Scholarly article on topic 'Optimization of the Wind Turbines Location in Kaberten Wind Farm in Algeria'

Optimization of the Wind Turbines Location in Kaberten Wind Farm in Algeria Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Wind farm / Optimization / Location / Wind Potential / Adrar

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Benmbarek Mohamed, Benzergua Fadela, Khiat Mounir

Abstract This paper consists in the study of a wind farm intended for the production of the electrical energy in the southwest of Algeria exactly in Adrar. The region of Adrar possesses a big wind potential which need to be exploited and optimized. Our study consists in optimizing the location of wind turbines in the park of Kaberten and in reducing the losses due to the effect of trail by using the GH WindFarmer and WAsP software. Ten turbines (10 x 1 MW) were used on the GH WindFarmer, to determine the best positions of wind generators. The results of simulations are presented and discussed.

Academic research paper on topic "Optimization of the Wind Turbines Location in Kaberten Wind Farm in Algeria"

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Energy Procedia 74 (2015) 122 - 129

International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and

Sustainability, TMREES15

Optimization of the wind turbines location in Kaberten wind

farm in Algeria

BENMBAREK Mohameda*, BENZERGUA Fadelab, KHIAT Mounirab

* Laboratoire SCAMRE, ENPO,BP1523 EL M'naour, Oran 31000, Algeria b Department of electrical engineering, USTO, BP 1505 EL M'naour, Oran 31000, Algeria

Abstract

This paper consists in the study of a wind farm intended for the production of the electrical energy in the southwest of Algeria exactly in Adrar. The region of Adrar possesses a big wind potential which need to be exploited and optimized. Our study consists in optimizing the location of wind turbines in the park of Kaberten and in reducing the losses due to the effect of trail by using the GH WindFarmer and WAsP software. Ten turbines (10 x 1 MW) were used on the GH WindFarmer, to determine the best positions of wind generators. The results of simulations are presented and discussed.

© 2015TheAuthors. Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD) Keywords:Wind farm - Optimization - Location - Wind Potential - Adrar

1. Introduction

The renewable energies (wind energy, solar energy, biomass) represent the most interesting solution to resolve the world energy challenges [1,2]. They are clean and do not need no fuel. Besides, both the wind and the solar energy constitute a native resource the potential of which are sufficient to face the increasing request of energy [3,6]. Algeria, Our country possesses an immense potential in renewable energy which allows it to diversify its energy sources. The introduction of the renewable energies in Algeria like the wind farm of 10 MW to Kaberten (wilaya of Adrar) became a recommendation of the public power consumption. Algeria is facing a strategic requirement to

* BENMBAREK Mohamed. Tel.: +0-213-772-324-958 ; fax: +0-213-41-29-07-74. E-mail address: benmbarek-med@hotmail.com

1876-6102 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativec0mm0ns.0rg/licenses/by-nc-nd/4 .0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Euro-Mediterranean Institute for Sustainable Development (EUMISD) doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.532

diversify its sources of energy, not only in terms of financial means which goal is not only to save its energy reserves, but also to benefit most quickly from the technological transfer. Our country aim is achieve a rate of integration of 6 % of the production of the electrical energy through the use of the solar energy and the wind energy in 2015[10]. The objective of this study is to optimize by assist of software GH WindFarmer and WAsP the location of wind generators in the site of Kaberten in order to minimize the effect of the trail in the park and consequently maximize the energy yield on the farm.

Nomenclature

P(Vv) Probability of occurrence of wind speeds [%]

A The scale factor of the Weibull curve in [m / s]

K The form factor of the Weibull curve [dimensionless]

U mean wind speed [m / s]

f Frequency Percent wind speeds [m /s%]

P Power density [W/ m2]

CDER Development of Renewable Energies Centre

INCT National Institute of Cartography and Topography

ONM National Office of Meteorology

2. Wind potential of ADRAR

A study of wind energy potential of the Adrar region was performed. This study is based on hourly measurements of speeds and wind directions taken by regional meteorological site Adrar for the year of 2012. The measurement station is located at the airport of Adrar, geographic coordinates are 27.82 ° N - 0.18 ° E, the anemometer is placed at a height of 10 m. The average wind speed measured (Vave) is equal to 5.3 (m / s). And like most of the wind turbines start at a higher wind speed 3 m / s, so the use of wind energy is favorable in this site [8,12].

Orientation of wind turbines

The orientation of wind turbines in the site of Kaberten is based on hourly measures of speeds and wind directions taken by a site regional meteorology of the wilaya of Adrar [12]. The distribution of the wind directions (wind rose) and the wind speeds frequencies distribution curve (histogram of the speeds of winds) are obtained by means of the WAsP and represented respectively by the fig .1.

Fig .1. The wind rose and the histogram of the speeds of the winds of the tenth sector

The wind rose indicates us that the northwest of the site of Kaberten, and more exactly the tenth sector which has a slope with compared with the North of a varying geometrical angle enters (270° and 300°)is the best wind energy.

3. Creation of files (*.Map and *.Wrg) - Simulation by means of the software WASP

The procedures and the followed stages are summarized as follows:

3.1. Creation of a digital topographic map

Although the method presented below appears long, it is often required in the absence of pre-digitized data. The process of creation is as follows [4]: We found through the Google MAP software that altitude Kaberten lines in the area are not displayed, this means that the surface does not have to be studied no mountains or hills or even slopes. Consequently, all the points of this surface are considered with the same level of altitude (260m) from the surface of the sea. Then to give a digital Ground model, we have created in the editor map a three-dimensional vector file, the latter was created using four coordinates Kaberten site that represent the boundaries of digital topographic map [2]:

- The first point coordinates (E = 193 000, N = 3,140,000);

- The second point coordinates (E = 189000 N = 3,134,000).

This three-dimensional vector file allowed creating our digital model of land suitable to the site and Kaberten this by giving a general surface elevation of the park at 260 m above the sea surface by adding one level Outlineon the broken line. To identify the ground roughness, a card taken by Google Earth (28° 27 '7.44 N 0° 02' 59.08 W) was introduced in the WASP software map editor with 3 -point fig. 2:

Fig. 2: Picture geo-references using three points

- The point 'A' has the coordinates (E = 189000 N = 3,140,000); - The point 'B' has the coordinates (E = 189000, N = 3,134,000); - The point 'C' has the coordinates (E = 193 000, N = 3,134,000).Then it was awarded a class to each zone.

Ground roughness data and level Outline form the digital map which models the site, Fig.3.

Fig. 3: Digital topographic card in editor of card without the aerial picture

3.2.Creation of file (*.WRG)

The measures of wind serve to define an annual average statistics defined in a file TAB. To create the board of the frequencies and the probability of occurrence of the speeds of wind (file*.tab)[5], data taken by a site meteorology regional of the wilaya of Adrar [12] were used, these data are presented in the file *(.txt ), the hourly measures of speeds m/s, and the wind directions in (°).

Then the WAsP software calculates an ' atlas of winds ' who allows to define the characteristics of the wind at various heights according to various classes of roughness.

4. Simulation by means of the software GH WindFarmer

4.1. Construction of the wind farm "Kaberten "

The construction of the wind farm of the region of Kaberten begins with the loads of both files (*.MAP) and (*.WRG), after the load and the execution of those files, ten turbines upstream horizontal axis type with 3 blades and a power of 1 MW each are placed. [2]. The inhabitants of the village of Kaberten are also placed in the outline of roughness, Fig.4.

t'vTj 3 <Sp 4 6

Fig.4.The wind farm and the inhabitants of the Kaberten

4.2. First Simulation (before the optimization)

Evaluation of the energy capacity of the park of Kaberten

10 wind turbines of power of 1 MW each are feigned by means of the software GH WindFarmer in their first positions. The coordinates of ten wind generators before the optimization are indicated in the following table:

Table 1. The coordinates of wind generators before the optimization

Number of the wind turbine longitude latitude

1 190437 3138325

2 191441 3138349

3 190712 3137895

4 191749 3137669

5 190566 3137231

6 191158 3137377

7 191493 3138575

8 191117 3138688

9 190635 3138356

The annual net energy production of the farm is estimated at the 21800 MWh/year, and the ideal energy production is esteemed at the 22400 MWh/year. The raw and net annual energies of every wind turbine are given in the table 2.

It seems that the raw energies are raised compared to the net energies, this difference is due to the effect of trail and the effect of the park which are the causes of decrease of net energies.

Table 2. Annual energy raw and net of every wind turbine (before the optimization)

Wind speed averages (m/s) Gross energy (MWh/year) Net energy (MWh/year)

1 6,59 2241 2209

2 6,57 2241 2191

3 6,55 2241 2179

4 6,55 2241 2176

5 6,56 2241 2188

6 6,53 2241 2162

7 6,58 2241 2200

8 6,52 2233 2153

9 6,56 2241 2181

10 6,57 2219 2188

Impact of the park of Kaberten on the environment

- The map of the Spheres of Visual influence (ZIV)

Areas where wind generators are visible are colored, through the key of the map, we can say that if a clairvoyant is situated in the green surface he can see at least 6 wind turbines and at the most 10. Thus inhabitants of the village can see from 6 to 10 wind turbines, Fig .5.

5 10 15 20 25 1000

Fig.5.The map of the ZIV

-Noise maps

During the construction of the project, it is important to verify that the noise level led by the wind farm does not exceed certain limits in particular points. Inhabitants of the village can receive between 26 and 32 dB. Wind turbines create a noise of 50 dB inside the park.

ZIV of Wind hirbi]

Selected color

4.3. The Second simulation (after the optimization)

Evaluation of the energy capacity of the park of Kaberten

During this second simulation wind turbines are going to move to take optimal places to maximize the power delivered by the park. The new coordinates of wind generators after the optimization are indicated in the following table:

Table 3. The coordinates of wind generators (after the optimization)

Number of the wind turbine The longitude Latitude

1 190180 3138484

2 191399 3137849

3 190153 3137309

4 191804 3137017

5 190974 3138501

6 191767 3138460

7 190224 3136387

8 190847 3136883

9 191878 3136378

The energy produced by the farm

The annual net energy production of the park is estimated at 22100 MWh / year, and the ideal energy production is estimated at 22400 MWh / year.

After the optimization, the raw and net annual energies of every wind turbine are given in the table.4. We notice that the net energy in every wind generator increased which explains the decrease of the difference which existed between the net and raw energies before the optimization, this improvement is due to the decrease of the effect of trail in the park.

Table 4. Annual raw and net energy of every wind turbine (after the optimization)

Wind speed averages (m/s) Wind speed averages (m/s) Net energy (MWh/year)

1 6,61 2241 2219

2 6,57 2241 2194

3 6,6 2241 2214

4 6,57 2241 2192

5 6,58 2241 2197

6 6,59 2241 2203

7 6,59 2235 2210

8 6,57 2241 2189

9 6,59 2241 2210

10 6,61 2232 2222

State of the process of optimization

The energy produced by the farm according to number of iterations passes by two stages as shows the fig.6: 1st stage: the GH WindFarmer software is spirit to look for the optimal positions for wind turbines on the surface of the site, what led a progressive increase of annual energy, and it is for it the curve passes by a transitory regime.

21000 . T : . : :■ : : : ■ : .' ■ : V i : ■ ■ i : ■ : ■ : I: : ■

Number of iterations

Fig .6. State of the process of optimization

2nd stage: after the transitory regime the annual net energy production of the park stabilizes in 22100 the MWh / year. This stability means that the GH WindFarmer software ended the search for the best locations giving the maximum of power of the wind farm.

Impact of the park of Kaberten on the environment

After the second simulation, some information of the wind farm changed as noise maps while other information remained unchanged, such as the map ZIV, where inhabitants of the village can see always from 6 to 10 wind turbines.

-Noise maps

The wind turbines numbers (1, 3, 7,10) approached in the village of Kaberten, these changes of the positions caused an increase of the noise level received by the inhabitants. Inhabitants of the village in this case can receive between 29 and 35 dB. The fig.7, indicates us that wind turbines create a noise of 50 dB inside the park.

Fig . 7. The noise map (inside the park)

5. Conclusion

This work has for objective to study a wind farm intended for the production of the electrical energy in the southwest of Algeria in the wilaya of Adrar and to draw the attention on the possibility of diversification of the energy sources, other than hydrocarbons in our country. Our purpose in this work is to determine, by means of the software WAsP and GH WindFarmer, the best position of every wind turbine on the site chosen by Kaberten allowing to have an optimal energy efficiency and consequently an effect of minimum trail. As prospect in this study, we intend to estimate in a more precise way the wind potential of the region of Kaberten. It would be also interesting to create in a more precise way the file *(.map) which contains the topographic data.

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