Scholarly article on topic 'Research on Self-esteem in Decision Making and Decision-making Styles in Taekwondo Athletes'

Research on Self-esteem in Decision Making and Decision-making Styles in Taekwondo Athletes Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Self-esteem in decision making" / vigilance / buck-passing / procrastination / "hyper vigilance" / "decision-making styles" / taekwondo}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Zehra Certel, Duygu Aksoy, Erkan Çalışkan, Tennur Yerlisu Lapa, Mehmet Ali Özçelik, et al.

Abstract The aim of the study is to examine the self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of taekwondo athletes who joined the Turkish Senior Taekwondo Championship in 2012. The population of the study consisted of 410 female and 628 male athletes, making a total of 1038 athletes. The study was conducted on 122 female ( age = 20.25±3.39), 241 male athletes ( age = 21.50±7.23), making a total of 363 athletes ( = 21.07±6.21), sport experience, on average, of 7 years (M year =7.62±3.78) who were selected randomly. The data collection tool was the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire I-II, developed by Mann et al. (1998) and adapted into Turkish by Deniz (2004). In the data analysis, descriptive statistics, frequency (n), percentage (%), mean ( ) and standard deviation (SD) were utilized. For detecting the differences, non- parametrical tests, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall Wallis test were used as normality assumptions according to gender, sportive success and type of coach. Significance level was taken as 0.05. According to the findings, self-esteem in decision- making scores of women were higher than men, meanwhile buck-passing, procrastination and hyper vigilance decision- making scores of men were higher than women. No significant difference was obtained according to sportive success and type of coach.

Academic research paper on topic "Research on Self-esteem in Decision Making and Decision-making Styles in Taekwondo Athletes"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect PrOC6d ¡0

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 93 (2013) 1971 - 1975

3rd World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership (WCLTA-2012)

Research on self-esteem in decision making and decision-making

styles in taekwondo athletes

Zehra Certel, Duygu Aksoy *, Erkan Qali§kan, Tennur Yerlisu Lapa, Mehmet Ali Oz?elik, Gulsun Qelik

School of Physical Education and Sports, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07058, Turkey

Abstract

The aim of the study is to examine the self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of taekwondo athletes who joined the Turkish Senior Taekwondo Championship in 2012. The population of the study consisted of 410 female and 628 male athletes, making a total of 1038 athletes. The study was conducted on 122 female (X age = 20.25±3.39), 241 male athletes (X age = 21.50±7.23), making a total of 363 athletes (X = 21.07±6.21), sport experience, on average, of 7 years (Myear=7.62±3.78) who were selected randomly. The data collection tool was the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire I-II, developed by Mann et al. (1998) and adapted into Turkish by Deniz (2004). In the data analysis, descriptive statistics, frequency (n), percentage (%), mean (X) and standard deviation (SD) were utilized. For detecting the differences, non-parametrical tests, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall Wallis test were used as normality assumptions according to gender, sportive success and type of coach. Significance level was taken as 0.05. According to the findings, self-esteem in decision-making scores of women were higher than men, meanwhile buck-passing, procrastination and hyper vigilance decision-making scores of men were higher than women. No significant difference was obtained according to sportive success and type of coach.

© 2013TheAuthors. Publishedby ElsevierLtd.

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Ferhan Odaba§i

Keywords: Self-esteem in decision making, vigilance, buck-passing, procrastination, hyper vigilance, decision-making styles, taekwondo.

1. Introduction

People react against certain stimuli that they meet in life. The fact that people always have expectations and are in pursuit of new things puts them in difficult situations and requires using strategies for decision making (Deniz, 2002). Decision making is the process of defining alternatives, taking into consideration the presence of various events and happenings, as well as aiming at choosing and realizing the best alternative in relation to life styles and personal values (Harris, 1998). Decision making is a sign given by the individual that he/she understands themselves and the social structures and internalizes them because decision making requires high awareness in an informational and emotional sense (Kuzgun, 1992). Janis and Mann's conflict model in 1977 is essentially a social psychological theory of decision making in which the presence or absence of three antecedent conditions are held to determine reliance on a particular coping pattern. The three conditions are: (1) awareness

* Duygu AKSOY Tel.: +0-90-242-3106813 E-mail address: duyguaksoy@akdeniz.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Ferhan Odaba§i

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.150

of serous risks about preferred alternatives, (2) hope of finding a better alternative, and (3) belief that there is adequate time to search and deliberate before a decision is required. Vigilance, for example, is dependent upon the fulfilment of the above three conditions, whereas defensive avoidance is triggered by the pessimistic belief that there is little prospect of finding a good solution to the dilemma (Mann et al., 1997).

Some strategies used for decision making may naturally cause conflicts during the decision-making process; which requires confrontation or avoidance of the conflicting situation. These strategies can be used after having been planned in advance, or can be decided spontaneously in the presence of a sudden making of a decision (Payne et al., 1993). Therefore, an individual's strategies and styles used for a decision-making approach and showing decision-making behavior are becoming of high importance.

It is known that physiological, psychological and technical-tactical efforts alone are not enough for sportive success and that, in addition, cognitional factors play a key role. In determining sportive success as one dimensional, decision-making ability is very important (Egesoy et al., 1999). Johnson (2006) reported that some kinds of characteristic features of sportive decision making are made under natural, dynamic open behavior, and are made under extreme time-pressure. In sportive settings, decision making is generally made under complex and stressful conditions in order to solve the problem. Tenenbaum & Bar-Eli (1993) talked about short and long-term memory, perception power, cognitional dreams, attention, concentration and experience, which can be taken into account during the decision-making process. According to Rasmussen (1993) the cognitional decision-making process in sport is explained, based on three different types of decision-making behavior: skill-based, rule-based, and knowledge-based.

Yet, time limitation in decision making may change according to sportive branches. There is no time limitation in such sports as golf or sailing, whereas team sports, ball sports and fighting sports (like taekwondo) may require a limited time for decision making (Seiler, 1997). In fact, to decide what to do in certain sportive situations is based on the accumulated knowledge and environment-related information of the player. So, differences in perceptions and accumulated knowledge may lead to different decision-making decisions among the athletes (Fontana, 2007).

2. Methods

The population consisted of 1038 athletes, including 410 women and 628 men, who joined the Turkish Senior Taekwondo Championships in 2012. The sample researched consisted of 363 (age = 21.07±6.21) athletes who were randomized and had sport experiments (sport age = 7.62±3.78). In this research, a Personal Information Form and the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire I-II, developed by Mann and et al., (1998) and translated to Turkish by Deniz (2004) was used as a scale.

A personal information form was developed in the study to determine participants' gender, age, sport experiment and coach types. The Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire consisted of two parts. The Decision-Making Questionnaire I (DMQ1) measured self-esteem as a decision maker. It consisted of six items (sample item: "I think I am a good decision maker") to which the respondent checked "True for me" (score 2); "Sometimes true" (score 1); "Not true for me" (score 0). The maximum score was 12. Decision-Making Questionnaire II consisted of 22 items and used the same response format as DMQI. One scale measured vigilance (sample item: "When making decisions I like to collect lots of information"). Each of the six vigilance items related to a step in sound decision making, such as defining goals, collecting information, considering alternatives, and checking alternatives. The buck-passing scale consisted of six items (sample item: "I prefer to leave decisions to others"). The procrastination scale consisted of five items (sample item: "I put off making decisions"). The hyper vigilance scale consisted of five items, (sample item "I feel as if I'm under tremendous pressure when making decisions") (Mann et al., 1998).

In data analysis, descriptive statistical methods, including frequency (n), percentage (%), mean (X) and standard deviation (SD) were used for personal information. Normal distribution was used to highlight the differences using Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test, which are non-parametric tests, which were used because there was no effectuation of homogeneity conditions.

3. Results

Evaluation of self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of all athletes was performed. The results showed: self-esteem in decision making (X =8.047±2.17), vigilance (X = 8.06±2.57), buck passing (X =6.20±2.979), procrastination ( X = 5.26±2.54), and hyper vigilance ( X = 5.47±2.46). Evaluation of self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles, according to gender of the participants are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Evaluation of self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of Taekwondo athletes, according to gender.

Decision Making Gender n Mean Rank Z p

Self-esteem Male 241 171.53

Female 122 202.69 -2.700 .007*

Vigilance Male 241 183.98

Female 122 178.10 -.508 .612

Buck-passing Male 241 196.27

Female 122 153.81 -3.662 . 000*

Procrastination Male 241 198.63

Female 122 149.15 -4.276 .000*

Hyper vigilance Male 241 194.09

Female 122 158.12 -3.113 .002*

*p<.05

Vigilance of the participants, according to gender, showed that there was no statistically significant difference (Z=-.508, p=.612; p>.05). But there was statistically significant difference in the self-esteem in decision making (z=-2.700, p=007; p<.05), buck passing (Z=-3.662,p=000; p<.05), procrastination (Z= -4.276, p=000; p<.05), hypervigilance (Z= -3.113, p=002; p<.05) styles of Taekwondo athletes (Table 1). Self-esteem and scores of decision-making styles of persons doing taekwondo, in terms of athletic success, are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Evaluation of self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of Taekwondo athletes, according to athletes' success.

Decision Making Sportive Success n Mean Rank X2 p

No Success 132 183.72

Success in Turkey 159 180.93

Self-esteem International Tournaments/Turkey Success World, Europe/Int. Tournaments/Turkey Success 49 23 179.63 184.57 .093 .993

No Success 132 201.22

Vigilance Success in Turkey International Tournaments/Turkey Success World, Europe/Int. Tournaments/Turkey Success 159 49 23 172.22 172.78 158.15 7.550 .056

No Success 132 194.67

Buck-passing Success in Turkey International Tournaments/Turkey Success World, Europe/Int. Tournaments/Turkey Success 159 49 23 176.40 187.52 136.22 6.969 .073

No Success 132 185.00

Procrastination Success in Turkey International Tournaments/Turkey Success World, Europe/Int. Tournaments/Turkey Success 159 49 23 186.29 176.54 146.72 3.155 .368

No Success 132 186.28

Success in Turkey 159 182.32

Hyper vigilance International Tournaments/Turkey Success World, Europe/Int. Tournaments/Turkey Success 49 3 180.62 158.20 1.439 .696

Scores of self esteem in decision making (X2=093, p=.993; p>.05), vigilance (X2=7.550, p=.056; p>.05), buck passing (X2=.6.969, p=.073; p>.05), procrastination (X2=3.155, p=.368; p>.05), and hypervigilance (X2=1.439, p=.696; p>.05) styles of the participants according to sportive success showed that there was no statistically significant difference. According to trainer coach types: authoritarian (n=77), democratic (n=24), stressful (n=22), innovative (n=222), and easy-going (n=11) self esteem in decision making (X2=4.953 (df=4), p=.294; p>.05), viligance X2=4.580 (df=4), buck passing (x2=1.346 (df=4), p= 853; p>.05), procrastination (X2=1.438

(df=4), p=.838; p>.05) hypervigilance (X2=1.274 (df=4), p=.866; p>.05) styles of athletes, there were no statistically significant differences.

4. Discussion and conclusion

It was found that athletes' levels of self-esteem in decision making and vigilance in decision making were higher than the other averages. It may be suggested that athletes had higher levels of self-esteem and made choices after they carefully sought the correct information and meticulously evaluated the alternatives. It may be argued that athletes' levels of buck-passing, procrastination and hyper vigilance decision-making were lower; which means that athletes' tendency to make hurried decisions or to delay decisions in the face of problematic situations were at a moderate level because they felt under pressure. Similar results were obtained from the study of Qetin (2009) on the students of the School of Physical Education and Sports in Ahi Evran University, Aksaray University, Ankara University, Cumhuriyet University, Erciyes University, Gazi University, Kirikkale University, Nigde University and Selguk University.

Female athletes' scores of self-esteem in decision making were higher compared to male athletes. Male athletes used buck-passing, procrastination and hyper vigilance styles more. Judging by the fact that men often have more tasks and responsibilities in the Turkish family structure, they are expected to be more successful in decision making; however, it may be said that taekwondo, a well-disciplined and tough sport, may have improved female athletes' self-confidence. In the study of Mau (2000) on female students, it was reported that there was a difference on behalf of girl students. When other studies that were conducted with university students were analysed, for example: Sinangil (1993), Ta^delen (2002), Kose (2002), Kesici (2002), Deniz (2002), Av^aroglu (2007) and Qetin (2009) they found no difference between students' self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles in terms of sex/gender variable. We are of the opinion that the reason why our findings and findings of other studies were different may be due to the fact that our study was carried out with taekwondo athletes.

It may be argued that self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of nationally and internationally successful athletes showed similarities. Although students played sports at different levels, it may be said that they used similar decision-making styles in the face of problems. Campos (1993), Ripoll et al., (1995), McPherson (1999), Fontana (2007) all conducted studies with fresh and experienced athletes from different sportive branches and found positive results on behalf of experienced athletes. The study of Kioumourtzoglou et al. (1998), which was made with a national water polo team, and amateur basketball team and the study of Egesoy et al. (1999), which was made with professional and amateur football athletes, indicated that no difference was found among the experienced athletes in terms of correct and quick decision-making. As for the study of Qetin (2009), made with elite and non-elite athletes; it was discovered that no difference existed in terms of self-esteem in decision making and using decision-making styles; which is in agreement with our findings. It may be concluded that self-esteem in decision making and decision-making styles of the taekwondo athletes were similar, whether they performed training with authoritarian, democratic, stressful and innovative or easy-going trainer types.

As a conclusion, female athletes' scores of self-esteem in decision making were higher compared to male athletes, while male athletes' scores of buck-passing, procrastination and hyper vigilance styles were higher than female athletes. There was no statistically significant difference between the athletes' coach types in terms of sportive success.

More qualitative and quantitative studies on taekwondo athletes should be conducted and the correlations may be examined using different inventories. Also, we are of the opinion that a comparison of students who play sport, and those who do not, will help uncover the differences among these groups. Additionally, efforts to design a special scale on this issue for the athletes will make positive contributions to the field.

References

Av^aroglu, S. (2007). Üniversite ögrencilerinin karar vermede özsaygi karar verme ve stresle ba§a jikma stillerinin benlik saygisi ve bazi degi^kenler ajisindan incelenmesi. Doctoral Thesis, Seljuk University, Konya, Turkey

Campos, W. (1993). The effects of age and skill level on motor and cognitive components of soccer performance. Doctoral Thesis, University Of Pittsburgh, USA.

Qetin, M. Q. (2009). Beden egitimi ve spor yüksekokulu ögrencilerinin karar verme stilleri, sosyal beceri düzeyleri ve stresle ba§a jikma bijimlerinin bazi degi^kenler ajisindan kar§ila§tirmali olarak incelenmesi. Doctoral Thesis, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Deniz, M. E. (2002). Üniversite ögrencilerinin karar verme stratejileri ve sosyal beceri düzeylerinin TA-baskin ben durumlari ve bazi özlük niteliklerine göre kar§ila§tirmali olarak incelenmesi. Doctoral Thesis, Seljuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Deniz, M.E. (2004). Investigation of the relation between decision making self-esteem, decision making style and problem solving skills of university students. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 15, 23-35.

Egesoy, H,. Eniseler, N., Qamliyer, H., & Qamliyer, H. (1999). Elit ve elit olmayan futbol oyuncularinin karar verme performanslarinin karar verme hizi ve verilen kararin dogrulugu ajisindan kar§ila§tirilmasi. Beden Egitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi. 2(3), 22-33.

Fontana, F. E. (2007). The effects of exercise intensity on decision making performance of experienced and inexperienced soccer athletes. Doctoral Thesis. University of Pittsburg, USA.

Harris, R. (1998). Introduction to decision making. Vanguard University Of Southern California, California, USA.

Johnson. J. G. (2006). Cognitive modeling of decision making in sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(6), 631-652.

Kesici, S. (2002). Üniversite ögrencilerinin karar verme stratejilerinin psikolojik ihtiyaj örüntüleri ve özlük niteliklerine göre kar§ila§tirmali olarak incelenmesi. Doctoral Thesis. Seljuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Kioumourtzoglou, E., Kourtessis, T., Michalopoulou, M., & Derri, V. (1998). Differences in several perceptual abilities between experts and novices in basketball, volleyball and water-polo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86(1), 899-912.

Köse, A. (2002). Psikolojik dani^ma ve rehberlik birinci sinif ögrencilerinin cinsiyet ve algilanan sosyo-ekonomik düzey ajisindan psikolojik ihtiyajlari ve karar verme stratejilerinin incelenmesi. Master Thesis. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Kuzgun, Y. (1992). Karar stratejileri öljegi: geli^tirilmesi ve standardizasyonu.. VII. Ulusal Psikoloji Kongresi Bilimsel Qali^malari. Türk Psikologlar Dernegi Yayinlari. Ankara.

Mann,,E., Burnett , P., Radford, M., & Ford S. (1997). The melbourne decision making questionnaire: an instrument for measuring patterns for coping with decisional conflict. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 10, 1-19.

Mann, L., Radford, M., Burnett, P., Ford, S., Bond, M., Leung, K.., Nakamura, H., Vaughan, G., & Yang, K..S. (1998). Cross-cultural differences in self-reported decision-making style and confidence. International Journal of Psychology. 33, 325-335.

Mau, W. C. (2000). Cultural differences in career in career decision-making styles and self-efficacy. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 57, 365-378.

McPherson, S. L. (1999). Expert-novice differences in performance skills and problem representations of youth and adults during tennis competitions. Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport, 70(3), 233-251.

Payne, W. J., Bettman R. J. & Johnson, J. E. (1993). The adaptive decision maker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rasmussen, J. (1993). Deciding and doing: decision making in natural contexts. . In G. Klein, J. Orasanu, R. Calderwood, & C. Zsambok (Eds.) Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Ripoll, H., Kerlizin, Y., Stein, J., & Reine, B. (1995). Analysis of information is processing, decision making, and visual strategies in complex problem solving sport situations. Human Movement Science, 14(3), 325-349.

Seiler, R. (1997). Decision making in sport. International symposium of the Turkish association of sport psychology, 10-12 October, Mersin.

Sinangil, H. K. (1993). Yönetici adaylarinda karar verme ile kaygi ilijkileri. VII. Ulusal Psikoloji Kongresi, Bilimsel Qali^malari. Türk Psikologlar Dernegi Yayini. 171-177, Ankara.

Ta§delen, A. (2002). Ögretmen adaylarinin farkli psiko-sosyal degi^kenlere göre karar verme stilleri. Doctoral Thesis. Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey.

Tenenbaum, G., & Bar-Eli, M. (1993). Decision making in sport: A cognitive perspective. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphy, & L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology 171-192. New York: Macmillan.