Scholarly article on topic 'Self-esteem and Psychological Symptoms for the Students of Vocational High School of Health Services'

Self-esteem and Psychological Symptoms for the Students of Vocational High School of Health Services Academic research paper on "Health sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Health sciences, author of scientific article — Nermin Gurhan, Azize Atli Ozbas, Nese Ugurlu, Haci Dogan, Esra Kabatas

Abstract This study aimed to determine self-esteem levels for the students of Vocational High School of Health Services and investigate the correlation between self esteem and psychological symptoms scores. The study involved 237 students of Gazi University Vocational High School of Health Services. The data were collected with Student Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI). Results showed that, %55.1 of students had high self-esteem scores and their Somatization, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Depression, Anxiety, Paranoid Ideation and Psychoticism scores were significantly lower than the others. It is extremely important to implement programs on improving self-esteem at the period of higher education.

Academic research paper on topic "Self-esteem and Psychological Symptoms for the Students of Vocational High School of Health Services"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 47 (2012) 2237 - 2242

CY-ICER 2012

Self-esteem and psychological symptoms for the students of vocational high school of health services

Nermin Gurhana *, Azize Atli Ozbasb, Nese Ugurluc, Haci Dogand, Esra Kabatase

a Gazi University, Faculty of Health Sciences Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Department, Ankara, 06330, Turkiye b Gazi University, Faculty of Health Sciences Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Department, Ankara, 06330, Turkiye cGazi University, Faculty of Health Sciences Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Department, Ankara, 06330, Turkiye

dGazi University Faculty Vocational High School of Health Services, Ankara, 06330, Turkiye eGazi University, Faculty of Health Sciences Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Department, Ankara, 06330, Turkiye

Abstract

This study aimed to determine self-esteem levels for the students of Vocational High School of Health Services and investigate the correlation between self esteem and psychological symptoms scores. The study involved 237 students of Gazi University Vocational High School of Health Services. The data were collected with Student Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI). Results showed that, %55.1 of students had high self-esteem scores and their Somatization, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Depression, Anxiety, Paranoid Ideation and Psychoticism scores were significantly lower than the others. It is extremely important to implement programs on improving self-esteem at the period of higher education.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu Keywords: Adolescent, self esteem, development of self esteem;

ELSEVIER

1. Introduction

Youth is the period, between childhood and adulthood, that is marked by development, spiritual maturity and preparation to life. This period is important from the point of youth's perception of self, development of the idea of who and what he/she is, namely the concept of self . The youth develops self-esteem if he/she likes and adopts self-image and self-concept (Yorukoglu, 2000). Individuals with high self-esteem have high self-confidence, will to be successful, endurance to difficulties, good mental health, more tolerance in interpersonal relationships and are optimistic and non-aggressive. They find life more meaningful and don't become depressed easily (Pektekin, 1993). Briefly high self-esteem enables individual to have confidence in the life, find success and happiness and overcome the disappoinments of life.

* Corresponding author name. Tel.: +90-312-216 -2621 E-mail address: nermingurhan@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.979

It is important from the point of both occupational success and self satisfaction that the students who will be future health workers grow as individuals who are more assertive, able to establish healthy relationships, accept themselves and have high self-respect and self-esteem (Sanford & Donovan, 1999).

This study aimed to determine self-esteem levels for the students of Vocational High School of Health Services and investigate the correlation between self esteem scores and psychological symptoms scores.

2. Methodology

This is a descriptive and correlational study.

2.1. Study Location

The study was conducted at Gazi University Vocational High School of Health Services. It is located in Golba§i Campus and it includes 6 programs of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Medical Documentary & Secretary, Medical Imaging Techniques, Environmental Health, Paramedic and Elderly Care.

2.2. Sample

The study involved 237 students who agreed to participate.

2.3. Data Collection

The data were collected with Student Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory between January-February 2011. The data collection tools are filled by the students.

Student Information Form (SIF), is developed by researchers after reviewing the literature and consulting the experts on the subject. It includes questions about sociodemographic features and choice of program.

Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), is a 53-item, self assessment inventory which was developed by Derogatis to meet the need of a short but valid and reliable scale for general psychopathologic assessment. It is composed of 9 subscales and 3 global indices. Adaptation of the BSI to our country has been done by §ahin and Batigiin (1994).

The BSI results in nine subscales (Somatization-S, Obsessive-Compulsiveness-OC, Interpersonal Sensitivity-IS, Depression-D, Anxiety-A, Hostility-H, Phobic Anxiety-PA, Paranoid Ideation-PI, Psychoticism-P) and three global indices of distress (Global Severity Index-GSI [number and severity of symptoms], Positive Symptom Distress Index-PSDI [intensity of symptoms], Positive Symptom Total-PST [number of symptoms endorsed in a pathological direction without regard to intensity]) and added items (eating disorders, sleep disturbance, death and thoughts on death, and feelings of guilt).

Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), is developed by Coopersmith (1986) and it has a long form with 58 items and short form with 25 items. The short form of CSEI is used at this research. Adaptation to Turkish and reliability and validity study of the short form of CSEI has been done by Turan & Tufan (1987) and Cronbach's alpha of reliability coefficient was found as 0.62.

The score that is derived from the Inventory changes between 0-100. Self-esteem level is classified as low if the score from the Inventory is between 10-30, medium if between 31-70 and high if between 71-100 (Turan & Tufan, 1987).

2.4. Statistical Analysis

We used ANOVA (F) and T Test from parametric statistics and chi-square test from nonparametric statistics for statistical analysis.

3. Results

According to research results; %55.1 of students have high self-esteem scores.

Table 1. Student's Sociodemographic Features

SocioDemographic Features n %

Gender Women 177 74.7

Men 60 25.3

Family Type Nuclear 190 80,2

Extended 26 11,0

Divided family 21 8.9

Economical Status Good 61 25.7

Middle 151 63.7

Poor 25 10.5

Living Conditions With Family 147 62.0

Student Hostel 51 21.5

Student House 27 11.4

With a Relative 12 5.1

Residential area Ankara 163 68.8

Out of Ankara 74 31.2

Growing area Three big cities of Turkey 155 65.4

Other 82 34.6

Totally 237 100

Sociodemographic features of students were given at Table 1. The mean age of students was 19.32 (±2.01). The majority of students were female (74.7%), had nuclear family (80.2%) and were living in Ankara (68.8%). More than half of the students were living with their family (62.0%) and reported their economical status as moderate.

Tablo 2: Students' Features Related to School

Characteristics n %

The program studied Medical Documentation and Secretariat 51 21.5

Geriatric Care 60 25.3

Environmental Health 13 5.5

First and Emergency Aid 37 15.6

Medical Laboratory Techniques 18 7.6

Voluntary status for The Yes 162 68.4

Program No 75 31.6

Order of choosing the In the top three 76 32.1

department 4Î 161 67.9

information status about the Yes 175 73.8

program No 62 26.2

The reason for choosing the Wish for the department 58 24.5

school Employment opportunity 45 19.0

Graduating from a vocational school 57 24.1

Wish of family 27 11.4

No specific reason 50 21.1

Totally 237 100

Students' Features related to school were given at Table 2. More than half of the students stated that they preferred their current department (68.4%). 32.1% of the sample chose their current department in the top three in their school choices in university exam. Among the reasons for choicing the department, the first reason was wish for the department (%24.5) and the second was graduating from a vocational school (%24.1).

Table 3. The Distribution Of Mean CSEI Scores According To Some Features Of The Students

SELF ESTEEM

Features Good Middle Poor Statistics

n % n % n %

Gender Women 12 6.8 73 41.2 92 52 k2=4.42

Men 1 1.7 20 33.3 39 65 p>.05

Family Type Nuclear 10 5.3 79 41.6 101 53.2 k2=6.97

Extended 3 11.5 5 19.2 18 69.2 p>.05

Divided family 0 0 9 42.9 12 57.1

Economical Good 1 1.6 22 36.1 38 62.3 k2=3.86

Status Middle 11 7.3 60 39.7 80 53.0 p>.05

Poor 1 4.0 11 44.0 13 52.0

The program Medical Documentation and 1 2.0 20 39.2 30 58.8 k2=7.10

studied Secretariat p>.05

Geriatric Care 3 5.0 26 43.3 31 51.7

Environmental Health 1 7.7 6 46.2 6 46.2

First and Emergency Aid 3 8.1 12 35.4 22 59.5

Medical Laboratory 0 0 5 27.8 13 72.2

Techniques

Voluntary Yes 8 4.9 62 38.3 92 56.8 k2=0.61

status for No 5 6.7 31 41.3 39 52.0 p>.05

Program

The reason for Wish for the department 5 8.6 15 25.9 38 65.5 k2=11.0

choosing the Employment opportunity 1 2.2 19 42.2 25 55.6 p>.05

school Graduating from a vocational school 2 3.5 30 52.6 25 43.9

Wish of family 1 3.7 11 40.7 15 55.6

No specific reason 4 8.0 18 36.6 28 56.6

Totally 13 5.5 93 39.2 131 55.1

The distribution of mean CSEI scores according to some features of the students was given at Table 3. The students' Gender (1^=4.42; p>.05), Family Type (k2=6.97; p>.05), Economical Status (k2=3.86; p>.05), The Program Studied (k2=7.10; p>.05), voluntary status for The Program (k2=0.61; p>.05) and The Reason For Choosing The School (k2=11.0; p>.05) are found as not effecting the self-esteem.

Table 4. The Distribution of Mean BSI Scores According To The Self-Esteem Status of Sample

CSEI <30 CSEI 31-70 CSEI 71-100 Statistics

BSI X SS X SS X SS F p

Somatization 7.77 1.29 7.30 .69 5.33 .49 3.37 <.05

OCD 12.77 1.27 8.42 .56 6.89 .44 8.79 <.01

Interpersonal Sensitivity 8.31 1.31 4.45 .376 3.81 .29 9.93 <.01

Depression 12.08 2.19 7.35 .59 5.31 .42 11.25 <.01

Anxiety 10.08 1.45 6.49 .59 5.43 .43 4.86 <.01

Hostility 9.08 1.62 6.39 .53 6.38 .42 1.79 >.05

Phobic Anxiety 4.92 1.28 4.72 .45 3.95 .36 1.02 >.05

Paranoid Ideation 10.54 1.76 6.96 .54 6.29 .39 4.60 <.05

Psychoticism 7.46 1.17 4.39 .42 4.03 .32 4.65 <.05

Added items 6.23 1.04 4.49 .40 3.96 .29 2.61 >.05

The distribution of mean BSI scores according to the self-esteem status of sample was shown at Table 5. When BSI subscale scores were investigated according to the self-esteem status of the sample, it was found that there were significant differences between Somatization (f=3.37;p<0.05), Obsessive Compulsiveness (f=8.79;p<0.01), Interpersonal Sensitivity (f=9.93; p<0.01), Depression (f= 11.25; p<0.01), Anxiety (f=4.86; p<0.01), Paranoid Ideation (f=4.60; p<0.01), Psychoticism (f=4.65; p<0.01) scores of the students. These differences were;

The mean Somatization score of students with high self-esteem scores was significantly lower than those with medium self-esteem scores (f=3.37;p<0.05).

The mean Obsessive Compulsiveness score of students with high self-esteem scores was significantly lower than others (f=8.79;p<0.01).

The mean Interpersonal Sensitivity score of students with high self-esteem scores was significantly lower than others (f=9.93; p<0.01).

The mean Depression score of students with high self-esteem scores was significantly lower than others (f=11.25; p<0.01).

The mean Anxiety score of students with high self-esteem scores was significantly lower than those with low self-esteem scores (f=4.86; p<0.01).

The mean Paranoid Ideation score of students with high self-esteem scores was significantly lower than others (f=4.60; p<0.01).

Psychoticism score of students with high self-esteem scores was significantly lower than others (f=4.65; p<0.01). 4. Conclusion

The Self-esteem defined as one's positive and negative perception towards self has relation with many psychological symptoms. It is extremely important to implement programs on improving self-esteem and increasing assertive life experiences at the period of higher education that involves the last part of adolescence.

References

Coopersmith, S. (1986). Self-Esteem Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Derogatis, L. R. (1993). The Brief Symptom Inventory-BSI: Administration, Scoring and Procedures Manual. (4th ed.). Mineapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.

Pektekin, Q. (1993). Istanbul Üniversitesi Florence Nightingale Hem§irelik Yüksekokulunda uygulanan egitimin ögrencilerin davram§lan ve

benlik saygisi üzerine etkisi. Oral presented at the 3rd Nursing Education Symposium, Istanbul, 8-13th September. Sanford, L. T., & Donovan, M. E. (1999). Kadinlar ve Benlik Saygisi. (Translation: Katlan, S.). Ankara: HYB Yayincilik. §ahin, N. H., Durak, A. (1994). Kisa Semptom Envanteri: Türk genpleri igin uyarlanmasi. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 9(31), 44-56. Turan, N., & Tufan, B. (1987). Coopersmith benlfc saygisi envanterinin (SEI) geferlik-güvenirlik salijmasi. 23. Ulusal Psikiyatri ve Nörolojik

Bilimler Kongresi Bilimsel Qalismalari (Congress Book). Istanbul. 14-18th September, (pp. 816-817). Yörükoglu, A. (2000). Genglik Qagi. (1ed.). Istanbul: Özgür Yayinlan.