Scholarly article on topic 'Influencing Factors of Entrepreneurial Development in Indonesia'

Influencing Factors of Entrepreneurial Development in Indonesia Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"Medium Enterprises" / Indonesia / Family / "Business Development" / Entrepreneur}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Ilma Nurul Rachmania, Merlyn Rakhmaniar, Santi Setyaningsih

Abstract SMEs have a significant influence for economic growth in developing countries. Most of SMEs started as family businesses. Many successful entrepreneurs come from family business background. Therefore, information about the business types and how family members support the business can be a consideration for future entrepreneurs to build their own business empire. The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics, attributes and growth orientations of Indonesian entrepreneurs, including the roles and contributions of family toward SME. The data used for this study collected from questionnaires, with family business entrepreneurs as the respondents. The factors collected in the questionnaires are the drivers of being entrepreneurs and a combination of demographic information and detail related to characteristics and business orientations. The output of this study is the information on entrepreneur motivation, the influence of family member participation on the business growth, and other factors that might influence the SME family business success.

Academic research paper on topic "Influencing Factors of Entrepreneurial Development in Indonesia"

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Procedía Economics and Finance 4 (2012) 234 - 243

International Conference on Small and Medium Enterprises Development with a Theme "Innovation and Sustainability in SME Development" (ICSMED 2012)

Influencing Factors of Entrepreneurial Development in Indonesia

Ilma Nurul Rachmaniaa*, Merlyn Rakhmaniara, Santi Setyaningsiha

_aMaster Science Management - School of Business Management ITB, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia_

Abstract

SMEs have a significant influence for economic growth in developing countries. Most of SMEs started as family businesses. Many successful entrepreneurs come from family business background. Therefore, information about the business types and how family members support the business can be a consideration for future entrepreneurs to build their own business empire. The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics, attributes and growth orientations of Indonesian entrepreneurs, including the roles and contributions of family toward SME. The data used for this study collected from questionnaires, with family business entrepreneurs as the respondents. The factors collected in the questionnaires are the drivers of being entrepreneurs and a combination of demographic information and detail related to characteristics and business orientations. The output of this study is the information on entrepreneur motivation, the influence of family member participation on the business growth, and other factors that might influence the SME family business success.

© 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under res ponsibility of Parahyangan (Catholic University. Keywords: Medium Enterprises, Indonesia, Family, Business Development, Entrepreneur

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +628-96-545-111-59 E-mail address: ilma.nurul@sbm-itb.ac.id.

2212-5671 © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Parahyangan Catholic University.

doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(12)00338-3

1. Introduction

Business is one way in which community in maintaining the economic side of their lives. The increasing of the number of businesses currently gives effect to each of them to always change for the improvement. Businesses which are succeed in maintaining their competitiveness, have learned to view the changes not as a past event, but serve as a spur to an ongoing process to meet the customer needs (Birdthistle, 2008).

Many small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that developed in one country can provide a positive side which encourages diversification of the market, promoting innovation, and provide many job opportunities. But on the other hand, SMEs often credit insufficient and vulnerable to credit crunches during the financial crisis (Barth, et al., 2011). Based on that information, SMEs can increase the level of the economy community, but the quality of SMEs should be maintained to reduce the failure of rate loan. In any country, small and medium enterprises have an important role in industrial development. The importance of the SME sector is recognized around the world because it can significantly improve the social and economic systems in a variety of purposes (Sharma and Wadhawan, 2009).

Indonesia's economy will be much stronger if the number of SMEs in the country could grow even more. Minister for State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) Dahlan Iskan put the current number of SMEs in Indonesia has reached 1.5% of the total population (Wage, 2012). In 2011 the number of SMEs in Indonesia is estimated to reach 55.2 million businesses. In large numbers and contribute significantly to the national economy, SMEs considered as a market with huge potential to boost the local economy (Herdiyan, 2012). Based on the data, the number of SMEs reached 51.26 million units in 2008 meanwhile the total of SMEs reached 49.82 million units in 2007 and it dominated with the micro business (Setiawan, 2009). If seen from the data, the growth of SMEs in Indonesia increased by 6.5% from the previous year (Maf, 2012).

If Indonesia did comparison to India as a country that both have the same population as well as a developing country, India has a number of SMEs as much as over 26 Millions of SMEs in 2007. The majority of their business is a 'one-man shows' that provides services to local markets with minimal investment (Kabra, 2010). They use traditional techniques and they have no formal management practices and lack access to bank credit. According to Maf (2012), State Minister for Cooperatives and SMEs Affairs, Dr Syarief Hasan said Indonesia's economic growth per December 31, 2011, Indonesia recorded the highest in the entire economy of ASEAN, Indonesia and even the three major economies of the entire Asia Pacific region, in which Indonesia lost to China and India.

The family business is one form of small and medium businesses. Family business can be used as a reference of most economies around the world and can make a major contribution in terms of employment and economic output. Most of the SME in Indonesia is a family business, built with family funds and not infrequently that its workers are part of the family. The essential theoretic, the main purpose of a family business located in the dominant vision of family members. Vision in general should be used to advance the family business, the more potential for several generations. (Chua, et al., 1999).

The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics, attributes and growth orientations of Indonesian entrepreneurs, including the relationships, roles, and contributions of family and culture toward SME. Besides that, this paper also can be used as a means to find out about the information about family types, ways of communication, managerial styles and the support members can assist future entrepreneurs to build their own business empire.

2. Research Question and Direction of Study

2.1 SME in Indonesia

The regulation number 20 at 2008 about Small and Medium Enterprises defines micro, small, and medium enterprise as productive economic activities that belongs to individuals, not branch or subsidiary companies. The criteria to be classified as a micro enterprise are assets below 50 million rupiah and earnings below 300 million rupiahs; as a small enterprise are assets between 50 and 500 million rupiah and earnings between 300 million and 2.5 billion rupiah; and as a medium enterprise are assets between 500 million and 10billion rupiah and earnings between 2.5 and 50 billion rupiah.

In economic development in Indonesia, the SMEs sector is always described as having an important role, because most of the population in Indonesia has low education and living in small business activities in both traditional and modern sectors. The role of small businesses is preferred to be part in the planning stages of development that is managed by two departments of the ministries and departments of industry and trade cooperatives and SMEs. The Government has made regulations on small and medium enterprises, namely Law no. 20, 2008, however the development of SMEs is not satisfactory, because in fact the progress of SMEs is very small compared with the progress made large companies. In the New Order era around 1980 is only slightly towards the implementation of SME policy, so the results are not satisfactory. The Government favored the large employers such as trade, banking, forestry, agriculture, industry, etc (Partomo, 2004).

In the face of stiff competition, since the opening of markets in the country and abroad (ACFTA = ASEANChina Free Trade Area) in 2009 is a threat to SMEs in Indonesia as more goods and services coming from outside, due to globalization. Therefore, enhancement and development of SMEs currently feel more urgent and very strategic to lift the economy, and then the independence of SMEs can be achieved in the foreseeable future. With the growing economy is expected to increase people's incomes, employment opportunities and prosperity for society as a whole.

Nowadays, Indonesia has several organizations which concern to the entrepreneurship, one of the organizations is SMESCO that stands for "Small and Medium Enterprises and Cooperatives". Smesco Indonesia Company (SIC) was founded in March 2007 with one overall goal to promote Indonesian products of outstanding quality to the world. Everything they do is in the pursuit of achieving the goal, while providing top-notch professional services to local and foreign clients. Data contained in SMESCO on SMEs in Indonesia are as follows:

Table 1. SMEs in Indonesia

SMEs Year 2010 Year 2011

The number of SMEs are served 820 SMEs 1.133 SMEs

The number of craftsmen who accommodated 6.500 Craftsmen 8.000 Craftsmen

The number of SMEs are served Province 22 Provinces 31 Provinces

Number of Stock Rp 14.350.000.000,- Rp 16.375.000.000,-

Number of Products 40 type of products 40 type of products

Family business is one form of SME, which is the form of most Indonesia's SME. An early definition of family business came from Donnelley (1964, in Zachary, 2011). His definition included one or more of the following conditions: existence of family relationships as a key factor in succession, presence of family member on board of directors, reflection of family values in business, actions of family member reflected on reputation of business, presence of relatives involved and who felt obligated to hold stock for more than

financial reasons, relationship between family members' positions in the business and their standing in the family, and entering the firm being part of family members' career decisions. In more recent study, Chua et al. (1999) defined family business as "a business governed and/or managed with the intention to shape and pursue the vision of the business held by a dominant coalition controlled by members of the same family or a small number of families in a manner that is potentially sustainable across generations of the family or families".

Collins and O'Regan (2011) stated that family business is more complex than non family business. Moreover, they said the complexity is particularly because of the family dynamics impact on decision making process and that balancing the emotional, ownership and business aspects of the family within the enterprise can present constant challenge. Therefore, it is important to understand more about the varying behavior in different types of family businesses.

Some studies had explained the advantage and disadvantage of doing a family business. Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2005 in Collins and O'Regan, 2011) argued that family business create value for their customers by exploiting operational excellence and pursuing a quality strategy based on their unique resources. Poza (2007 in Collins and O'Regan, 2011) confirmed the statement, and added that these unique resources and competencies of family business enable them to have greater agility in the changing market environment. Jaffe (2005) viewed it from a different perspective. He noticed that families and businesses often have different criteria for making decisions, which negatively affect the business. His examples are conflict in income sharing among successors and in hiring decision because of family relationship which can lead to unqualified employees with major responsibilities.

2.2 The Growth of SMEs and Family Participation

Family participation in was found to have a positive impact on entrepreneurial growth intentions and expansion plans (Fahed-Shreih et al., 2009). Hadjimanolis and Poutziouris (2011) found that people who have a parent or close family member, who is self-employed are more likely to follow an entrepreneurial career. A family business background leads perhaps to lower barriers to entrepreneurial entry, since those having it may capitalize on their social ties and social capital (Greve and Saleff, 2003). Parents act as initial role models and the parents active in a family business influence the future entrepreneurial intentions through changing attitudes and beliefs (Shapero and Sokol, 1982, Krueger et al., 2000 in Hadjimanolis and Poutziouris, 2011).

2.3 Indonesia Culture and Business Development

Culture has been defined as the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from those of another (Hofstede, 1991 in Bagwell, 2006). Values are a fundamental component of culture; combined with observable artefacts and basic underlying assumptions (Schein, 1990 in Cubico et al., 2009). In Bagwell (2006) value systems are shaped by factors such as religion, proximity, history, and education.

Indonesia is a country full of rich family culture. Every aspect of the family is valued and creates a unique family culture seen by no other country. The country contains different ethnic groups such as Javanese (45%), Sundanese (14%), Madurese (7.5%), coastal Malays (7.5%) and other ethnic groups (26%). The different social and cultural groups are naturally isolated from each other due to the geography of the region. Indonesian culture is an intermixture of influences from many diverse civilizations, which include: Hinduism and Buddhism during the early first century AD; the Arabic influence during the 13th century, and also the SouthEast Asian and Polynesian cultures, as well as influences from the influx of Chinese and Dutch people (Tsamenyi, 2007).

The family business development was also influenced by some succession factors. Successions issue of family business is not simply a single step of handing the baton; it is a multi-staged process that exists over time, beginning before heirs even enter the business. Furthermore, the effectiveness of succession is not limited

to whether a president has been designated; the ongoing health of the firm, quality of life, and family dynamics are critical to the success of the succession process (Handler, 1993).

3. Research Methodology

The research was conducted in Indonesia, specifically in March and April 2012. By performing the benchmark literature on research which conducted by Fahed Sreih, et al. (2009), several factors were asked to the owner of the family business. Variables are summarized in five sectors including entrepreneurial motivation in running the business, demographic profile and experience in work, relationships between family and business, type of business and family participation, growth intentions, and expansion plans.

The next stage was conducting the survey research, using questionnaire. There were two ways of data collection, the first one used hard copy to collect the data in the traditional market and asked directly to the owner of the family business. The other one used internet survey through e-mail and social media. Since questionnaire of this study is using simple Indonesian language, which familiar to the respondents, the assistance to fill out the questionnaire would not be needed.

The target of the respondents is Small and Medium Enterprise entrepreneurs that run their business with their family participation. The specific characteristic is that the business at least have one of their family invest on the business or work either as a full-time employee or part-time employee. This study used 61 respondents from different SMEs area which have a very broad market area of their business.

4. Research Findings

4.1 Indonesian entrepreneurial motives

Table 2. Top Ten Reason and Motives for Entrepreneurship

Motivation Mean SD

Desire to have high earnings 4.21 0.69

To have greater flexibility in my personal and family life 4.13 0.78

To control my own time 4.03 0.86

To give myself, my husband/wife and children security 4.02 0.90

To be able to develop an idea for a product or a business 3.90 0.86

To have the opportunity to lead, rather than be led by others 3.70 0.94

To make a direct contribution to the success of a company 3.64 0.91

To make better use of my training or skills 3.61 0.95

To be my own boss, to work for myself 3.33 1.06

To achieve something and get recognition for it 3.31 0.92

Notes: n total = 61 range 1-5

In Table 2, the mean ratings of the top ten motive-based attributes (based on Fahed-Sreih et al., 2009) were arranged in descending order and include the standard deviations. Given the fact that the attributes are not independent, a standard t-test of means was used to determine whether the overall mean ratings were different. Results verify that the attributes differ significantly in importance. The results suggest that Indonesian entrepreneurs are motivated by the high income, personal and family life flexibility, to control own time, and family security. This result shows similarity with the similar study about the motivation factors of Lebanese entrepreneurs, which concluded that Lebanese entrepreneurs are motivated by the need for independence and personal flexibility, family well-being, and the desire for high-income levels (Fahed-Sreih et al., 2009).

The way that Indonesian entrepreneurs are motivated by the desire to have high earnings are most likely because individuals choose self-employment whenever it is more rewarding than the labour market

(Bhattachaijee et al., 2008). This finding also refutes the argument that non monetary reasons play a more important role than monetary reasons for being an entrepreneur (Wagner and Ziltener, 2008). Wagner and Ziltener (2008) distinguished the four major entrepreneurial motives as self realization and independency, enhanced status and income, economic contribution and impact, and upholding tradition and securing income. These motives are supported by the result of this study, that income and self independency are the most influencing drivers of Indonesian entrepreneurs.

4.2 Demographic profile and business and work experience

Table 3. Level of Education

Level of Education

< Senior High School Senior High School Diploma Graduated Degree Post Graduated N

Men 4.92% 18.03% 4.92% 21.31% 11.48% 34

Woman 1.64% 13.11% 21.31% 3.28% 27

Total 6.56% 31.15% 4.92% 42.62% 14.75% 61

Survey results showed that entrepreneurship is not an exclusively male activity in Indonesia. 44.26% of the entrepreneurs surveyed were women. Table II also showed that men have a greater education level. This result is in line with previous studies showed in Lebanon (Fahed-Sreih et al., 2009) in the case that Indonesian women are also entering the work force and starting businesses.

Table 3 indicates that overall Indonesian entrepreneurs have a high level of education. The vast majority has a college education, with 21.31% men and 21.31% women have a graduated degree. Another result also showed that 11.48% men continue their education to post graduated degree. It is clear that Indonesian culture places a great value on education and learning.

Several studies have described the relationship of education and entrepreneurship. Bhattacharjee et al. (2008) argued that better educated individuals are more eager to move away from a bad labor market state and hence choose self employment independent of their actual human capital, in particular because they might worry about the depreciation of their observed human capital. Wagner and Ziltener (2008) found that entrepreneurs need to show university credentials, combined in many cases with state or industry association certification. Moreover, they argued that holding these educational credentials and certificates represents the actual barrier to market entry. On the other hand Bhattacharjee et al. (2008) found strong empirical evidence for the sample of new French firms that the positive impact of an entrepreneurs education on the new firms survival varies significantly depending on the entrepreneurs initial state in the labor market.

Table 4. Business Experience

Business Experience N

1-2 year 2-3 years 3-4 years 4-5 years > 5 years

Men 9.84% 4.92% 6.52% 8.20% 26.23% 34

Woman 9.84% 4.92% 1.64% 6.56% 21.31% 27

Total 19.67% 9.84% 8.20% 14.75% 47.54% 61

Table 4 showed that 47.54% entrepreneurs have a business experience more than 5 years. From 5 categories of length, 2 categories which are experience 1-2 years and 2-3 years, male and women have an equal business experience. In the rest categories, men have more business experience than women. Based on the Table 4 we can also see that 19.67% respondent were relatively new in experiencing business.

Experiences play an important role in entrepreneurship. Wagner and Ziltener (2008) argued that

entrepreneurs require substantial industry- specific experience, which is one of the few differentiating factors available in their respective markets. Experience itself can be used as a selling point, especially when it comes to references showing experience in dealing with new rules and regulations. Entrepreneurial experience on the other hand is not relevant; as these individuals do not function as entrepreneurs in the classic sense, but rather are concerned with managing themselves and their customer portfolio.

Bhattacharjee et al.(2008) also noted the relationship between educational level, business experience and survival entrepreneurship. He found that specifically, the relationship between educational level and survival entrepreneurship is significant only for individuals who were employed and started a business in a sector in which they had some prior experience.

4.3 Family and enterprise relationships

Based on the additional interviews that conducted during data collection using questionnaires and the findings of this study, most business were established in order to increase family living standards. Family is the most important factor of most of the people in Indonesia. This statement was also supported by research which conducted by Fahed-Sreih, et al. (2009). They stated that the family plays a central role in development of enterprise in transition economies that have experienced severe socio-economic turmoil.

From the overall data that already collected, it can be seen that 64% of family business in Indonesia have one or two inventors in their business. While the remaining have 13% more than 2 investors in the business and the rest do not have the investor at all. For the further analysis, there are 67% of companies that have more than one family of investors in the early years of business operation. This signifies the importance of helping the family in the early stages of business development.

In addition to being investors, family also participate in assisting in business operations, such as full-time employee or part-time employees. Based on the results of the study, there were 74% of these family businesses have family members as full-time workers. 57% of these businesses have one or two full-time employees and this situation indicates that family businesses need their family to assist in the operational systems and they have high confidence for their family than to the others person. It may also indicate that the family members were being prepared for succession so that they need to be familiarized with the whole business operation. On the other hand, if it viewed in terms of part-time employee, most of the family businesses in Indonesia that were not using part-time employee from their family is as much as 54%. The rest have some part-time family employees. According to the research Fahed-Sreih, et al. (2009) in Lebanon, they stated that it occurred because employers regard works as part of family obligations, so that more family member as full-time workers than part-time. In Indonesia, the conclusion could have been similar, but it still needs the further research on that subject. The results of this section can be helpful in seeing how far the family contribute in a family business.

Table 5. Family and Enterprise Relationships - Investment and Employment

Question 0 1 2 3 4 >4 Mean SD

Question 1 23% 26% 38% 5% 2% 7% 1.557 1.311

Question 2 26% 36% 21% 3% 7% 7% 1.475 .433

Question 3 54% 18% 11% 11% 2% 3% 0.984 1.348

Notes: Question 1: How many family members are investors in your enterprise? Question 2: How many family members are full-time employees in your firm? Question 3: How many family members are part-time employees in your firm?

4.4 Type of business organization

In the family business in Indonesia, 85% of the overall data obtained are listed type of business as a sole

proprietorship. While 8% is a business partnership, 5% corporations and 2% is the other business type.

Table 6. Business Organization and Activities of Indonesian Entrepreneur

Type of Business Organization

Sole Proprietorship 85%

Partnership 8%

Cooperation 5%

Others 2%

Total 100%

Method of Establishment Technique

Originate 75%

Inherit 11%

Buy from Others 7%

Others 7%

Total 100%

Business Activities of Indonesian Entrepreneurs Business Activities

Retail 57%

Service Industries 13%

Food 5%

Distribution 3%

Business Activities of Indonesian Entrepreneurs Business Activities

Computer/Technology 3%

Pharmacy 2%

Hotel 2%

Construction 2%

Manufacturer 2%

Others 11%

Total 100%

Moreover, from the view of the business establishment, it can be seen that in general 75% of family businesses is the original business. With further analysis, it is known that 62% of businesses owned by the original had a turnover of less than 300 million, while the other 35% has a moderately high turnover of 300 million up to 2.5 billion of rupiah. It appears that successful businesses are led in person.

Business activities of family business in Indonesia are mostly retail with a value of 57%. With further analysis, it appears that 40% of the overall retail business has a turnover of 300 million up to 2.5 billion of rupiah and 67% of businesses that have turnover are derived from the retail business. It can be concluded that the number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia prefer doing retail business, because of the high level of business success.

4.5 Growth intentions and expansion plans

This section describes the things the entrepreneurs want to improve in their business developments. Business developments are discussed in terms of operations, market expansion that will increase business profits, an

increase in the direction of information technology and others.

Table 7. Growth Intension and Expansion Plans

No Item Mean SD

1 Adding operating space 3.23 1.27

2 Acquiring new equipment 3.52 1.10

3 Selling to a new market 3.74 1.06

4 Expand current facilities 3.69 0.99

5 Expanding distribution channels 3.77 1.20

6 Adding specialized employees 3.03 1.12

7 Expanding advertising and promotion 3.10 1.23

8 Researching new markets 3.56 1.20

9 Redesigning layout 3.34 1.18

10 Upgrading computer systems 2.62 1.29

11 Adding a new product or service 3.75 1.25

12 Replace present equipment 2.85 1.17

13 Computerizing current operations 2.69 1.29

14 Expanding scope of operating methods 3.39 1.20

15 Redesigning operating methods 2.97 1.05

16 Training for employees 2.80 1.30

17 Seeking additional financing 3.49 1.31

18 Seeking professional advice 2.54 1.27

Notes : n=61 range= 1-5

With so much development to do business, family business in Indonesia is more emphasis on expanding the development of distribution channels with the value 3.77, it aims to increase profits by getting more market. Another development is the adding a new product or service with a value of 3.75, the goal is a variation of a product or service will provide many options to the customer so the customer does not get bored by the over existing products. This will make customers more likely to return to buy the other products. Selling to a new market with a value of 3.74 has the same goal of increasing profits for businesses and expanding the market share.

5. Conclusion

This study attempted to identify the entrepreneurial motivation in running the business, demographic profile and experience in work, relationships between family and business, type of business and family participation, growth intentions, and expansion plans. The results suggest that Indonesian entrepreneurs are motivated by the high income, personal and family life flexibility, to control own time, and family security. Most entrepreneurs have a business experience more than 5 years, showing that the businesses are already in a relatively stable condition. Family participation in the business is mostly as the investor, which signifies the importance for the family to help the other family member in the early stages of business development. More family member as full-time workers than part-time workers, probably because they still regards working in the family business as part of family obligations. The result also showed that most of the businesses are listed as a sole proprietorship and original business. Most entrepreneurs in Indonesia prefer doing retail business, probably because of the high level of business success. For business development, most entrepreneurs prefer expanding the development of distribution channels, adding a new product or service, and selling to a new market. The aim is

for getting more profit and expanding market share, and also product/service variety to attract new and existing customers.

There are several limitations in this research. First is the number of the respondents, which is only 61 respondents. Several information can also be identified more in the future research, such as the ways of communication in family business, the appropriate managerial styles, the financial resources, deeper research on the correlation between business success and experience or education, etc.

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