Scholarly article on topic 'Walkability and Pedestrian Perceptions in Malang City Emerging Business Corridor'

Walkability and Pedestrian Perceptions in Malang City Emerging Business Corridor Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Procedia Environmental Sciences
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{Pedestrian / "Pedestrian way" / Walkability / Perception}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Fauzul Rizal Sutikno, Surjono, Eddi Basuki Kurniawan

Abstract Sukarno-Hatta street corridor is forecasted to be one of Malang City business corridors. However, the condition of its pedestrian facilities is not suitable for pedestrian. The rapid activities along the Sukarno-Hatta street corridor are not in accordance with the services of its pedestrian facilities; so, it is necessary to plan a walkable street corridor that accommodates pedestrian perceptions. Several descriptive and quantitative analysis methods used in this research are support activity analysis, the pattern of pedestrian movement, importance performance analysis and walkability tool index by U.S. Department and Human Services. Based on walkability analysis, the level of walkability of Sukarno- Hatta street corridor is 52.49%, which means the walkability level is medium. The improvements of pedestrian way based on pedestrian perception are: improvement and addition of pedestrian ways that are not continuous, planting plants that can reduce air pollution, availability of crossings, the addition of shade trees, traffic management to reduce vehicle congestion and parking designs.

Academic research paper on topic "Walkability and Pedestrian Perceptions in Malang City Emerging Business Corridor"

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Procedía Environmental Sciences 17 (2013) 424 - 433

Walkability and pedestrian perceptions in Malang City emerging business corridor

Fauzul Rizal Sutiknoa *, Surjonoa, and Eddi Basuki Kurniawana

aUrban and Regional Planning-Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Mayjen MT Haryono 167,Malang, East Java - 65145, Indonesia

Abstract

Sukarno-Hatta street corridor is forecasted to be one of Malang City business corridors. However, the condition of its pedestrian facilities is not suitable for pedestrian. The rapid activities along the Sukarno-Hatta street corridor are not in accordance with the services of its pedestrian facilities; so, it is necessary to plan a walkable street corridor that accommodates pedestrian perceptions. Several descriptive and quantitative analysis methods used in this research are support activity analysis, the pattern of pedestrian movement, importance performance analysis and walkability tool index by U.S. Department and Human Services. Based on walkability analysis, the level of walkability of Sukarno-Hatta street corridor is 52.49%, which means the walkability level is medium. The improvements of pedestrian way based on pedestrian perception are: improvement and addition of pedestrian ways that are not continuous, planting plants that can reduce air pollution, availability of crossings, the addition of shade trees, traffic management to reduce vehicle congestion and parking designs.

© 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of SUSTAIN conference's committee and supported by Kyoto University; (OPIR), (GCOE-ES), (GCOE-HSE),(CSEAS),(RISH), (GCOE-ARS) and (GSS) as co-hosts.

Keywords: Pedestrian, pedestrian way, walkability, perception

1. Introduction

As one of Indonesia emerging cities, Malang City grows rapidly in the economic sectors. Along with Malang City rapid economic growth, the increasing levels of population growth reached 842.610 people [1]. These conditions led to a variety of services that became movement generations and attractions. Sukarno-Hatta street corridor is forecasted to be one of Malang City business corridor. However, the condition of its pedestrian facilities is not suitable for pedestrian. The rapid activities along the Soekarno-Hatta street corridor are not in accordance with the services of its pedestrian facilities; thus, it is necessary to plan a walkable street corridor that can accommodate pedestrian perceptions. This research's objectives are to identify the walkability score of Sukarno-Hatta street corridor according to the US Department of Health and Human Services standards and to identify pedestrian way improvements according to

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: fauzulrizal@ub.ac.id.

1878-0296 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of SUSTAIN conference's committee and supported by Kyoto University; (OPIR), (GCOE-ES), (GCOE-HSE), (CSEAS), (RISH), (GCOE-ARS) and (GSS) as co-hosts. doi: 10. 1016/j .proen v .2013.02.056

pedestrian perceptions. According to Steuteville in 2004, 'New urbanism is a reaction to sprawl. It is based on principles of planning and architecture that work together to create human-scale, walkable communities' [2]. Walkability is one of the key principles to be addressed at the community level [3]. Walkability, according to Abley [4], is a tool used to measure neighborhood ability and support walking functions for humans. Walkability, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [5], can be judged from facilities, conflicts, crosswalks, maintenance facilities, wide lanes, buffer, universal accessibility, aesthetics and shades.

2. Methods

Several descriptive and quantitative analysis methods used in this research are: support activity analysis, the pattern of pedestrian movement, importance performance analysis and walkability. Support activity analysis is used to identify what types of activities can be the attraction for pedestrian movement in Sukarno-Hatta Street corridor. Analysis of pedestrian movement patterns are used to see the dominant pedestrian movement purposes associated with land use and system activities. Analysis of Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) is used to identify the interests and the public perception of comfort and of Health condition of pedestrian way. Walkability Analysis of the U.S. Department and Human Services version [5] is used to determine walkability potential for Sukarno-Hatta Street corridor, using pedestrian assessment on physical condition of the pedestrian way corridor.

Walkability Index:

£{(4x3) + (5x3) + (Cx3) + (Dx2) + (Ex2) + (Fx2)+Gx2) + (Hx2) + (1x2)}

Description

A = Physical condition of the pedestrian way B = Conflict with the street / accident C = Ease of crossing

D = Maintenance and completeness of supporting facilities E = effective width of pedestrian way F = Buffer with the street G = Accessibility to the the pedestrian way H = Physical aesthetics of pedestrian way I= Shade

3. Characteristic of Sukarno-Hatta Corridor

The primary activities at Sukarno-Hatta street corridor are formal and informal activities. Formal activities are dominated by the trading activities and service with the percentage up to 80%. Activities at Sukarno-Hatta street corridor are divided into two, i.e. activities during the day and night. Daytime activities are dominated by the formal trading activities reaching 80% at each segment. Nighttime activities are dominated by the non-formal activities of street vendors scattered in all segments. Nighttime concentration of street vendors activities at Taman Krida Budaya are one of the supporting activities in the research area.

Fig. 1. (a) Soekarno Hatta Street Corridor; (b) Perspective of Research Area

3.1. Activity Support

The primary support activities at Sukarno-Hatta Street corridor are the presence of street vendors in the evening and Taman Krida Budaya functions as one of the key activities generators at Sukarno-Hatta street corridor. Street vendors located in Sukarno Hatta street corridor are scattered in every segment, with activities during the night time. The primary support activities in segments 1 and 2 are the presence of neighboring Sukarno-Hatta Pujasera and Semanggi Pujasera restaurants that are able to liven up the evening. On the third segment, the supporting activity is the street vendors scattered at Sukarno-Hatta Bussiness Center and Taman Krida Budaya; in the evening, the Taman Krida Budaya area is crowded by

young people. Activity support in segment 4 is also including the street vendors, but the lack of facilities and arrangements causing segment 4 tends to be not as busy as segment 3.

3.2. Pedestrian Movement Pattern

Pedestrian movement patterns are influenced by age, gender and movement motives. Based on the age of pedestrians, pedestrian movement can be divided into day and night movements. Based on the results of the survey, it is found that 38.5% pedestrians in the research area during the day were at the age of 2030 years-old. While in the evening, 47.5% of the pedestrians were at the age of 20-30. Based on these conditions, it can be concluded that the activity centers in Sukarno-Hatta Street corridor, such as, Sukarno Hatta Bussiness Center, Taman Krida Budaya and Malang State Polytechnic, are dominated by pedestrians in the productive age.

Different system activities in Sukarno-Hatta street corridor cause the pedestrian movement patterns divided into day and night. The number of pedestrian movement destinations is described in the following table.

Table 1. Pedestrian Movement Destination at Day

No Observation point Amount of movement destination

1 3 3 3+

1 Segment 1 50% 36.67% 6.67% 6.67%

3 Segment 3 18.93% 67.57% 13.51% 0.00%

3 Segment З 41.51% 33.08% 18.87% 7.55%

4 Segment 4 41.67% 45.83% 8.33% 4.17%

Average 38% 44% 13% 5%

Table 2. Pedestrian Movement Destination at Night

No Observation point Amount of movement destination

1 3 3 3+

1 Segment 1 56.00% 36.00% 4.00% 4.00%

3 Segment 2 33.33% 63.89% 3.78% 0.00%

3 Segment 3 30.95% 53.38% 16.67% 0.00%

4 Segment 4 63.95% 31.98% 4.57% 0.00%

Average 43.4% 48.8% 8% 0.8%

Table 3. Land Use Destination at Daytime

Destination

Segment

Total per activity

Education 18.52% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 18.52%

Trade 8.15% 16.00% 24.00% 8.15% 56.30%

Service 2.96% 0.74% 11.85% 3.70% 19.26%

Entertainment 0.00% 0.74% 5.19% 0.00% 5.93%

Total per segment

29.63%

21.48%

37.04%

11.85%

100.00%

Table 4. Land Use Destination at Nighttime

Destination

Segment

Total per activity

Education 1.82% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1.82%

Trade 15.45% 20.91% 27.27% 11.82% 75.45%

Service 0.00% 0.91% 0.00% 0.00% 0.91%

Entertainment 1.82% 0.91% 19.09% 0.00% 21.82%

Total per segment 19.09% 22.73% 46.36% 11.82% 100.00%

678200 678400 678600 678800 679000 679200 _I_I_I_I_1-L.

Fig. 2. Land Use Visit

4. Walkability and Pedestrian Perception

4.1. Walkability

Conditions of pedestrian ways on the research area are uneven, broken, inadequate from support facilities and accessibility for persons with disabilities; those have a negative impact on Soekarno-Hatta street corridor walkability. According to US Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Walkability Audit Tool, the walkability level of Sukarno-Hatta Street corridor is determined based on the pedestrians perception of: the physical condition of pedestrian way,

conflict with the street / accident, the ease of crossing, maintenance and the completeness of supporting facilities, effective width of pedestrian way, buffer by roads, accessibility to pedestrian way, pedestrian way aesthetics and shade [5].

Table 5. Sukarno-Hatta Street Corridor Walkabilty Index

Segments West side Walkability Index East side Walkability Index Segment Average Condition

1 62.22 59.67 60.94 Good

2 50.55 51.38 51.38 Medium

3 54.07 55.47 55.47 Medium

4 44.08 42.17 42.17 Medium

Total Averrage 52.49 Medium

Based on table 1, it can be concluded that segment 1 has the best value of walkability with a score of 60.94% and segment 4 has the lowest level of walkability with a score of 42.17%. Overall, the level of walkability of Sukarno-Hatta street corridor is 52.49% which means that the walkability level is medium.

4.2. Pedestrian Perception on Sukarno-Hatta Street Corridor Pedestrian

Pedestàrn's perception of Sukarno-Hatta street corridor infrastructure was measured using Importance Performance Analysis (IPA). Based on the analysis obtained, some pedestrian way infrastructures are in need of repair (located in IPA quadrant 4).

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1

♦ ♦

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Fig. 3. (a) Pedestrian Way IPA Diagram for day; (b)Pedestrian Way IPA Diagram for Night

Table 6. Pedestrian Way Infrastructure need to be improved based on IPA Analysis

Day Night

1. Path shapes and accessibility 1. Path shapes and accessibility

• The physical condition of pavement (1) • Links between pavement (continuity) (4)

• Links between pavement (continuity) (4) 2. The completeness of the supporting elements

2. infrastructure • Availability of trash bins

• Availability of lighting (13) 3. safety

3. safety • The level of traffic density (17)

• The level of traffic density (17) • Availability of parking (18)

• Availability of parking (18)

• Availability of crossings (19)

• The Ease of pedestrians toward building (20)

4. circulation

• Availability of a vehicle barrier and pavement (21)

• the absence of street vendors (22)

• the absence of trees in the middle of the pavement (23)

• The pavement free of non-pedestrian activities (24)

5. climate

• Availability of shade for sunlight (25)

• Availability of vegetation for environmental comfort (26)

• Availability of shade for rain (27)

6. health

• The absence of pollution (37)

■ The absence of garbage piles (38)_

• Availability of crossings (19)

4. circulation

• Availability of a vehicle barrier and pavement (21)

5. climate

• Availability of vegetation for environmental comfort (26)

• Availability of shade for rain (27)

6. health

• The absence of pollution (37)

• The absence of garbage piles (38)

The IPA's findings are later confirmed to the pedestrian to identify which pedestrian way facilities that should be improved; they are:

• Improvement and addition of pedestrian ways which are not continuous.

• Planting plants that can reduce air pollution

• Availability of crossings

• The addition of shade trees

• Traffic management to reduce vehicle congestion

• Parking designs

5. Pedestrian Way Concept for Improvement

According to walkability index and pedestrian perceptions, the improvement concepts for Sukarno -Hatta street corridor pedestrian way are:

Table 7. Pedestrian Way Concept

Concept pedestrian way with no pedestrian way separated full-side pedestrian way concept

Criteria separation between parking and parking lots and roads Concept

_roads Concept_

Advantages • This concept does not require • Safety is guaranteed because • Pedestrian ways are close to a wide demarcation and easy pedestrians are separated building, making interaction

to apply in every segment from parking and road between pedestrian and stores

Concept pedestrian way with no

Criteria separation between parking and roads Concept

pedestrian way separated parking lots and roads Concept

full-side pedestrian way concept

because the pedestrian way merges with parking activities.

Facilitate the movement of goods from stores toward vehicles because the parking locations are close to the stores

Provide direct views between buildings and pedestrians

activity

With the green belt alongside the pedestrian way, Aesthetics and protections from sun and rain are better.

The activity of parking and street vendors do not interfere pedestrian activity

The parking system hindered by pedestrian way encourages motorists to walk.

more dynamic.

Pedestrians are protected from road traffic and parking.

Aesthetics and protections from sun and rain are better with the green belt alongside the pedestrian way.

Parking system hindered by pedestrian way encourages motorists to walk.

Disadvantages

Parking activity may interfere pedestrian

There is no barrier between pedestrians and roads, making it relatively dangerous.

The pavement that merges with the parking lot is often used by street vendors, interfering pedestrians

activities

Pedestrians are less protected from the sun and rain

Requires a wide demarcation that cannot be applied in all segments of the road

Building Front is covered by green belt, so it is not completely visible from the road.

Building face enclosed by barrier, so it is not visible from the street.

The activity of loading and unloading of vehicles to the shop is more difficult because of the barrier

Parking Not separated by pedestrian

Activities facilities, distinguished only by

paving pavement as parking lot

Parking activities and highways are separated from the pedestrian way. On both sides of pedestrian ways, there are barrier in the form of green belt as separators

Parking activities and highways are separated from the pedestrian way. Pedestrian ways are close to building, giving the impression of proximity with the activities at the stores

Pedestrians only get shade from shade trees, to get to the buildings separated by parking lots

There are plant shades on both sides of the pedestrian ways, so that pedestrians feel more comfortable. The advantage of this concept lies in the movement on the pedestrian sidewalk that gives more protection against the sun; but, it has the disadvantage in terms of shading while moving toward the building and parking.

Pedestrians get shadows of buildings and trees, thus, providing comforts to move toward the stores or parking lots.

6. Summary

Sukarno-Hatta street corridor has formal and informal activity centers in daytime and nighttime. According to research result, the largest movement in Sukarno-Hatta street corridor is to segment 3 where Taman Krida Budaya functions as one of pedestrian movement attractors. According to pedestrian perception, the walkability index of Sukarno-Hatta street corridor pedestrian way is medium with the score of 52.49%. Concepts that can be used to improve the walkability index of Sukarno-Hatta street corridor are: pedestrian way with no separation between parking lots and roads, pedestrian way separating parking lots and roads and full-side pedestrian way.

7. Discussion

Development of a business corridor should be supported by a good spatial planning. The development must be accompanied by a good allocation of land use, so that the orientation of movement will spread evenly. Development of a business corridor must accommodate pedestrians because walking is an effective transportation tool for a short length corridor that business areas usually do.

References

[1] Malang Municipal Plan.; 2008

[2] Carroll, J., Adkins, B., Foth, M. and Parker, E. (2007) The Kelvin Grove Urban Village: What Aspects of Design are Important for Connecting People, Place, an Health? In: S. Earle (ed.) Proceedings of the International URBAN DESIGN Conference: Waves of Change - Cities at Crossroads. Gold Coast, Australia: Jupiters Casino.; 2007

[3] Khalid S., Al-Hagla. Evaluating new urbanism's walkability performance: A comprehensive approach to assessment in Saifi Village, Beirut, Lebanon. URBAN DESIGN International Vol. 14, 3, 139-151. Palgrave Macmillan; 2009

[4] Abley S. Walkability Scoping Paper. New Zealand Walkability Project; 2005.

[5] Walkability Audit Tool. US Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.