

In order to find the answer to question number one, correlation method was used. In order to answer question number two, the multiple regressions technique was utilized.

3.1. Age, gender, and computer anxiety

The result of correlations showed a significant relationship between computer anxiety and gender (r=-0.10, p<0.05). However, no relationship between age and computer anxiety was found (r=0.00).

3.2. Computer use, ownership, and anxiety

There was an inverse relationship between computer anxiety and computer ownership (r=-0.11, p<0.01) as well as PC time (r=-0.13, p<0.01). It indicates that those who had computers and used their computers more frequently, had lower levels of computer anxiety.

3.3. Achievement in English, computer use, ownership, and anxiety

Achievement in English was found to be positively related to PC time (r=0.13, p<0.01), internet use (r=0.13, p<0.01), and computer ownership (r=0.28, p<0.01) meaning that those who were more successful in English, used computers and the internet more than low achievement students and owned a personal computer. However, achievement in English and computer anxiety were negatively related (r=-0.40, p<0.01), meaning that those who were more successful in learning English, had lower levels of computer anxiety than low achievement students.

3.4. Predictors of computer anxiety

In order to determine the proportion of the variance in computer anxiety that could be explained by the selected independent variables of this study, multiple regressions analysis was performed. However, only those variables that individually correlated with computer anxiety were entered in the equation [36].

The independent variables that individually correlated with the dependent variable were: gender, achievement in English, computer ownership, and PC time. The summary of the multiple regressions results is presented in Tables 1 and 2. The results indicated that 17% of the variance in computer anxiety was explained by the independent variables of this study. The test statistic was significant at the 0.05 level of significance (F (4, 818) = 42.68; p=0.000).

Table 1. Analysis of variance

Sources Sum of squares DF Mean square F R2 Adjusted R2 p

Model 21997.73 4 5499.43 42.68 0.173 0.169 0.000

Error 104886.21 814 128.85

Total 126883.95 818

Table 2. Multiple regressions on dependent variable (computer anxiety)

Variables Unstandardized b Standardized b t p

Achievement in English -1.68 -0.42 -11.88 0.000

PC time -1.04 -0.13 -3.09 0.002

Computer ownership 2.41 0.09 2.22 0.026

Gender 0.77 0.03 0.89 0.374

As Table 2 illustrates, the results of multiple regressions indicate that three variables affect computer anxiety at the 0.05 level of significance. The following are the absolute values of the standardized estimate (b) of these factors from the largest to the smallest: achievement in English (b = 0.42, t = 11.88, p < 0.05), PC time (b = 0.13, t = 3.09, p < 0.05), and computer ownership (b = 0.09, t = 2.22, p < 0.05). The analysis suggests that the independent variables explaining the greatest amount of variance in computer anxiety in order of predicative value are: achievement in English, PC time, and computer ownership (Table 2).

4. Discussion

This study investigated possible relationship among achievement in English, computer use and ownership, demographic variables (age and gender), and computer anxiety. The findings revealed that there was a relationship between gender and computer anxiety, while age was not found to be related to computer anxiety. In contrast to the proposition that the gender divide is closing in the 21st century among university students and users with higher education [35];[37], this study showed that the difference between males and females in computer-related issues existed, at least among high school students. However, according to other implicated result from this study, the difference in computer anxiety might be due to the discrepancy of PC time and computer ownership between males and females. This finding is in full agreement with studies done by Cooper [38] and Bross [39]. Further, it was found that age did not significantly correlate with computer anxiety. This could be explained by the fact that as age is one of the most difficult personal factors to interpret in relation to computer anxiety [40], the limitations of the study impede further detailed investigation. One of the limitations of our study was that the samples' age range was between 14 and 18. That is, all participants were younger generation in their teens who had grown up with computer technology at home or at school. Thus, further study is needed to investigate computer anxiety in a wider range of age.

The findings also indicated that students who had PC available at home spent more time working with computers and showed lower levels of computer anxiety. This is in full agreement with other studies supporting the fact that owning a PC at home brought about more positive computer attitudes and less computer-related anxiety [20]; [41]. Moreover, this supports the fact that owning a personal computer at home (ownership) and the frequency of computer use are two of the operational components of computer anxiety [42].

It was also found that achievement in English, computer ownership, PC time, and internet time were positively related. This supports the assumption on which this study was carried out, that is those who are more knowledgeable in English use computers more than low achievement students; and they have more tendencies to buy computers in order to have more access to it. This is in agreement with what Navdal [2] suggested that high achievement students in English spend more time in front of the screen and they have more access to computers.

Furthermore, achievement in English and computer anxiety were found to be negatively associated. In similar lines, Conti-Ramsden et al. [25] found that students with poorer language skills experienced greater computer anxiety than those with better language skills. Leino [43] also found that students with reading disabilities were more likely to avoid computers. This supports the fact that familiarity with English, as the main language of computer technologies [1], helps students with a good competence in English skills (especially reading and writing) take more advantage of the materials provided by computers such as manuals, helps, hyperlinks, various software, and up-to-date information on the internet [44]. This ease of use decreases their level of computer anxiety and, in turn, helps them use computers more comfortably for their learning. As a result of that learning English is going to be more effective [6]; [7]; [8]; [9]; [10] in the environment of technology.

The final results of this study showed that except gender, other independent variables i.e. achievement in English, PC time, and computer ownership were predictors of computer anxiety. This is in full agreement with the findings of Conti-Ramsden's et al. [25] who reported that language ability was in direct association with computer anxiety and it was a predictive factor in determining the level of computer anxiety. They also argued that gender is not a good predictor of computer anxiety "in the context of other influential variables such as perceived ease of use" (p. 143).

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University. Project no: 510/7-88/2/12. References

1. 1. F. Jafar, The use of English in Internet communication by Jordanian students. Al-Basaer - A Refereed Scientific. Vol. 12 (2008) 9-34.

2. F. Navdal, Home-PC usage and achievement in English. Computers & Education. vol. 49 (2007) 1112-1121.

3. Internet World Stats. Internet Usage Statistics- Big Picture: World Internet users and population stats. (2009). From

<http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm>. Retrieved June 2010.

4. Global Reach, Global Internet statistics(by Language).: Sources & references. Available at http://global-reach .biz/globstats/refs.php3.

(2004). Accessed December 2009.

5. T. Hutchinson, and A. Waters, English for specific purposes: A learning-centered approach. Cambridge, University Press Cambridge. (1990).

6. W. Tsou, W. Wang, H. Li, How computers facilitate English foreign language learners acquire English abstract words. Computers &

Education. vol. 39 (2002) 415-428.

7. W. Tsou, W. Wang, Y. Tzeng, Applying a multimedia storytelling website in foreign language learning. Computers& Education. vol. 47

(2006) 17-28.

8. X. Wang, M. J. Munro, Computer-based training for learning English vowel contrasts. System. vol. 32 (2004) 539-552.

9. O. S. Lopez , The Digital Learning Classroom: Improving English language learners' academic success in mathematics and reading using

interactive whiteboard technology. Computers & Education. vol. 54 (2010) 901-915.

10. J. Bloch, Student/teacher interaction via email: The social context of Internet discourse. Journal of Second Language Writing. vol. 11

(2002) 117-134.

11. D. Healey, The Internet: Helping create 'New English' or reinforcing old dominance? ThaiTESOL Conference

(2007).

http://www.uoregon.edu/~dhealey/thaitesol_healey.pdf . Retrieved August 2010.

12. C. Taylor, I. Kirsch, D. Eignor, & J. Jamieson, Examining the relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-

based language tasks. Language Learning, vol. 49 (1999) 219-274.

13. A. L.Goldberg, & J. J. Pedulla, Performance differences according to test mode and computer familiarity on a practice Graduate Record

Exam. Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 62 (2002), 1053-1067.

14. A. Satharasinghe, Computer literacy of Sri Lanka. Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. (2004) Available online at:

www.statistics.gov.lk/cls2004/index.htm. Retrieved June 2010.

15. L.D. Stanley, Beyond Access: Psychosocial Barriers to Computer Literacy. The Information Society. vol.19 (2003) 407-416.

16. M. Mashhadi, A. Rezvanfar, & J. Yaghoubi, Avamale mo'aser bar karborde fannaveri ettela'at tavasote azae heiat elmi pardis keshavarzi

va manabe tabiei daneshgah Tehran [Effective factors influencing IT application by agricultural and natural resources faculty members at

Tehran University]. Faslnameh Pajoohesh va Barnamerizi dar Amouzesh Ali, vol. 44 (2006) 151-168.

17. J.Yaghoubi, & E. Shamsai, Assessing effective factors in using Internet by faculty members of Agricultural College of Zanjan University,

Iran. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference Dublin, Ireland, (2004, May) pp. 604-608.

18. H.R. Movahed Mohammadi, & H. Irvani, A model for using Internet by students of Iran Agriculture University. Agricultural Sciences

Magazine. vol. 33 (2002) 717-727.

19. A. Karimi, & M. Mokhtarnia, Barresi avamele mo'aser bar karbord fannaveri ettela'ati va ertebati (ICT) tavasot amoozeshgaran dar

honarestanhaie fanni va herfeei keshavarzi: Motale'ei moredi ostane Zanjan [Exploring effective factors influencing Information and

Communications Technology (ICT) use by teachers of agricultural technical schools: A case study in Zanjan]. Majalleye Oloum Keshavarzi, vol. 58 (2004) 321-332.

20. M. Balog'lu, & V. Cevik, Multivariate effects of gender, ownership, and the frequency of use on computer anxiety among high school

students. Computers in Human Behavior. vol. 24 (2008) 2639-2648.

21. M., Igbaria, and S. Parasuraman, A path analytic study of individual characteristics, computer anxiety, and attitudes toward

microcomputers, Journal of Management. vol. 15 (1989) 373-388.

22. M. Maurer, and M. Simonson, Development of validation of a measure of computer anxiety. In M. Simonson (Ed.), Proceedings of

Selected Research Paper Presentations, Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Dallas, Texas.

(Eric Document Reproduction Service, Document ED 243,411), Dallas, TX. (1984) 318-330.

23. S. Brown, R. Fuller, and C. Vician, Who's afraid of the virtual world? Anxiety and Computer-Mediated Communication. Journal of the

Association for Information Systems. vol. 5 (2004) 99-107.

24. M. Brosnan, Technophobia: The psychological impact of information technology. Routledge, London. 1998.

25. G. Conti-Ramsden, K. Durkin, A. J. Walker, Computer anxiety: A comparison of adolescents with and without a history of specific

language impairment (SLI). Computers & Education. vol. 54 (2010) 136-145.

26. A. Albirini, Teachers' attitudes toward information and communication technologies: The case of Syrian EFL teachers. Computers and

Education. vol. 47 (2006) 373-398.

27. C. Chapelle, & J. Jamieson, Computer-Assisted Language Learning as a predictor of success in acquiring English as a second language.

TESOL Quarterly. vol. 20 (1986), 27-46.

28. A. Korukonda, Differences that do matter: A dialectic analysis of individual characteristics and personality dimensions contributing to

computer anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior. vol. 23 (2007) 1921-1942.

29. R. Ayres, Learners attitudes towards the use of CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, vol. 15 (2002) 241-49.

30. Y. Akbulut, Exploration of the attitudes of freshman foreign language students toward using computers at a Turkish state university.

The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology(TOJET). vol. 7 (2008) 18-31.

31. S. M. Mahfouz , F.M. Ihmeideh, Attitudes of Jordanian university students towards using online chat discourse with native speakers of

English for improving their language proficiency, Computer Assisted Language Learning. vol. 22 (2009) 207-27.

32. L. D. Rosen, & M. M. Weil, Computer anxiety: A cross-cultural comparison of university students in ten countries. Computers in Human

Behavior. vol. 11 (1995) 45-64.

33. D. Mcilroy, C. Sadler, and N. Boojawon, Computer phobia and computer self-efficacy: their association with undergraduates' use of

university computer facilities. Computers in Human Behavior. vol. 23 (2007) 1285-1299.

34. D. Mcilroy, B. Bunting, K. Tierney and M. Gordon, The relation of gender and background experience to self-reported computing

anxieties and cognitions, Computers in Human Behavior. vol. 17 (2001) 21-33.

35. M. Rahimi, and S. Yadollahi. Computer Anxiety: A Comparison between Campus-based and Distance Learning EFL Students. Paper

presented in the first International Conference on e-learning and teaching. IUST, Tehran, Iran (2009).

36. L. R. Gay, & P. Airasian, Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (6th ed.). Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey (2000).

37. T.A. Poynton, Computer literacy across the lifespan: A review with implications for educators. Computers in Human Behavior. vol. 21 (2005) 861-872.

38. J. Cooper, The digital divide: The special case of gender. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. vol. 22 (2006) 320-334.

39. A.Bross, Gender and information and communication technologies (ICT) anxiety: Male self-assurance and female hesitation.

CyberPsychology & Behavior. vol. 8 (2005) 21-31.

40. N. G. Combs,The relationships between selected sources of computer anxiety experienced by beginning computer users and approaches to

computer-based training. Unpublished master's thesis. Portland: University of Oregon Applied Information Management Program. (2005).

41. T. Teo, Pre-service teachers' attitudes towards computer use: A Singapore survey. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. vol. 24 (2008) 413-424.

42. M. Balog'lu and V. Cevik, A multivariate comparison of computer anxiety levels between candidate and tenured school principals.

Computers in Human Behavior. vol. 25 (2009) 1102-1107.

43. K. Leino, Computer usage and reading literacy. In S. Lie, P. Linnakyla, & A. Roe (Eds.), Northern Lights on PISA. University of Oslo.

Oslo. (2003) 71-81.

44. K. Durkin, G. Conti-Ramsden, A. Walker, & Z. Simkin, Educational and interpersonal uses of home computers by adolescents with and

without specific language impairment (SLI). British Journal of Developmental Psychology. vol. 27 (2009)197-217.