Scholarly article on topic 'The Development of Coordination between Musical Hearing and Vocal Apparatus of 6-8 Year-Old Children during the Process of Singing'

The Development of Coordination between Musical Hearing and Vocal Apparatus of 6-8 Year-Old Children during the Process of Singing Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Abstract of research paper on Psychology, author of scientific article — Jelena Davidova, Oksana Sersnova

Abstract The coordination between vocal apparatus and musical hearing is the basis for the development of pupils’ musical hearing. This paper is concerned with summarizing and analyzing definitions of the development of coordination between musical hearing and vocal apparatus provided by several scientists as well as with the issues of the development of coordination between musical hearing and vocal apparatus for 6-8 year-old children during the process of singing. The obtained results serve as a basis for working out the levels, criteria and indicators of the development of coordination between musical hearing and vocal apparatus for 6-8 year-old children during the process of singing.

Academic research paper on topic "The Development of Coordination between Musical Hearing and Vocal Apparatus of 6-8 Year-Old Children during the Process of Singing"

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SciVerse ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 (2012) 134 - 146

The 5 th Intercultural Arts Education Conference: Design Learning

The Development of Coordination between Musical Hearing and Vocal Apparatus of 6-8 Year-Old Children during the

Process of Singing

Jelena Davidovaa*, Oksana Sersnovaa*

aDaugavpils University, Parades!, Daugavpils, LV5401, Latvia

Abstract

The coordination between vocal apparatus and musical hearing is the basis for the development of pupils' musical hearing. This paper is concerned with summarizing and analyzing definitions of the development of coordination between musical hearing and vocal apparatus provided by several scientists as well as with the issues of the development of coordination between musical hearing and vocal apparatus for 6-8 year-old children during the process of singing. The obtained results serve as a basis for working out the levels, criteria and indicators of the development of coordination between musical hearing and vocal apparatus for 6-8 year-old children during the process of singing.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection cnd/or peer review under responsibility ofProfessor Heikki Ruismaki and Adjunct Professor Inkeri Ruok onen

Keywords: musical hearing; vocal apparatus; coordination; process of singing; development criteria

1. Introduction

The development of a child's voice requires the greatest attention at the age of 6-7, because singing is a way to develop and improve voice. A beautiful and perfect voice is a great importance in music because music begins with singing and the first instrument was a human voice. In the world of music sounds, a singing voice has been given a prominent place.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +37126444946; Tel.: +37129897156. E-mail address: jelena.davidova@du.lv; osivohina@mail.ru

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Professor Heikki Ruismaki and Adjunct Professor Inkeri Ruokonen

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.550

According to A. Eidiijs (1974, 24) "...one of the causes of bad intoning is the underdeveloped auditory apparatus and the insufficiently trained muscles of a vocal apparatus". In his opinion, this sometimes occurs due to the fact that the 1st form pupils have not yet formed the ability to concentrate. They can listen attentively only for a short while, but then their attention relaxes and they get engaged in something else and do not follow the lesson (Eidins, 1974). This factor is only one reason for the underdeveloped coordination between the musical hearing and the vocal apparatus. The coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing is both the prerequisite of precise singing and the indicator of the state of health of a child's vocal apparatus and ear.

Research object: the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children during the process of singing.

Research aim: to determine levels, criteria and indicators of the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus for 6-7 year-old children during the process of singing, using the analysis of conceptions of the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus offered by several authors as the basis.

Research methods: a) analysis of pedagogical, psychological and methodological literature; b) modeling.

2. Spontaneous Singing and Vocal Improvisation as Forms of Child's Musical Activity

E. Mang (2005) maintains that in early childhood musical creatiwty reflects child's vocal behavior. The interaction with the environment (e.g. child's need to emotionally communicate through music) may either create new perceptions or distort those which already exist. Small children often are willing and get engaged in singing. When they are yet 18 months old, they may start singing spontaneously, and at the age of 2 they may gradually start using familiar songs for creating new ones or for improvising. These early songs are very similar to those the adults have taught to them. W. Dowling (1984) states that at the age of 6-8 a child is already able to distinguish the pitch, length and the tonal structure of sounds. Child's cognitive processes gradually develop within the period of the first eight years.

H. Moog (1976) states that children start to sing spontaneously at different age. After the age of 2-4, spontaneous singing dominates in musical education. He distinguishes between three types of spontaneous singing: imaginative or creative, narrative and potpourri songs. Imaginative or creative songs are only a small part of spontaneous singing. They do not resemble a known song, because they are often sung using a single syllable. A narrative song is quite an incoherent monologue - including a certain text, melody and, occasionally, fragments from known songs. Potpourri singing involves known songs with altered texts and melodies, but they may also have original improvisations.

S. Young (2002) has analyzed, child's spontaneous singing according to its context and sound pitch. He observed that some known resurfaced in child's singing as discrete fragments in a dramatic play. This form of singing was labelled as reworking of known songs which includes six categories of spontaneous singing. According to S. Young (2002), spontaneous singing may include also role-play situations. Spontaneous singing is considered an essential element for the development of skills of singing. Spontaneous singing of songs emerging from the surrounding environment (assimilation) fits into a system formed by the culture of a song from which a child develops adequacy of intonation. Many versions of children songs are close to the original of a song.

The skill to learn basic melodies of several songs and then create a new, one's own, melody is not the limit of a child's development in the field of music. While assimilating, a child becomes aware of musical syntax (a wholeness of small parts of a composition and interconnections between them). E. Gordon (2008) notes that just like imitation helps to acquire individual words in speaking or singing, assimilation involves the ability to use and comprehend musical phrases. Children learn to perform a musical phrase

with great precision, coordinating and assimilating the imitation of these patterns with body movements and muscles. The development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing is a similar process where a child learns to perform a musical phrase very precisely, analyzing it by ear and coordinating it with the muscles of its vocal apparatus.

The observations of E. Mang (2005), H. Moog (1976) and S. Young (2002) testify to the fact that songs created at this age may be far from the original. Here we can speak of a vocal improvisation which appears at the age of 2-4 when children start acquiring basic skills of singing.

J. Pressing (1984) asserts that at teaching music, it is vital to explain to children the essence of improvisation, because this will produce better results. He also points out that the musical material used in improvisation recurs, is transformed into different variations and changes. When improvising, a child can manipulate with the melody of the original song, adding to it new aspects from other known songs: thereby novelty of various level is reflected. H. Moog (Moog, 1976), H. Popousek & M. Popousek (1981) note that in music pedagogy, in order to reflect the great variety of children's early songs such concepts as "a narrative song", "musical monologue", "a potpourri song", "a creative song", "a self-composed song" are often applied when speaking about children's vocal improvisation.

Vocal improvisation used as means for the development of skills of singing is tightly linked with cognitive processes. The development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus is a very complicated process where such cognitive processes as concepts of musical hearing and perception, musical thinking, musical memory, the control of musical hearing and muscles of the vocal apparatus are involved. The development of these cognitive processes enables the pupils to understand the mechanisms of the coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus and help them to control this process.

3. Cognitive Processes Involved in the Development of Coordination between Musical Hearing and the Vocal Apparatus

3.1. Concepts and Perception of Musical Hearing

From the very start, the coordination between voice and ear is subject to auditory perception and is controlled by it. According to B. Teplov (TennoB, 1985), the perceptions of musical hearing always involve motor activities of the vocal apparatus: perceptions of musical hearing are impossible without motor activities of the vocal apparatus being involved in this process. A. Menabeni (MeHa6eHH, 1987) too, points out that when a child's organism develops, the interaction between ear and voice organs merges into one function, and the vocal function develops on the basis of it. Voice cannot be formed without vocal organs being involved, and the auditory perception, too, develops via functioning of the vocal organs. Prof. N. Cook (1992) characterizes the word "to listen" as a creative perception and "to hear" as a direct perception. The reasons he provides are as follows: musical works are not merely music which sounds, they involve something more - how they are perceived by a performer and a listener, what ideas have been communicated by the author. All this is included in notions and perception of musical hearing.

T. Gracyk (2007) notes, that new music, firstly, creates images and only after that - emotions. Musical notions and perception are a process which tries to establish links between sounds of music. A human perceives the rational sequence of sound sets.

The development of cognitive processes in a musical activity has a special role for broadening musical experience: perceptions of musical hearing are created and musical perception develops only by listening to music and participating in various musical activities.

3.2. Musical Thinking

According to J. Levinson (2003), musical thinking is reflected in composing, performing or improvising music. V. Petrushin (n^yimiH, 1997) notes that if musical thinking is understood as a musical activity, then all intellectual activities evoked by physical movements during performing music (e.g. movement when sounds are produced) are to be attributed to musical thinking, which is essential for the development of the coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus. The main thing is that a child itself should understand how its vocal apparatus functions during a singing process: the performed fragments of music should be reflected upon, identifying and analyzing mistakes.

E. Gordon (2008) emphasizes that musical thinking of children who have not encountered the language of music before is reflected in listening to music. There are three types of listening: acculturation, imitation and assimilation. For instance, in imitation a child demonstrates a transition from simply listening to music to imitating it. Gordon (2008) points out that at this stage the attempts to imitate become more purposeful than they were at the stage of acculturation. A child manifests egocentrism - a child realizes that its singing differs from the singing of others. Gordon (2008) also asserts that at this period the control exercised by teachers and parents occupies a decisive role, because hearing a tonal or rhythmic pattern a child, as usual, imitates it wrongly. Here, teachers or parents should imitate child's wrong singing, because only in this way a child will learn to distinguish its singing from the precise singing. This assertion does not comply with the principles of humanistic pedagogy, because teaching/learning process should be based on treating pupils with respect.

3.3. Musical Memory

V. Muhina (M^ima, 1985) maintains that in early childhood, attention, memory and imagination are unconscious and involuntary. Changes occur when a child is faced with a task - to concentrate and keep its attention on something, to remember the material and later to reproduce it. To fulfill this task a child adopts special methods from adults, and then attention, memory and imagination start to develop.

At a primary school age, the skills of remembering and performing are being formed, and also involuntary memory develops. Memorizing and remembering occur independently of will and consciousness: a child remembers what its attention has been attracted by, what has impressed him, has been interesting for him. Unconscious, involuntary memorizing is an indirect, additional result of child's perception and thinking. Forms of conscious memorizing and remembering start to appear during the middle primary school age and are considerably improved during the later primary school age.

The most effective conditions for remembering and performing are created during the process of performing (TernioB, 1985). L. Vigodsky (Bototckhh, 1983) points out that involuntary, unconscious memorizing is based on memory only, while conscious memorizing involves a range of psychological operations which have nothing in common with memory, here one function is replaced by another. When age changes, the character of functions, owing to which memorizing occurs, also changes, the inter-functional relations which link memory with other functions change. The memory of pre-school children differs from that of schoolchildren, and it has absolutely different functions than the memory of preschool children. Consequently, according to L. Vigodsky (B^otckhh, 1983), unconscious, involuntary memorizing can be attributed mainly to pre-school children, because their memory is based on prior experience.

6-8 year-old children try to imitate familiar melodies from films and other songs. S. Hennessey (2002) stresses that this activity should not be encouraged, because memories about what has been heard and unsuccessful attempts to perform it remain in memory of our musical hearing. We develop motor functions of the vocal apparatus when we sing. The most effective way how to acquire skills and

knowledge is to involve a child in the process of music making and allow it to express itself in it, because even musical hearing develops only while music is performed.

Thus, the development of child's singing skills should be under constant control of a teacher, because memory, too, is closely linked with perception and thinking and influences all learning aspects; without a teacher's control musical education is impossible, and its role is especially great for the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children. Upon hearing a melody, which once has greatly impressed it a 6-8 year-old child will easily recognize it again. During the period when vocal muscles are being formed, a child's voice should be provided opportunities to sound. If musical memory functions successfully, it is reflected in precise producing of sounds or melody.

3.4. Control ofMusical Hearing and Muscles of the Vocal Apparatus in the Process of Singing

S. Korlakova (K^naKOBa, 2008) notes that the quality and the developmental level of musical hearing cannot always be determined by how precisely a child can sing a melody, because inaccurate melody intoning may be caused by either incompletely closed vocal chords or lack of coordination between voice and ear. The ability to control one's own voice, which testifies to the existence of musical hearing, is the ability of a performing art, which has not been included in the structure of musicality.

P. Damste (2011) points out that the vocal chords of many people whose musical hearing is not well developed do not obey their will. It takes a long time for even the people with good musical hearing to learn elementary music skills. To train the voice correctly, it is necessary to learn how to coordinate and strengthen muscles in the larynx, for which special exercises are needed. As S. Hennessey (1998) maintains, at the level of sub-consciousness we have to learn how to control the vocal apparatus in the process of singing so that 1) at singing higher notes the vocal chords should contract and 2) the internal muscles would remain relaxed. As the sense of mode is manifested in precise intoning, it can develop also during singing, when a child listens to its own singing and to that others, and controls accuracy of intonation by ear. When singing a melody, the gravity of the sense of mode is always felt, and this helps a child distinguish sounds by pitch and perform them. The sense of rhythm also primarily develops during singing.

Two functions of the vocal apparatus are distinguished: the function of producing sounds by voice, which is done by the larynx and breathing, and the function of transforming sounds, which is done by the articulation apparatus. A sound of singing is formed only when all parts of the vocal apparatus function fully and are coordinated. In the process of the formation of a singing voice, the coordination between the vocal apparatus and breathing as well as the coordination between the voice and musical hearing occupy a special place (Koldenhoven, 2007). Consequently, the formation of a singing voice involves coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing, because the intonation of singing will be precise only if all parts of the vocal apparatus function fully and are coordinated. Due to cognitive processes, the coordination between voice and auditory organs develops in the process of singing, thereby regulating and deepening the breath, because in the process of singing, functioning of the respiratory apparatus is tightly linked with functioning of the larynx and articulation apparatus.

3.5. Self-Regulation

M. Csikszentmihalyi (1997) notes that self-regulation is defined as a purposeful activity oriented towards the development of child's creative abilities, which involves possible control by cognitive processes and corresponding perception of one's own abilities. L. Custodero (2002) stresses that in relation to the teaching/learning process self-regulation most frequently takes place at planning the implementation of some particular activity by applying a concrete pedagogical approach, allowing the

child to completely regulate the implementation of this activity. Children broaden their musical experience from the accessible resources by implementing meaningful activities.

M. Csikszentmihalyi (1997) states that self-regulation can also be defined as acknowledging of one's own mistakes and correcting them in compliance with the accepted requirements, which envisage immediate feedback and clear perception of aims. S. Trehub (2001) emphasizes the following: when children understand the underlying structural foundations of music and when the feedback is immediate and multi-sensory involving visual, tactile and aural components they can adjust actions to develop a new understanding about music. Self-regulation in music provides a system where children can predict and interpret outcomes. J. Shonkoff & D. Phillips (2000) note that self-regulation provides evidence that the musical structure is comprehended via the behaviour which is adapted to conform to this structure. V. Collins (1984) points out that several investigations on the cognitive development have been carried out, with 6-12 year-old children involved in them. Skills and characteristic thinking and behavioral patterns of 6-7 year-old children greatly differ from the typical models characteristic until the age of 5. From the age of 6, self-regulation as a problem solving skill assumes a great importance.

A self-regulation skill is very essential, because the skill to hear precise sounding and during singing to control the muscles of the vocal apparatus is important for 6-8 year-old children. The precondition for good singing is high internal organization and the development of skills of the self-control of the vocal apparatus.

I. Jurgena (2001) asserts that self-control is a factor which facilitates creating positive outcomes in the teaching/learning process. It occupies an important place in humanistic pedagogy, educating an independent and responsible personality who develops during this process. V. Mucmaher (М^махер, 1984) considers self-control an element of self-education: self-regulation provides an opportunity to voluntarily regulate the teaching/learning process. G. Pokratniece (2001) states that the basis of self-organization is the identity of personality. The above mentioned ideas are reflected in humanistic pedagogy which is based on self-actualization, self-control and self-analysis. I. Zogla (2001) points out that a teaching/learning process is a voluntary self-regulation, which develops by improving and enriching it with the assistance of a teacher.

• V. Krilov (Крылов, 2000) distinguishes the following kinds of self-control:

• predicting self-control (sets aims of a lesson, plans, evaluates the previous activity);

• summarizing self-control (analysis of the performed work to elucidate whether the set aim has been achieved);

• audio, visual, motor, tactile self-control;

• voluntary and involuntary self-control;

• self-control of psychic functions etc.

V. Podurovsky & N. Suslova (Под^овский & Суслова, 2001) consider that for a normal formation of all psychic processes, an effectively functioning system of attention and the control of consciousness is necessary. Only if the attention is stable, the activity of consciousness is possible, and it performs the control. G. Kraig (Крайг, 2001) recommends that the teaching/learning process should be oriented towards the development of pupils' thinking. Such pupils' mind activities should be developed:

• memory - memorizing facts and notions;

• reproduction - a sound according to a model;

• substantiation - adaptation of a particular case to general principles;

• reorganization - transformation of the regulations of the initial task into a new problem situation;

• correlation - relating the acquired knowledge to the personal experience;

• reflection - exploration of the thought itself the reasons for its emergence.

Thus, self-regulation has an important role for the development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing of 6-8 year-old children in the process of singing. Self-regulation is tightly linked with self-control. Self-regulation is a skill to hear precise sounding and ability to control the muscles of the vocal apparatus during singing.

4. Learning Strategies for the Development of Coordination between the Vocal Apparatus and Musical Hearing of 6-8 Year-Old Children in the Process of Singing

The most essential thing in the teaching/learning process is to learn how to learn. J. Nisbet & J. Shucksmith (1986) note that the most important thing in learning strategies is to solve problems, for instance, planning and following one's own activities so that by testing, evaluating and analyzing, difficulties could be identified. Learning strategies should be oriented towards solving problem situations in activities. K. Weinstein & M. Duffy (1982) point out that the learning strategies are a kind of indirect systems for regulating teaching/learning process by which pupils coordinate and adapt their skills (Mayer, 1988). J. O'Malley & A. Chamot (1990) maintain that learning strategies are integrated with cognitive theories. It should be emphasized here that the learning strategies for the development of the coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children are impossible without the involvement of the cognitive processes.

Table 1 offers learning strategies for the development of coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing of 6-8 year-old children in the process of singing developed on the basis of the theories of the afore mentioned scholars.

Table 1. Learning strategies and cognitive processes involved in the development of coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing of 6-8 year-old children in the process of singing

Indicators

Listening to music Notions and perception of musical hearing

A child is able to emotionally perceive music, compare musical fragments and distinguish various characters of music: festive, sad, calm, march-like.

Imitation

Control of musical hearing A child is able to imitate singing of adults, their voice peculiarities.

and muscles of the vocal A child recognizes that its singing differs from that of others.

apparatus

Assimilation

Musical thinking

A child is aware of the syntax of music (wholeness of small parts of a composition and their interconnectedness).

Control of musical hearing and muscles of the vocal apparatus

A child is able to perform a musical phrase very precisely, analyzing it by ear and coordinating with the muscles of its vocal apparatus.

Improvisation Musical thinking

A child is able to immediately implement its musical thoughts and ideas in singing valuable both technically and artistically, is able to use expressive means of music.

Spontaneous singing

Musical thinking

While a teacher plays or sings freely, a child is able to join in a spontaneous singing, adhering to the tonality of a melody.

Self-regulation

Control of musical hearing and muscles of the vocal apparatus

A child is able to coordinate singing by the muscles of the vocal apparatus, ear and breath.

A child reflects on the performed melody, seeks for errors in its singing, hears and analyzes them.

Singing by ear

Musical memory

A child is able to perceive and memorize a melody (successful functioning of musical memory is reflected in a precise performing of a sound or melody).

Table 1 illustrates the involvement of learning strategies and cognitive processes in the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children in the process of singing, thereby demonstrating the role of cognitive processes for the learning strategies of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing. The table reveals 7 learning strategies relating to 4 cognitive processes in the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old in the process of singing.

5. Levels, Criteria and Indicators of the Development of Coordination between Musical Hearing and the Vocal Apparatus

To determine the level of the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus is essential for enhancing the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children in the process of singing. The criteria of the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus were established on the basis of theories advanced by the above mentioned scholars and on G. Welch's work "Singing as Communication" (2005).

Table 2. Levels, criteria and indicators of the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children

Levels

Criteria

Learning strategies/Indicators

Low 1-4 Notions of musical hearing

(receptive) and perception

Listening to music

• A child is unable to emotionally perceive music, to compare musical fragments and distinguish various characters of music: festive, sad, calm, march-like.

Musical thinking

Control of musical hearing and muscles of the vocal apparatus

Imitation

• A child is able to imitate singing of adults. A child does not demonstrate clearly the transition from the state of merely listening to music to that of imitating while listening to music.

• A child is not aware of the fact that its singing differs from singing of others.

Self-regulation

• A child is unable to coordinate singing by muscles of the vocal apparatus, ear and breath. It hears a musical fragment by ear and does not perceive it by musical hearing and cannot analyze it.

• A child does not reflect on the performed melody, does not hear errors in its singing.

Musical memory Assimilation

• A child is not aware of the syntax of music (wholeness of small parts of a composition and interconnectedness between them).

Spontaneous singing

• During a teacher's free playing or singing, a child is

unable to join in the spontaneous singing, adhering to the tonality of the melody.

Singing from memory

Singing by ear

• A child cannot precisely perceive, memorize and reproduce a melody.

Average 5-7 Notions of musical hearing Listening

(reproductive- and perception •

productive)

o music

A child is able to perceive music rather emotionally, compare musical fragments and distinguish various characters of music: festive, sad, calm, march-like.

Musical thinking Imitation

• A child is able to imitate singing of adults with insignificant inaccuracies. A child can demonstrate a rather clear transition from mere listening to music to imitation while listening to music.

• A child is aware of the fact that its singing differs from the singing of others. At this moment, teachers or parents should imitate the wrong singing of a child, because only in this way a child will learn to distinguish its singing from a precise singing.

Self-regulation

• A child is able to coordinate singing by muscles of the vocal apparatus, ear and breath with insignificant inaccuracies. It hears a musical fragment by ear and partially perceives and analyzes it by musical hearing.

• A child reflects on the performed melody, tries to discover mistakes in its singing, hears them and analyzes them.

Control of musical hearing and muscles of the vocal apparatus

Assimilation

• A child is aware of the syntax of music (wholeness of small parts of a composition and interconnectedness between them), is able to partially use and understand musical phrases.

Spontaneous singing

• When a teacher plays or sings freely, a child is able to join in the spontaneous singing, partly adhering to the tonality of a melody.

Singing from memory

Musical memory

Singing by ear

• A child partly perceives and memorizes a melody.

• A successful functioning of musical memory is reflected in precise performing of sounds or melody.

High 8-10 Notions of musical hearing Listening to music

(productive- and perceptions • A child is able to emotionally perceive music, compare

creative) musical fragments and distinguish various character of

music: festive, sad, calm, march-like.

Musical thinking Imitation

• A child is able to imitate singing and voice peculiarities of adults.

• A child demonstrates a clear transition from merely listening to music to imitation while listening to music.

• A child realizes that its singing differs from singing of others.

Control of musical hearing Self-regulation

and muscles of the vocal , a child is able to coordinate singing by muscles of the

apparatus vocal apparatus, ear and breath.

• A child hears a musical fragment by ear and perceives and analyzes it by musical hearing.

• A child reflects on the performed music, tries to discover errors in its singing, hears and analyzes them.

Assimilation

■ A child is aware of the syntax of music (wholeness of small parts and interconnectedness between them), is able to use and understand musical phrases.

■ A child is able to perform a musical phrase very precisely, analyzing it by ear and coordinating by muscles of its vocal apparatus.

Spontaneous singing

■ When a teacher plays or sings freely, a child is able to join in spontaneous singing, adhering to the tonality of a melody.

Musical memory Singmg from memory

Singing by ear

• A child is able to precisely perceive and memorize a melody.

• A successful functioning of musical memory is reflected in precise performing sounds or a melody.

Table 2 illustrates levels, criteria and indicators of the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children which are applied to determine the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year-old children. Four criteria of the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus are offered:

• notions of musical hearing and perception;

• musical thinking;

• control of musical hearing and muscles of the vocal apparatus;

• musical memory.

Each criterion has three indicators. The level of learning achievements is evaluated in a 10 point grading system.

6. Conclusions

1. The cognitive processes involved in the development of the coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus - notions of musical hearing and perception, musical thinking, musical memory, control of musical hearing and muscles of the vocal apparatus - enhance pupils' understanding about mechanisms of coordinating musical hearing with the vocal apparatus and help them to control this process.

2. Coordination between voice and ear is already initially subject to the perception by ear and is controlled by it. Perceptions of musical hearing always relate to and are impossible without the vocal apparatus motor activities. Musical notions and perception relate to sounds of music.

3. Spontaneous singing is considered an essential and basic element for the development of singing skills, because during the period when child's voice muscles are developing, it is musical memory that is involved in remembering the peculiarities and capacity of child's voice. Musical memory manifests itself in perceiving and memorizing the formation of a correct sounding. A successful functioning of musical memory is reflected in precise performing of sounds or melody.

4. The coordination of the functions of a vocal apparatus for developing a singing voice, be it the coordination of the vocal apparatus with breath or the coordination of the vocal apparatus with musical hearing, always plays a special role, because precise intonation in singing can be achieved only if all parts of a vocal apparatus function properly and are well coordinated.

5. The skill of self-regulation helps to hear a precise sounding and, while singing, to control muscles of the vocal apparatus, which is vital for 6-8 year-old children in the process of singing. One of the most important preconditions for achieving successful singing of 6-8 year-old children is high inner organization and development of skills of self-control of the vocal apparatus.

6. Learning strategies integrated with musical activities and cognitive processes facilitate the development of coordination between musical hearing and the vocal apparatus of 6-8 year old children.

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