Scholarly article on topic 'A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer'

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Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — Alaa M. Rashad

Abstract Disposal of fly ash (FA) resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA) as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a partial replacement of cement in traditional paste/mortar/concrete mixtures based on Portland cement (PC). Fresh properties, mechanical properties, abrasion resistance, thermal properties, drying shrinkage, porosity, water absorption, sorptivity, chemical resistance, carbonation resistance and electrical resistivity of paste/mortar/concrete mixtures containing HVFA (⩾45%) as cement replacement have been reviewed. Furthermore, additives used to improve some properties of HVFA system have been reviewed.

Academic research paper on topic "A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer"

IJSBE 90 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 29

12 October 2015

International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment (2015) xxx, xxx-xxx

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Review Article

A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement - A

guide for Civil Engineer

Alaa M. Rashad *

Building Materials Research and Quality Control Institute, Housing & Building National Research Center, HBRC, Cairo, Egypt

Received 17 January 2015; accepted 1 October 2015

Abstract

Disposal of fly ash (FA) resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA) as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a partial replacement of cement in traditional paste/mortar/concrete mixtures based on Portland cement (PC). Fresh properties, mechanical properties, abrasion resistance, thermal properties, drying shrinkage, porosity, water absorption, sorptivity, chemical resistance, carbonation resistance and electrical resistivity of paste/mortar/concrete mixtures containing HVFA (P45%) as cement replacement have been reviewed. Furthermore, additives used to improve some properties of HVFA system have been reviewed.

© 2015 The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Class F fly ash; Recycling; Cement replacement; Fresh properties; Mechanical properties; Durability; Additives

Contents

1. Introduction............................................................................... 00

2. General properties of fly ash.................................................................... 00

3. Heat of hydration........................................................................... 00

4. Degree of hydration.......................................................................... 00

5. Workability................................................................................ 00

6. Setting time, bleeding and segregation............................................................. 00

7. Density................................................................................... 00

8. Compressive strength......................................................................... 00

* Mobile: +202 01228527302; fax: +202 33351564. E-mail addresses: alaarashad@yahoo.com, a.rashad@hbrc.edu.eg. Peer review under responsibility of The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2015.10.002

2212-6090/© 2015 The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2 A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx

8.1. Paste and mortar..............................................................................................................................................00

8.2. Concrete............................................................................................................................................................00

8.2.1. Fly ash content 45-55%.............................................................00

8.2.2. Fly ash content up to 60%...........................................................00

8.2.3. Fly ash content up to 70%...........................................................00

8.2.4. Fly ash content up to 100% ....................................................................................................................00

9. Flexural strength........................................................................................................................................................00

10. Splitting tensile strength............................................................................................................................................00

11. Modulus of elasticity................................................................................................................................................00

12. Abrasion resistance..................................................................................................................................................00

13. Freeze/thaw resistance..............................................................................................................................................00

14. Thermal properties....................................................................................................................................................00

15. Drying shrinkage......................................................................................................................................................00

16. pH value..................................................................................................................................................................00

17. Porosity and water absorption....................................................................................................................................00

18. Chloride ion penetration and permeability ..................................................................................................................00

19. Sorptivity ................................................................................................................................................................00

20. Chemical resistance..................................................................................................................................................00

21. Carbonation and corrosion resistance........................................................................................................................00

22. Electrical resistivity and conductivity..........................................................................................................................00

23. Additives to improve some properties of HVFA matrix................................................................................................00

23.1. Nano particles..................................................................................................................................................00

23.2. Silica fume, slag, metakaolin and ultra-fine FA..................................................................................................00

23.3. Fibres..............................................................................................................................................................00

23.4. Chemical activators..........................................................................................................................................00

23.5. Other materials................................................................................................................................................00

24. Remarks..................................................................................................................................................................00

25. Uncited references....................................................................................................................................................00

References ................................................................................................................................................................00

1. Introduction

World cement demand and production are increasing, the total output of cement in the world may exceed 3 billion tonnes in 2009 (Feiz et al., 2015), whilst in 2012 the total production of cement reached approximately 3.6 billion tonnes (Rashad, 2015). Cement production is highly energy and material intensive (Rashad and Zeedan, 2011; Rashad, 2013, 2014). In addition, cement plant has been always among industries which generate plenty of CO2. Beside the emission of CO2, cement industry launches SO2 and NOx which can cause the greenhouse effect and acid rain (Anand et al., 2006; Rashad, 2013). Among the greenhouse gases, CO2 contributes about 65% of global warming. The scientific community reported that the global mean temperature is likely to rise by 1.4-5.8 °C over the next 100 years (Rehan and Nehdi, 2005). This is particularly serious in the current context of climate change caused by CO2 emissions worldwide, causing a rise in sea level and the occurrence of natural disasters and being responsible for future meltdown in the world economy (Stern, 2006; IPCC, 2007). Alternative binders to PC have been proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emission as blended cements. These blended can reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 1322% (Flower and Sanjayan, 2007), although this estimate can vary depending on local conditions at the source of

raw materials, binder quantity and amount of PC replacement, type of manufacturing facilities, climate, energy sources and transportation distance.

Recently, huge quantities of FA were found in the world. Manz (1980) reported that the estimated production of coal ash was 278.443 Mt (million tonnes) in 1977, of which approximately 14% was used. Manz (1993) reported that the estimated production of coal ash in 1989 was approximately 562 Mt, of which approximately 16.1% was used, whilst the rest was disposed in landfills. According to the annual survey results published by American Coal Ash Association (ACAA, 2009), for the year 2009, approximately 63 million tonnes of FA was produced, approximately 25 million tonnes from them were used in various applications, whilst approximately 10 million tonnes of them were used in concrete and concrete products, and approximately 2.5 million tonnes were used in blended cements and raw feed for clinker. Ahmaruzzaman (2010) reported that the annual production of coal ash worldwide was estimated around 600 million tonnes, with FA constituting approximately 500 million tonnes at 75-80% of total ash produced. Bakharev (2005) reported that about one billion tonnes of FA was produced annually worldwide in coal-fired steam power plants. Only a small part of this ash is used (20-30%); the rest is land filled-and surface-impounded, with potential risks of air pollution and con-

A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx 3

113 tamination of water due to leaching (Femandez-Jimenez

114 and Palomo, 2005). Due to the rapid economic develop-

115 ment and the growth in the world production consumption

116 of energy over the world, FA has significantly increased.

117 Therefore, FA should not only be disposed of safely to pre-

118 vent environmental pollution, but should be treated as a

119 valuable resource. Instead of dumping it as a waste mate-

120 rial, FA can be used in concrete (Mehta, 1993; Erdogan,

121 1997) to reduce the environmental problems of power

122 plants, to decrease electric costs besides reducing the

123 amount of solid waste, greenhouse gas emission associated

124 with Portland clinker production and to conserve existing

125 natural resources, economic grounds as pozzolan for a par-

126 tial replacement of cement because of its beneficial effects

127 of lower water demand (Ravina and Mehta, 1986) for sim-

128 ilar workability, improvements in strength (Dunstan, 1986;

129 Bijen and ven Selst, 1993; Lam et al., 1998; Rashad et al.,

130 2009) drying shrinkage (Haque et al., 1984; Hansen and

131 Reinhardt, 1991; Nanni et al., 1996; Delagrave et al.,

132 1997; Pittman and Ragan, 1998), fire resistance (Seleem

133 et al., 2011) and lower evolution of heat. Although FA is

134 a valuable mineral admixture for blended PC and concrete,

135 only about 6% of the total available FA is used for this pur-

136 pose (Malhotra and Mehta, 2002). As a result, the method

137 to replace cement with a high volume of FA has generated

138 considerable interest.

139 HVFA is an approach to maximize the FA input in con-

140 crete. However, HVFA concrete has been not a unified def-

141 inition yet now. Sivasundaram et al., 1990 believed that

142 replacing a cement ratio above 30% with FA in concrete

143 is defined as HVFA concrete. But 40% is defined as the

144 upper limit in many state standards or regulations, the

145 quantity of FA in concrete does not exceed 40% stipulated

146 in many cases. Therefore, Dunstan et al., 1992 believed that

147 above 40% FA in concrete defined as HVFA concrete is

148 suitable. Some researchers suggested that the concrete

149 may be defined as HVFA concrete when the quantity of

150 FA exceeds that of cement in cementitious material

151 (i.e. the quantity of FA is more than 50%). Bilodeau and

152 Malhotra (1992) suggested that the quantity of FA in

153 HVFA concrete must be 50-70%, namely the volume of

154 FA is larger than cement in concrete. LEED (PCA, 2005)

155 pointed that HVFA concrete included up to 40% of FA

156 in cement or in concrete. HVFA concrete for structure

157 applications was developed by the Canadian Center for

158 Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) in 1985

159 (Carett et al., 1993; Mok, 1996). This type of concrete

160 has typically more than 50% (Langley et al., 1989; Mehta

161 and Monteiro, 2006) FA in the total cementitious material.

162 The U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAV-

163 FAC) has recently developed HVFA concrete formulation,

164 of which 50% of PC is replaced with FA, by mass (Burke,

165 2012).

166 The inclusion of HVFA in the matrix has a positive

167 effect on some properties and a negative effect on other

168 properties. Indeed there is no article which summarizes

169 the previous studies carried out on the fresh properties,

hardened properties and durability of paste/mortar/con- 170

crete containing high volume Class F FA (P45%) as 171

cement replacement by weight or by volume which can 172

serve the market. Therefore, this article was written to pre- 173

sent the previous findings related to this topic, to collect 174

these findings in one paper which can be treated as a refer- 175

ence base for future researches. 176

2. General properties of fly ash 177

Generally, FA is a by-product of the combustion of pul- 178

verized coal in thermal power plants. The dust collection 179

system removes FA, as a fine particulate residue, from 180

the combustion gases before they are discharged into atmo- 181

sphere. Most of the FA particles are solid spheres and some 182

are hollow cenospheres. Also present are plerospheres, 183

which are spheres containing smaller spheres. The particle 184

sizes in FA vary from <1 im up to more than 100 im with 185

the typical particle size measuring under 20 im. The sur- 186

face area is typically 300-500 m2/kg, although some FA 187

can have a surface area as low as 200 m2/kg and as high 188

as 700 m2/kg. The mass per unit volume including air 189

between particles can vary from 540 to 860 kg/m3, whilst 190

with regard to the close packed storage or vibration, the 191

range can be from 1120 to 1500 kg/m3. The specific gravity 192

(relative density) of FA ranges from 1.9 to 2.8. FA is pri- 193

marily silicate glass mainly containing silica, alumina, iron 194

and calcium. Magnesium, sulphur, sodium, potassium and 195

carbon are minor constituents. FA is typically classified as 196

either Class F or Class C according to ASTM C618-12a. 197

This classification is based on the chemical composition 198

of FA. The major delimiter for this classification is the 199

sum of silica, aluminium and iron oxide percentages in 200

the FA, being a minimum of 70% for a Class F and a min- 201

imum 50% for a Class C. The Canadian Standards Associ- 202

ation (CSA, 1982) classified FA according to the amount of 203

CaO. FA is generally low-calcium (Class F) when CaO is 204

less than 10%. 205

3. Heat of hydration 206

Poon et al. (2000) reported a reduction in the heat of 207

hydration by partially replacing cement with 45% FA. 208

The heat of hydration of the neat cement paste was 209

2.4 W/kg, whilst it was 1.27 W/kg for the paste containing 210

45% FA. Both the maximum rate of heat evolution and the 211

cumulative heat evolution decreased with the inclusion of 212

45% FA during the first 72 h. The inclusion of 45% FA 213

resulted in 36% reduction in the cumulative heat evolution. 214

In addition, the time of reaching the maximum rate of heat 215

evolution delayed. Li (2004) reported a reduction in the 216

heat of hydration of concrete by partially replacing cement 217

with 50% FA. Yoshitake et al. (2013) reported that the heat 218

of hydration, as measured by the adiabatic temperature 219

rise, was found to be 40% less in concrete containing 50% 220

FA as cement replacement compared to the control. Atis 221

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(2002a,b) reported that using FA in concrete mixtures as cement replacement at levels of 50% and 70% resulted in a reduction in the maximum temperature rise under adia-batic curing condition. The higher the replacement levels of FA, the lower the temperature rise. Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported that the inclusion of 45%, 60% and 75% FA as cement replacement reduced the heat release-peak temperature at early ages through dilution (Fig. 1).

From the above review of the literature in this section, it is clearly noted that the effect of HVFA on the heat of hydration still needs more investigations. According to the available studies, it is safe to conclude that the inclusion of HVFA in the mixture decreased the heat of hydration. The hydration heat reduction is one advantage of using this system in especial cases such as mass concrete and concrete in hot weather.

Fig. 2. The non-evaporable water content of specimens, curing regime: 28 days in 20 °C water and 4/14 days in 80 °C water (Zhang et al., 2000).

4. Degree of hydration

Lam et al. (2000) reported that the inclusion of 45-55% FA in paste mixtures as partial replacement of cement exhibited a lower degree of reaction, of which more than 80% of FA still remained unreacted after 90 days of curing. The non-evaporable water of 45% FA mixture was lower than that of the neat PC paste. Zhang et al. (2000) reported that the non-evaporable water in HVFA pastes (up to 60%) was lower than that in the plain cement paste, at the same age (Fig. 2). The non-evaporable water decreased with increasing FA content. Poon et al. (2000) reported a lower degree of hydration of paste mixture containing 45% FA as cement replacement. At w/b ratio of 0.24, the degree of hydration of the plain cement paste was 52.8%, 54.6% and 60.5% at ages of 7, 28 and 90 days, respectively, whilst it was 5.3%, 12.8% and 16.5% with the inclusion of 45% FA, respectively. Yoshitake et al. (2014) reported that the adiabatic temperature rises of concrete containing 50% FA as cement replacement were significantly lower than those of the control. Bentz (2014) reported a lower degree

of hydration of paste mixture containing 60% FA as cement replacement, compared to the control.

From the above review of literature in this section, it is safe to conclude that the inclusion of HVFA in the mixture decreased the degree of hydration. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. The lowering heat of hydration with the inclusion of HVFA is one advantage of using this system. This makes HVFA more suitable for mass concrete and concrete in hot weather as reported before.

5. Workability

Sahmaran and Yaman (2007) reported 23.2% increase in the slump flow of concrete mixture by partially replacing cement with 50% FA. Siddique (2004a) reported an increase in the workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of FA as cement replacement at levels of 45% and 50%, by weight. The workability increased as the content of FA increased. The increment in the slump height was 38.46% and 53.85% with the inclusion of 45% and 50% FA, respectively, compared to the control. Siddique

Fig. 1. Semi-adiabatic calorimetry curves for FA and control pastes (Duràn-Herrera et al., 2011).

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(2004b) reported an increase in the workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of 45% and 55% FA as cement replacement. The workability increased as the FA content increased. The increment in the slump height was 44.44% and 66.67% with the inclusion of 45% and 55% FA, respectively, compared to the control, whilst the reduction in Vebe time was 38.71% and 51.61%, respectively. Jiang and Malhotra (2000) partially replaced 55% of cement in concrete mixtures with different types of FA. The w/b ratios for different FA mixtures ranged from 0.34 to 0.38, whilst it was 0.43 for the control mixture. The results showed high or similar workability of FA mixtures compared to the control. Balakrishnan and Abdul Awal (2014) reported higher workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The workability increased as the FA content increased. The increment in the slump height was 220% and 300% with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA, respectively. Yoon et al. (2014) reported an increase in the workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement, when binder content and w/b ratio was 450 kg/m3 and 0.3, respectively. The increment in the slump height was 50% and 25% with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA, respectively. Saravanakumar and Dhinakaran (2013) reported high workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement. The workability increased as the FA content increased. The increment in the slump height was 13.64% and 18.18% with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA, respectively.

Bouzoubaa et al. (2010) reported an increase in the concrete mixture workability with the inclusion of 60% Lingan FA as cement replacement when 172 kg/m3 of cement was used. Mirza et al. (2002) reported that the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement in grout reduced the flow time. This means that the workability increased. Shaikh and Supit (2014) reported higher workability of mortar mixture with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Shaikh and Supit (2014) reported higher workability of concrete mixture with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement, of which the increment in the slump height was 42.86%. Gesoglu et al. (2009) reported an increase in the workability of concrete mixture with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. The increment in the slump flow was 7.46% with the inclusion of FA. Siddique et al. (2007) reported higher workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The increment in the slump height was 20%, 13.33% and 20% with the inclusion of 45%, 55% and 65% FA, respectively.

Mukherjee et al. (2013) reported higher workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The increment in the slump highest was 21.43%, 7.14% and 0% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA. Sahmaran et al. (2009) reported higher workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as

cement replacement. The workability increased as the FA content increased. The increment in the slump flow was 10.98%, 15.79% and 16.54% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively. Supit et al. (2014) reported higher workability of mortar mixtures with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement. The workability increased as the FA content increased. Shaikh et al. (2014) reported higher workability of concrete mixtures containing HVFA as cement replacement. The workability increased as the content of FA content increased. The increment in the flow diameter was 11.11%, 29.63% and 44.44% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively. Atis (2003a,b) partially replaced cement in concrete mixtures with FA at levels of 50% and 70%, by weight. Fixed dosage of superplasticizer (SP) was used. The results showed a higher flow table of HVFA mixtures compared to the control. Atis (2003a,b) reported higher workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The flow diameter increased by 9.1% and 3.64% with the inclusion of 50% and 70% FA, respectively. Atis (2005) reported an increase in the workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of different types of FA at high levels as cement replacement. The increment in the slump height was 11.11% and 1.85% with the inclusion of 50% and 70% Drax FA, respectively, whilst it was 5.55% and 3.7% with the inclusion of Aberthaw FA, respectively. Wu et al. (2006) reported an increase in the workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. At a w/b ratio of 0.3, the increment in the slump height was 54.27%, 57.32% and 52.44% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the increment in the spread was 77.66%, 76.62% and 74%, respectively.

Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported an increase in the workability of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. At a w/b ratio of 0.5, the increment in the slump height was 18.18%, 13.64% and 4.55% with the inclusion of 45%, 60% and 75% FA, respectively, whilst it was 16.67%, 16.67% and 19.1%, respectively, at a w/b ratio of 0.6. Huang et al. (2013) reported higher workability of concrete mixtures containing HVFA as cement replacement. There was 31.25% and 37.5% increment in the slump height with the inclusion of 60% and 80% FA, respectively, when the original cement content was 280 kg/m3, whilst it was 4.55% for both of 60% and 80% FA, when the original cement content was 340 kg/ m3. Dinakar et al. (2008a,b, 2009) reported that the workability of concrete mixtures increased with increasing FA content from 50% to 85% as cement replacement.

On the contrary, §ahmaran et al. (2008) reported 5% reduction in the slump flow of concrete mixture with the inclusion of 55% FA as cement replacement. Baert et al. (2008) reported lesser workability of concrete mixture with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. The reduction in the slump height was 3.77%. Sua-iam and Makul (2014) reported that the inclusion of 60% FA as cement

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389 replacement in concrete mixture slightly decreased the

390 slump flow. The slump flow diameter of the control mix-

391 ture was 72 cm, whilst it was 70 cm for the FA mixture.

392 Silva and de Brito (2013) reported 20.39% and 22.73%

393 reduction in the slump flow of concrete mixtures with the

394 inclusion of 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement,

395 respectively. Table 1 summarizes the mentioned studies

396 about the effect of HVFA on mixture workability.

397 From the above mentioned studies in this section, it is

398 safe to conclude that the inclusion of HVFA increased

399 the workability as reported by several studies (Fig. 3).

400 The workability increased as the content of FA increased.

401 The improvement in the fluidity of fresh mixtures with

402 the inclusion of FA could be attributed to the fine particle

403 size and smooth glassy texture as well as spherical shape of

404 FA could act as plasticizer. The improving workability

405 with the inclusion of FA is one advantage of using this sys-

406 tem. It is possible to use HVFA to produce high perfor-

407 mance concrete (HPC), of which high workability is

408 required.

409 6. Setting time, bleeding and segregation

410 Mirza et al. (2002) reported a longer setting time of

411 cement grout with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement

412 replacement. Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported an

413 increase in the initial and final setting times of concrete

414 mixtures containing HVFA as cement replacement. The

30 r-25 ■

° 15 -

£ 10 ■ 3 Z

0 ---1---

Increased Decreased

Fig. 3. Number of studies versus the effect of HVFA on the workability.

increment in the setting time increased with increasing 415

FA content (Fig. 4). At a w/b ratio of 0.5, the increment 416

in the initial setting time was 20.22%, 41.57% and 58.43% 417

with the inclusion of 45%, 60% and 75% FA, respectively, 418 whilst it was 22.33%, 60.19% and 64.1% at a w/b ratio of 419

0.6, respectively. Huang et al. (2013) reported an increase 420

in the initial and final setting times of concrete mixtures 421

with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. When 422

the original cement content was 280 kg/m3, the increment 423

in the initial and final setting times was 72.95% and 424

84.72%, respectively, with the inclusion of 60% FA, whilst 425 it was 100% and 115.3%, respectively, with the inclusion of 426

Table 1

Effect of HVFA on mixture workability.

References FA content (%) Type Incr

Sahmaran and Yaman (2007) 50 Concrete Yes

Siddique (2004a) 45 and 50 Concrete Yes

Siddique (2004b) 45 and 50 Concrete Yes

Jiang and Malhotra (2000) 55 Concrete Yes

Balakrishnan and Abdul Awal (2014) 50 and 60 Concrete Yes

Yoon et al. (2014) 50 and 60 Concrete Yes

Saravanakumar and Dhinakaran (2013) 50 and 60 Concrete Yes

Bouzoubaa et al. (2010) 60 Concrete Yes

Mirza et al. (2002) 60 Grout Yes

Shaikh and Supit (2014) 60 Mortar Yes

60 Concrete Yes

Gesoglu et al. (2009) 60 Concrete Yes

Siddique et al. (2007) 45, 55 and 65 Concrete Yes

Mukherjee et al. (2013) 50, 70 and 70 Concrete Yes

Sahmaran et al. (2009) 50, 70 and 70 Concrete Yes

Supit et al. (2014) 50, 60 and 70 Mortar Yes

Shaikh et al. (2014) 50, 60 and 70 Concrete Yes

Atis (2003) 50 and 70 Concrete Yes

Atis (2003) 50 and 70 Concrete Yes

Atis (2005) 50 and 70 Concrete Yes

Wu et al. (2006) 50, 60 and 70 Concrete Yes

Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) 45, 60 and 75 Concrete Yes

Huang et al. (2013) 60 and 80 Concrete Yes

Dinakar et al. (2008a,b, 2009) 50-85 Concrete Yes

Sahmaran et al. (2008) 55 Concrete No

Baert et al. (2008) 60 Concrete No

Sua-iam and Makul (2014) 60 Concrete No

Silva and de Brito (2013) 70 Concrete No

Increased workability

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of total cementitious material

Fig. 4. Effect of FA content on final setting time of concrete mixture (Duràn-Herrera et al., 2011).

80% FA. When the original cement content was 340 kg/m3, the increment in the initial and final setting times was 72.95% and 84.72%, respectively, with the inclusion of 60% FA whilst it was 118.2% and 117.14%, respectively, with the inclusion of 80% FA. Bentz (2014) reported a longer initial setting time of paste mixture containing 60% FA as cement replacement compared to the control. The increment in the initial setting time was 101.53%, 114.23% and 69.23% at 15, 25 and 40 °C, respectively. Bentz and Ferraris (2010) reported a longer initial and final setting time of paste mixture containing 50% FA as cement replacement, of which the initial and final setting times increased by 72.9% and 58.3%, respectively. Mirza et al. (2002) reported very little bleeding was observed in grout cement without or with 60% FA. §ahmaran et al. (2009) reported that the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement in concrete mixtures did not show any segregation or bleeding.

From the above mentioned studies in this section, it is safe to conclude that the inclusion of HVFA in the mixture prolonged the initial and final setting times, of which FA exhibited a lower hydration rate compared to cement. In addition, FA exhibited slow pozzolanic reaction Mirza et al. (2002). Analysis of the liquid phase of the hydration system showed that saturation in terms of gypsum occurred within a few seconds of water being added to FA. The SO4 2 and Ca+2 dissolved from FA may also partly explain the retarding effect of FA (Wesche, 2005). Thus, it is possible to use HVFA instead of chemical admixture which was used as retarder. This has a major economic factor. Retardation of setting time of concrete may be required for some applications in civil engineering such as casting deep walls and casting grout or concrete in repaired elements. It is clear to note that there is a lack in the publications related the effect of HVFA on bleeding and segregation. According to the available studies, it can be concluded that the inclusion of HVFA in the mixture reduced bleeding and segregation. The reduction of bleeding and segregation may be related to the lubricating effect of the glassy spherical FA particles.

7. Density

Bouzoubaa et al. (2010) reported a 1.26% reduction in the fresh density of concrete mixture with the inclusion of 50% FA Lingan FA as cement replacement, when 172 kg/ m3 of cement was used. Bouzoubaa et al. (2010) reported 2.36% reduction in the concrete density with the inclusion of 50% Lingan FA as cement replacement, when 172 kg/ m3 of cement was used. Jiang and Malhotra (2000) reported a reduction in the fresh density of concrete mixtures by partially replacing 55% of cement with different types of FA. The reduction in the fresh density ranged from 0% to 2.33%. Siddique (2004a) reported 0.25% and 0.21% reduction in the fresh density of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of 45% and 50% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Baert et al. (2008) found 2.47% reduction in the fresh density of concrete mixture with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Sua-iam and Makul (2014) reported 8.35% reduction in the fresh density of concrete mixture with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Mukherjee et al. (2013) [62] reported a reduction in the bulk density of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased as FA content increased. Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported a reduction in the fresh density of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. At a w/b ratio of 0.5, the reduction in the fresh density was 1.79%, 2.3% and 3.96% with the inclusion of 45%, 60% and 75% FA, respectively, whilst it was 1.66% and 2.22%, respectively, at a w/b ratio of 0.6. Huang et al. (2013) reported 2.85% and 5.5% reduction in the fresh density of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of 60% and 80% FA as cement replacement, respectively, when the original cement content was 280 kg/m3. When the original cement content was 340 kg/m3, 2.68% and 5.2% reduction in the fresh density was obtained with the inclusion of 60% and 80% FA, respectively. On the other hand, Siddique et al. (2007) reported there was no change in the fresh density of concrete mixtures with the inclusion of 45%, 55% and 65% FA as cement replacement.

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Accordingly, it can be noted that the inclusion of HVFA in the mixture decreased its fresh density. This reduction in the density could be attributed to the lower specific gravity of FA compared to cement. The reduction in the concrete density with the inclusion of HVFA would lead to a reduction in the dead weight of the constructed element. This can be considered as one advantage of using this system.

8. Compressive strength

8.1. Paste and mortar

Jiang and Guan (1999) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of pastes at ages of 3, 7, 28 and 90 days by partially replacing cement with HVFA. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. The reduction in the 3 day compressive strength was 67.3% and 76.98% with the inclusion of 50% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 28 day compressive strength was 45.34% and 68.63%, respectively. Poon et al. (2000) reported 25%, 8.39% and 12.18% reduction in the pastes compres-sive strength by partially replacing cement with 45% FA at ages of 7, 28 and 90 days, respectively, at a w/b ratio of 0.24. At w/b ratio of 0.19, this reduction was 36.17%, 14.66% and 13.29%, respectively. Shi and Qian (2001) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of pastes at ages of 7, 28 and 56 days by partially replacing cement with HVFA. The reduction in the 7 day compressive strength was approximately 50% and 80.8% with the inclusion of 50% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 28 day compressive strength was approximately 41.54% and 60%, respectively. The reduction in the 56 day compressive strength was approximately 37.5% and 52.5% with the inclusion of 50% and 70% FA, respectively. Mirza et al. (2002) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of cement grout by partially replacing cement with 60% FA, by weight. The strength gap between the reference grout and grout containing 60% FA decreased with increasing age.

Bazzar et al. (2013) reported a reduction in the compres-sive strength of mortars at ages ranging from 1 day to 365 days with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Supit et al. (2014) reported a reduction in the 7 and 28 day compressive strength of mortars with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. This reduction increased as the FA content increased. The reduction in the 28 day compressive strength was 40%, 54.29% and 74.29% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively. Zhang et al. (2014) reported that the compressive strength of engineered cementitious composites (mortars) decreased with increasing FA content. Shaikh and Supit (2014) reported 60% and 54.29% reduction in the 7 and 28 day compressive strength of mortars with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Shaikh et al. (2014) reported a reduction in the 7 and 28 day compressive strength of mortars with the inclusion of HVFA as cement

replacement. The reduction in the 7 day compressive strength was 56.67%, 60% and 80% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst it was 40%, 46.67% and 74.29%, at age of 28 days, respectively.

8.2. Concrete

8.2.1. Fly ash content 45-55%

Poon et al. (2000) reported 39.29%, 29.2%, 8.2% and 2.72% reduction in the compressive strength of concrete specimens at ages of 3, 7, 28 and 90 days by partially replacing cement with 45% FA, respectively, at a w/b ratio of 0.24. At a w/b ratio of 0.19, the reduction reached 46.54%, 32.46%, 8.57% and 0.91%, respectively. Lam et al. (2000) reported 36.1%, 18.19% and 13.29% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes containing 45% FA as cement replacement at ages of 7, 28 and 90 days, respectively, when the w/b ratio was 0.19. At a w/b ratio of 0.24, this reduction was 25%, 8.39% and 12.18%, respectively. At a w/b ratio of 0.3, the reduction in the compres-sive strength at ages of 7, 28 and 90 days was 53.87%, 27.19% and 19.1%, respectively, whilst it was 54.13%, 37.87% and 21.96%, respectively, at a w/b ratio of 0.5. Dhir (2005) reported 8.51%, 13% and 6% reduction in the com-pressive strength of concretes at ages of 3, 7 and 14 days with the inclusion of 45% FA as cement replacement, when the designed strength was 50 MPa.

Siddique (2004a) reported a reduction in the compres-sive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 45% and 50% FA as cement replacement, by volume. The reduction in the compressive strength was 40.47%, 33.6%, 23.8% and 18.29% at ages 7, 28, 91 and 365 days, respectively, with the inclusion of 45% FA, whilst this reduction was 42.8%, 37.9%, 29.87% and 23.75%, respectively, with the inclusion of 50% FA. Siddique (2004b) reported 31.67% and 35.83% reduction in the 28 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 45% and 55% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Burden (2006) reported 33.63%, 24%, 24.39%, 21.11% and 18.33% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages of 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement, when a w/ b ratio was 0.4. Li (2004) reported 58.52%, 46.1%, 47.6%, 32.92%, 18.54%, 6.03%, 0.93% and 4.63% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement at ages 1, 3, 7, 28, 56, 112, 360 and 720 days, respectively. Wei et al. (2007) reported approximately 58%, 55.9%, 57.9%, 41.7% and 32,5% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement at ages of 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days, respectively. Sahmaran and Yaman (2007) reported 42.75% and 31.4% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement at ages of 28 and 56 days, respectively. Misra et al. (2007) reported a reduction in the 7, 28 and 90 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Siddique et al. (2012) reported 53.44%,

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39.8% and 39.11% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages of 7, 28 and 56 days with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement (Fig. 5). Yoshitake et al. (2013) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Filho et al. (2013) reported 2.16% reduction in the 91 day compressive strength of concrete with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Soni and Saini (2014) reported 53% and 54.76% reduction in the 28 and 56 day compressive strength of concretes containing 50% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Nikhil (2014) reported 18.64%, 28.96% and 33.8% reduction in the 3, 7, 28 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Bouzoubaa et al. (2010) reported 44.59%, 44.81%, 36.76%, 15.88% and 0.92% reduction in the 3, 7, 10, 28 and 56 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% Lingan FA as cement replacement, when strength class was 25 MPa, whilst there was 1.73% enhancement in the 91 day compressive strength. Younsi et al. (2011) reported 45%, 23.1% and 20.67% reduction in the 2, 7 and 28 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement.

Yoshitake et al. (2014) reported 44.44%, 60%, 47.46%, 54.76%, 52.83%, 33.45% and 9.35% reduction in the 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 28 and 91 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement, when the w/b ratio was 0.45. Jia et al. (2012) reported 22.68% and 25.26% reduction in the 28 and 56 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Liu and Presuel-Moreno (2014) reported 38.73% and 7.12% reduction in the 28 and 600 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Sounthararajan and Sivakumar (2013) reported 52.1%, 41.23% and 26.75% reduction in the 7, 28 and 56 day compressive strength of concretes containing 50% FA as cement replacement. Thangaraj and Thenmozhi (2013) reported 17.9%, 12.68% and 20.54% reduction in the 7, 14 and

28 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement, whilst the inclusion of 55% FA reduced it by 13.52%, 6.56% and 26.69%, respectively. Jiang and Malhotra (2000) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at different ages by partially replacing 55% of cement with different types of FA. They also measured the compressive strength of concretes containing 55% FA when w/b ratios were 0.3 and 0.5. The results showed reductions ranging from 76.49% to 48.13% and 59.12% to 11.47% at ages of 1 and 3 days. §ahmaran et al. (2008) reported 24.56%, 12.76% and 7.17% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages of 28, 43 and 58 days with the inclusion of 55% FA as cement replacement.

8.2.2. Fly ash content up to 60%

El-Chabib and Ibrahim (2013) reported 87.2%, 56.79% and 41.15% reduction in the 1, 7 and 28 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Kumar et al. (2007) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement at ages ranging from 7 days to 365 days. The reduction of 46.87% and 26.1% was obtained with the inclusion of 60% FA at ages of 7 and 28 days, respectively, when the w/b ratio was 0.4. Siddique (2010) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages ranging from 7 to 365 days with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day compres-sive strength was approximately 42.22% and 44.79% with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA, respectively, whilst it was approximately 24.62% and 35.23% at age of 365 days, respectively. Saravanakumar and Dhinakaran (2013) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes containing 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. The reduction in the 7, 14, 28 and 56 day compressive strength was 21.47%, 17.16, 38%, and 40% with the inclusion of 50% FA, whilst the inclusion of 60% FA reduced it by 22.1%, 35.65%, 50.1% and 42.55%, respectively. Yoon et al. (2014) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages ranging from 7 days to 91 days with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement, when the binder content and w/b ratio were 450 kg/m3 and 0.3, respectively. The reduction in the 7 day compres-sive strength was 28.23% and 43.66% with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA, respectively, whilst it was 12.24 and 23.66% at age of 91 days, respectively. At age of 365 days, the inclusion of 50% FA caused 9.67% enhancement in the compressive strength, whilst the inclusion of 60% FA reduced it by 5.66%. Balakrishnan and Abdul Awal (2014) reported 27.95% and 37.27% reduction in the 28 day compressive strength with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement.

Baert et al. (2008) reported a significant reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 60%

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FA as cement replacement. This reduction was 88% and 35% at ages of 1 and 91 days, respectively. Gesoglu et al. (2009) reported 42.26% reduction in the 90 day compres-sive strength of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Jiang et al. (2004) reported 33.93% and 20.29% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages of 56 and 118 days, respectively, with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Sua-iam and Makul (2014) reported 39.8% reduction in the 28 day compressive strength of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Mardani-Aghabaglou and Ramyar (2013) reported 47.63%, 22.44%, 26.85% and 30.48% reduction in the 7, 28, 90 and 180 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Shaikh and Supit (2014) reported 69.23%, 31% and 36.84% reduction in the 3, 28 and 90 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement.

8.2.3. Fly ash content up to 70%o

Sujjavanich et al. (2005) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes especially at early ages with the inclusion of 50% and 65% FA as cement replacement. Siddique et al. (2007) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages ranging from 7 to 365 days with the inclusion of 45%, 55% and 65% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased as the content of FA increased. The reduction in the 7 day com-pressive strength was 45.45%, 50.55% and 58.18% with the inclusion of 45%, 55% and 65% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 91 day compressive strength was 30.16%, 38.8% and 50%, respectively. Lammertijn and De Belie (2008) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% and 67% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. The reduction in the compressive strength was approximately 51.3%, 43.3% and 33.3% at ages of 0.5, 1 and 3 months with the inclusion of 50% FA, respectively, whilst it was approximately 69.5%, 63.3% and 56%, respectively, with the inclusion of 67% FA. Atis (2005) reported 53.36%, 19.68%, 22.87, 6.17%, 7.43%, 2.65% and 4.79% reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages of 1, 3, 7, 28 days, 3, 6 months and 1 year with the inclusion of 50% Drax FA, respectively, when the specimens were cured at 20 °C with 65% RH, whilst the inclusion of 70% FA caused a reduction of 85.39%, 57.45%, 51.27%, 45.27%, 37.34%, 38.59% and 36.62%, respectively.^Atis (2003a,b) reported 35.5%, 47.41%, 33.4% and 19.29% reduction in the 3, 7, 28 day and 3 month compressive strength of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 70% FA as cement replacement, respectively, when the curing conditions were 20 °C and 100% RH. Wu et al. (2006) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes at ages of 3, 28 and 56 days with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. At the w/b ratio of 0.3, the reduction in the 3 day

compressive strength was 57.31%, 63.27% and 67.52% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 56 day compressive strength was 17.65%, 25.1% and 30.13%, respectively.

§ahmaran et al. (2009) reported a reduction in the com-pressive strength of concretes at ages ranging from 7 to 365 days with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day compressive strength was 42.75%, 59.21% and 67.26% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70%, whilst the reduction in the 365 day compressive strength was 5.53%, 11.2% and 16.87%, respectively. Latha et al. (2012) reported a reduction in the compressive strength of concretes with different concrete grades containing HVFA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. At grade of M40, the reduction in the 28 day compressive strength was 15.82%, 19.34% and 48.99% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst it was 53%, 13.33% and 5.41%, respectively, at age of 180 days. John and Ashok (2014) reported a reduction in the 7 and 28 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day compressive strength was 42.54%, 43.87% and 43.1% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst it was 15%, 14.2% and 18.9%, respectively, at age of 28 days. Shah and Modhera, 2014 reported a reduction in the 7, 28 and 56 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day compressive strength was 21.57%, 36.77% and 46.57% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 56 day compressive strength was 17.64%, 34.22% and 42.9%, respectively. Kate and Murnal (2013) reported a reduction in the 7, 28 and 56 day compressive strength of concrete with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day compressive strength was 61.34% and 72.53% with the inclusion of 55% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 56 day compressive strength was 43.4% and 37.68%, respectively.

Silva and de Brito (2013) reported a reduction in the 7, 28, 91 and 182 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. Kayali and Ahmed (2013) reported approximately 50% and 80.26% reduction in the 7 day compressive strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50% and 70% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Mukherjee et al. (2013) reported a reduction in the 7 and 28 day compressive strength with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day compres-sive strength was 55.29%, 61% and 66.65% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 28 day compressive strength was 41.57%, 40.44% and 50.9%, respectively. Rashad et al. (2014) reported 71%, 66.46%, 49.4% and 38.4% reduction in the

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820 7, 28 , 91 and 180 day compressive strength of concrete

821 specimens with the inclusion of 70% FA as cement replace-

822 ment. Rashad (2015a,b,c)reported 66.46% reduction in the

823 28 day compressive strength of concrete containing 70%

824 FA as cement replacement.

825 8.2.4. Fly ash content up to 100%

826 Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported a reduction in the

827 compressive strength of concretes at ages ranging from 1

828 to 56 days with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replace-

829 ment. This reduction increased with increasing FA con-

830 tent. At a w/b ratio of 0.5, the reduction in the 1, 3, 7,

831 14, 21, 28 and 56 day compressive strength was 57.33%,

832 47.96%, 47%, 50.52%, 42.75%, 45.29% and 40.31% with

833 the inclusion of 45% FA, respectively, whilst it was

834 70.67%, 73.23%, 71.23%, 69.33%, 66.67%, 61.38% and

835 61.69%, respectively, with the inclusion of 60% FA. The

836 reduction in the compressive strength with the inclusion

837 of 75% FA was 92.67%, 88.1%, 88.32%, 86.1%, 84.54%,

838 8 3.91% and 77.95% at ages of 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and

839 56 days, respectively. Hannesson et al. (2012) reported

840 31.58%, 28.32%, 20.62% and 4.66% reduction in the com-

841 pressive strength of concretes at ages of 7, 14, 28 and

842 56 days with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replace-

843 ment, whilst there was 1.56% and 6.11% enhancement in

844 the compressive strength at ages of 84 and 168 days,

845 respectively. The inclusion of 80% FA reduced the 7,

846 1 4, 28, 56, 84 and 168 day compressive strength by

847 70.59%, 71.55%, 60%, 44.1%, 40.94% and 22.91%, respec-

848 tively, whilst the inclusion of 100% FA reduced it by

849 98.14%, 97.97%, 97.75%, 97.67%, 97.36% and 96.59%,

850 respectively. Huang et al. (2013) reported 50.94%,

851 33.56%, 30.62%, 6% and 7.25% reduction in the compres-

852 sive strength of concretes at ages of 1, 3, 7, 28, 56 and

853 91 days with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replace-

854 ment, respectively, when the original cement content was

855 280 kg/m3, whilst there was 15.12% and 12.88% enhance-

856 ment ages of 182 and 365 days, respectively, when cement

857 content was 280 kg/m3. The inclusion of 80% FA as

858 cement replacement caused 56.6%, 41.78%, 32.53%,

859 16.4%, 11.95% and 1.72% reduction in the 1, 3, 7, 28,

860 56 and 91 days, respectively, whilst 3.7% and 6% enhance-

861 ment in the 182 and 365 days was obtained, respectively.

862 At cement content of 340 kg/m3, the reduction in the 1,

863 3 and 7 day compressive strength was 53.95%, 34.8%

864 and 30.51% with the inclusion of 60% FA, respectively,

865 whilst at ages of 56, 91, 182 and 365 days there was an

866 enhancement in the compressive strength by 4.3%,

867 18.61%, 33% and 46.41%, respectively. The inclusion

868 of 80% FA as cement replacement caused 56.58%,

869 51.96%, 40.1%, 13% and 7.53% reduction in the 1, 3, 7,

870 28 and days, respectively, whilst 0.25%, 16.27% and

871 38.12% enhancement in the 91, 182 and 365 day compres-

872 sive strength was obtained, respectively. Dinakar et al.

873 (2008a,b, 2009) reported that the compressive strength

874 of concretes decreased with increasing FA content from

875 50% to 85% as cement replacement.

9. Flexural strength 876

Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported a reduction in the 877

modulus of rupture of concretes at age of 28 days with the 878

inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. This reduction 879

increased with increasing FA content. Siddique (2004a) 880

reported a reduction in the flexural strength of concrete 881

with the inclusion of 45% and 50% FA as cement replace- 882

ment. The reduction in the flexural tensile strength at ages 883

of 7, 28, 91 and 365 days was 47.37%, 42.59%, 29.1% and 884

23.64%, respectively, with the inclusion of 45% FA, 885

whilst the inclusion of 50% FA caused 52.63%, 50%, 886

43.64% and 40% reduction, respectively. Sounthararajan 887

and Sivakumar (2013) reported 32.73% reduction in the 888

28 day flexural strength of concretes containing 50% FA 889

as cement replacement. Siddique (2004b) reported 52.83% 890

and 56.6% reduction in the 28 day flexural strength of con- 891

cretes with the inclusion of 45% and 55% FA as cement 892

replacement, respectively. Nikhil (2014) reported 31.88% 893

reduction in the 28 day flexural strength of concrete speci- 894

mens with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. 895

Kumar et al. (2007) reported 25.84%, 15.11% and 3.76% 896

reduction in the flexural strength of concretes with the 897

inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement at ages of 7, 898

28 and 90 days, respectively, when the w/b ratio was 0.4. 899

There was an enhancement in the flexural strength by 900

2.85%, 1.82% and 1.74% with the inclusion of 50% FA at 901

ages of 180, 256 and 365 days, respectively. The inclusion 902

of 60% FA caused 19.11%, 5.93%, 1.9%, 2.73% and 903

4.53% reduction in the flexural strength at ages of 7, 28, 904

90, 180, 256 and 365 days, respectively. Jiang et al. (2004) 905

reported 17% and 23.5% reduction in the flexural strength 906

of concretes at ages of 56 and 118 days with the inclusion 907

of 60% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Sofi 908

et al. (2013) reported 5.58% reduction in the 28 day flexural 909

strength of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 60% 910

FA as cement replacement. 911

Huang et al. (2013) reported 20.41% and 1.96% reduc- 912

tion in the 7 and 28 day flexural strength of concretes with 913

the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement, whilst 914

5.56%, 6.78% and 15.38% enhancement in the 56, 91 and 915

365 day flexural strength, respectively, was obtained when 916

the original cement content was 340 kg/m3. The inclusion 917

of 80% FA as cement replacement caused 32.65%, 918

27.45%, 12.96% and 1.7% reduction in the 7, 28, 56 and 919

91 days flexural strength, respectively, whilst 3.1% 920

enhancement in the 365 day flexural strength was obtained 921

(Fig. 6). Mardani-Aghabaglou and Ramyar (20 13) 922

reported 41.79%, 13.52%, 15.73% and 20.34% reduction 923

in the 7, 28, 90 and 180 day flexural strength of concretes 924

with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement, 925

respectively. Jiang and Guan (1999) reported a reduction 926

in the flexural strength of pastes at ages of 3, 7, 28 and 927

90 days by partially replacing cement with 50% and 70% 928

FA. The reduction in the 3 day compressive strength was 929

68.85% and 78.69% with the inclusion of 50% and 70% 930

FA, whilst the reduction in the 28 day compressive strength 931

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Fig. 6. Effect of FA content on the concrete flexural strength (Huang et al., 2013).

932 was 60.47% and 70.54%, respectively. John and Ashok

933 (2014) reported a reduction in the 7 and 28 day flexural

934 strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and

935 70% FA as cement replacement. The reduction in the

936 7 days flexural strength was 2.86%, 11.67% and 21.59%

937 with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively,

938 whilst the reduction in the 28 day flexural strength was

939 13.31%, 18.17% and 20.32%, respectively. Atis (2005)

940 reported 8.96%, 5.71% and 1.18% reduction in the flexural

941 strength of concretes at ages of 1, 3 days and 3 months,

942 respectively, with the inclusion of 50% Drax FA as cement

943 replacement when the specimens were cured at 20 °C with

944 65% RH, whilst an increase of 6.5%, 14.4%, 3.77% and

945 7.81% was obtained at ages of 7, 28 days, 6 months and

946 1 year, respectively. The inclusion of 70% FA caused a

947 reduction in the flexural strength by 33.79%, 38%,

948 28.91%, 22.56%, 23.35%, 24.92% and 22.66% at ages of

949 1, 3, 7, 28 days, 3, 6 months and 1 year, respectively.

950 10. Splitting tensile strength

951 Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported a reduction in the

952 splitting tensile strength of concretes at the age of 28 days

953 with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. This

954 reduction increased with increasing FA content. Siddique

955 (2004a) reported a reduction in the splitting tensile strength

956 of concrete with the inclusion of 45% and 50% FA as

957 cement replacement. The reduction in the splitting tensile

958 strength at ages of 7, 28, 91 and 365 days was 42.86%,

959 36.59%, 21.43% and 11.63% with the inclusion of 45%

960 FA, respectively, whilst the inclusion of 50% FA caused

961 46.43%, 46.34%, 38.1% and 30.23%, reduction, respec-

962 tively. Siddique (2004b) reported 35% and 45% reduction

963 in the 28 day splitting tensile strength of concretes with

964 the inclusion of 45% and 55% FA as cement replacement,

965 respectively. Soni and Saini (2014) reported 75% and

53.33% reduction in the 28 and 56 day splitting tensile 966

strength with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replace- 967

ment, respectively. Sahmaran and Yaman (2007) reported 968

21.23% and 9.24% reduction in the splitting tensile strength 969

of concrete with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement 970

replacement at ages of 28 and 56 days, respectively. 971

Nikhil (2014) reported 6.15% and 31.35% reduction in 972

the 7 and 28 day splitting tensile strength of concretes with 973

the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement, respec- 974

tively Yoshitake et al. (2014) reported 50%, 57.14%, 975

57.14%, 61.54%, 44%, 15.38% and 2.86% reduction in the 976

I, 2, 3, 5, 7, 28 and 91 day splitting tensile strength of con- 977 cretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement, 978 respectively, when the w/b ratio was 0.45. Sounthararajan 979 and Sivakumar (2013) reported 36.68% reduction in the 980 28 day splitting tensile strength of concretes containing 981 50% FA as cement replacement. Saravanakumar and 982 Dhinakaran (2013) reported a reduction in the tensile 983 strength of concretes containing 50% and 60% FA as 984 cement replacement. This reduction increased with increas- 985 ing FA content. The reduction in the 7, 14, 28 and 56 day 986 tensile strength was 2.94%, 13.12%, 24.13% and 5.47% with 987 the inclusion of 50% FA, respectively, whilst the inclusion 988 of 60% FA caused a reduction of 10.66%, 25.36%, 33.74% 989 and 6.64% respectively. §ahmaran et al. (2009) reported a 990 reduction in the splitting tensile strength at ages of 28, 90 991 and 180 days with the inclusion of HVFA as cement 992 replacement. The reduction in the 28 day splitting tensile 993 strength was 20.5%, 27.22% and 35.7% with the inclusion 994 of 50%, 60% and 70%, respectively, whilst it was 5.95%, 995

II.71% and 18%, respectively, at age of 180 days. 996 Mardani-Aghabaglou and Ramyar (2013) reported 997

40%, 12.16%, 15.14 and 14.38% reduction in the 7, 28, 90 998

and 180 day splitting tensile strength of concretes with 999

the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement, respec- 1000

tively (Fig. 7). Atis (2005) reported 14.51% reduction in 1001

Fig. 7. Effect of FA content on the splitting tensile strength of the concrete (Mardani-Aghabaglou and Ramyar, 2013).

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A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx 13

the splitting tensile strength of concrete specimens at age of 7 days with the inclusion of 50% Drax FA as cement replacement when the specimens were cured at 20 °C with 65% RH, whilst 30.96% enhancement in the splitting tensile strength was obtained at age of 28 days. The inclusion of 70% FA caused 18.82% and 18.39% reduction in the splitting strength at ages of 7 and 28 days, respectively. John and Ashok (2014) reported a reduction in the 7 and 28 day splitting tensile strength of concretes with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day splitting tensile strength was 18.73%, 23.48% and 33.77% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst it was 19.29%, 23.76% and 21.88%, respectively, at age of 28 days. Shah and Modhera (2014) reported a reduction in the 7, 28 and 56 day splitting tensile strength of concretes with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The reduction in the 7 day splitting tensile strength was 26.6%, 32.69% and 39.1% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction in the 56 day compressive strength was 24.94%, 31.97% and 38.55% respectively. Dinakar et al. (2008a,b) reported that the splitting tensile strength of concretes decreased with increasing FA content from 50% to 85% as cement replacement.

11. Modulus of elasticity

Duran-Herrera et al. (2011) reported a reduction in the static modulus of elasticity of concretes at age of 28 days with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. Mirza et al. (2002) reported a reduction in the modulus of elasticity of cement grout by partially replacing cement with 60% FA. Soni and Saini (2014) reported 66.48% and 67.56% reduction in the 28 and 56 day modulus of elasticity of concretes containing 50% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Yoshitake et al. (2014) reported 60.43%, 13.93%, 11.33%, 14.73%, 19.86% and 7.38% reduction in the 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 28 day compressive Young's modulus of con-

cretes with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement when the w/b ratio was 0.45. The reduction in the tensile Young's modulus was 40.58%, 50.22%, 29.92%, 18.68%, 23.43%, 24.11 and 11.1% at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 28 and 91 days, respectively. Yoon et al. (2014) reported a reduction in Young's modulus of elasticity of concretes at age of 28 days with the inclusion 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. Kayali and Ahmed (2013) reported approximately 30.3% and 54.55% reduction in the 7 day modulus of elasticity of concretes with the inclusion of 50% and 70% FA as cement replacement, respectively, (Fig. 8). Huang et al. (2013) reported 2.6%, 17.54%, 15.5% and 9.7% reduction in the 28, 56, 91 and 365 day modulus of elasticity of concretes with the inclusion of 80% FA, respectively, when the original cement content was 340 kg/m3. Dinakar et al. (2008a,b) reported that the elastic modulus of concretes decreased with increasing FA content from 50% to 85% as cement replacement.

From the above discussion in Sections 8-11, it is evident that the inclusion of HVFA in the matrix decreased the strength especially at early ages. The strength significantly decreased with increasing FA content. Significant reduction in the strength was obtained during the early ages compared to the control. The strength gap between the HVFA mixtures and the control decreased with increasing curing age. At too long ages, the strength of HVFA mixture may reach the same or show higher strength value compared to that of the control. The time at which the strength of HVFA concrete will catch up with that of the control will generally depend on the amount, reactivity and fineness of FA, w/b ratio and curing conditions such as humidity and temperature.

The reduction in the strength with the inclusion of HVFA could be mainly attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction of low-calcium FA and the dominant dilution effect, especially during early ages, with only a few parts of the FA participating in the reaction (Jiang and Guan, 1999). Montgomery et al. (1981) reported that low-

Fig. 8. Effect of FA content on the modulus of elasticity of concrete (Kayali and Ahmed, 2013).

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A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx

Fig. 9. Number of studies versus the amount of HVFA in concrete.

calcium FA apparently did not react appreciably at an early age under normal curing conditions. The reduction in the strength by partially replacing cement with HVFA is the main shortcoming reason of using this system which limits its wide use by engineers. It is worth mentioning that the number of researches regarding the FA amount in concrete decreased as the amount of FA increased (Fig. 9). Thus, replacing cement with a very high volume FA can be considered as a main topic for future researches.

12. Abrasion resistance

Siddique (2004a) reported a reduction in the abrasion resistance of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 45% and 50% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. The depth of the wear at age of 28 days was 1.9, 2.4 and 2.7 mm with the inclusion of 0%, 45% and 50% FA, respectively, whilst it was 1.7, 2.36 and 2.52 mm at age of 91 days, respectively. At age of 365 days, the depth of wear was 1.42, 2.17 and 2.32 mm with the inclusion of 0%, 45% and 50% FA, respectively, (Fig. 10). Siddique et al. (2012) reported 73.5%, 35.6% and 37.3% reduction in the 7, 28 and 56 day abrasion resistance of concrete with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Langan et al. (1990) reported a reduction in the abrasion resistance of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Kumar et al. (2007) reported a reduction in the abrasion resistance of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. The abrasion loss of the control specimens was 0.22%, 0.18% and 0.16% at w/b ratio of 0.4, 0.34 and 0.3, respectively, whilst it was 0.34%, 0.29% and 0.21% with the inclusion of 60% FA, respectively. Bilodeau and Malhotra (1992) reported that the inclusion of 55-60% FA of total cementitious materials in concretes exhibited poorer abrasion resistance than concrete specimens without FA.

Siddique (2010) reported a reduction in the abrasion resistance of concretes at ages of 28, 91 and 365 days with

Fig. 10. Effect of FA content on wear depth of concrete at age 28 days (Siddique, 2004a).

the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as cement replacement. The depth of wear increased by 29.12%, 30.64%, 12.43% with the inclusion of 50% FA at ages of 28, 91 and 365 days, respectively, whilst it increased by 42.86%, 44.51% and 34.32% with the inclusion of 60% FA, respectively. Siddique et al. (2007) reported a reduction in the abrasion resistance of concretes at ages of 28, 91 and 365 days with the inclusion of 45%, 55% and 65% FA This reduction increased with increasing FA content. Rashad et al. (2014) reported a reduction in the abrasion resistance of concrete specimens with the inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. The depth of wear increased by 40.9%, 48.9%, 16.38% and 15.1% at ages of 7, 28, 91 and 180 days, respectively, with the inclusion of 70% FA. On the contrary, Atis (2002a,b) reported that concretes containing 50% and 70% FA as cement replacement exhibited higher abrasion resistance at ages of 3, 7 and 28 days and 3 months compared to the control. Atis and Çelik (2002) reported that concrete containing 70% FA as cement replacement exhibited better abrasion resistance than that of the reference, particularly at high tensile strength (>4 MPa).

From the above review of the literature in this section, it can be noted that the inclusion of HVFA in concrete decreased the abrasion resistance as reported by several studies (Fig. 11). The reduction in the abrasion resistance with the inclusion of HVFA is logical, of which the abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with its com-pressive strength (Rashad et al., 2014), the compressive strength is the most important factor governing the abrasion resistance (Naik et al., 1995) and the abrasion resistance of concrete follows its compressive strength (Rashad, 2013b; Rashad et al., 2014; Atis, 2002a,b; Mehta, 1986; Hadchti and Carrasquillo, 1988; Laplante et al., 1991; Gjorv et al., 1990; Naik et al., 1995; Atis, 2003a,b; Li et al., 2006). The reduction in the abrasion resistance of concrete with the inclusion of HVFA is one

A guide for Civil Engineer. Inter-

A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx 15

Fig. 11. Number of studies versus the effect of HVFA on abrasion resistance of concrete.

1153 of disadvantage of using this system. On the other hand,

1154 there are few studies (Atis, 2002a,b; Atis and Celik,

1155 2002) believed that the inclusion of HVFA in concrete

1156 exhibited better abrasion resistance compared to the

1157 control.

1158 13. Freeze/thaw resistance

1159 Pigeon and Malhotra (1995) reported that HVFA con-

1160 crete specimens containing air-entrained showed excellent

1161 resistance to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. The

1162 HVFA concrete specimens which did not contain air-

1163 entrained exhibited adequate performance in the according

1164 ASTM C666. Baert et al. (2008) reported that concrete

1165 specimens containing 60% FA as cement replacement

1166 exhibited similar frost/thaw resistance to the reference

1167 specimens. Joshi et al. (1993) reported that concrete speci-

1168 mens containing HVFA (Alberta FA) with air content

1169 more than 5% exhibited acceptable freeze/thaw durability

1170 performance. Joshi (1987) reported that no significant dif-

1171 ferences were observed in freeze/thaw performance of air-

1172 entrained concrete specimens containing 50% FA as

1173 cement replacement and the concrete specimens containing

1174 both air-entraining and water-reducing agents. Malhotra

1175 et al. (1990) reported that superplasticized and air-

1176 entrained concrete specimens containing HVFA exhibited

1177 satisfactory durability against freeze/thaw attack. On the

1178 other hand, Mardani-Aghabaglou et al. (2013) reported

1179 that concrete specimens containing 60% FA as cement

1180 replacement exhibited higher reduction in the dynamic

1181 modulus of elasticity and compressive strength after

1182 freeze-thaw 300 cycles compared to the control, at age of

1183 90 days.

1184 From the above discussion, it can be noted that the

1185 effect of HVFA on the freeze/thaw resistance of concrete

1186 specimens still needs more investigations. However, accord-

1187 ing to the available studies it can be concluded that there is

1188 no apparent difference in the freezing and thawing resis-

1189 tance of concrete specimens with and without HVFA.

14. Thermal properties 1190

Bentz et al. (2011) reported a reduction in the thermal 1191

conductivity of mortar and concrete specimens with the 1192

inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. This reduction 1193

increased with increasing FA content. Gifford and Ward 1194

(1982) reported that the inclusion of FA at high levels as 1195

cement replacement slightly reduced the thermal expansion 1196

of concrete. Yoshitake et al. (2013, 2014) reported 2.13% 1197

reduction in the coefficient of thermal expansion of con- 1198

crete containing 50% FA as cement replacement, when w/ 1199

b ratio was 0.49, compared to the control. On the other 1200

hand, Yoshitake et al. (2014) reported that when w/b ratios 1201

were 0.45 and 0.38, the increment in the coefficient of ther- 1202

mal expansion of concrete specimens containing 50% FA 1203

was 8.51% and 10.64%, respectively. Rashad (2015a,b,c) 1204

reported higher relative compressive strength of concretes 1205

containing 70% FA after being exposed to 400, 600, 800 1206

and 1000 °C for 2 h compared to the control, whilst lesser 1207

residual compressive strength was obtained compared to 1208

the control. 1209

From the above review in this section, it can be noted 1210

that the data on the effect of HVFA on thermal properties 1211

of concrete are extremely limited. Indeed thermal proper- 1212

ties of HVFA matrix are still needs more investigations. 1213

This topic is suitable for future investigation. 1214

15. Drying shrinkage 1215

t Yang et al. (2007) reported a reduction in the free dry- 1216

ing shrinkage of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 1217

HVFA. The free drying shrinkage decreased as FA con- 1218

tent increased. Kumar et al. (2007) reported 30.5%, 32% 1219

and 49.5% reduction in the drying shrinkage of concrete 1220

specimens with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement 1221

replacement when w/b ratio was 0.4, 0.34 and 0.3, respec- 1222

tively, whilst the inclusion of 60% FA reduced it by 39%, 1223

51% and 58%, respectively. Mirza et al. (2002) reported a 1224

reduction in the drying shrinkage of cement grout by par- 1225

tially replacing cement with 60% FA. Gesoglu et al. 1226

(2009) reported a significant reduction in the drying 1227

shrinkage of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 1228

60% FA as cement replacement. At 50 day drying age, 1229

the reduction in the shrinkage strain was approximately 1230

16.7% with the inclusion of 60% FA. El-Chabib and 1231

Ibrahim (2013) reported 16.67% reduction in the overall 1232

free shrinkage of concrete specimens at age of 90 days 1233

with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement, 1234

whilst 41.49% reduction was obtained for mortar speci- 1235

mens containing the same content of FA. 1236

Atis (2003a,b) reported a reduction in the drying shrink- 1237

age of concrete specimens by partially replacing cement 1238

with FA at levels of 50% and 70%. This reduction increased 1239

with increasing FA content. The reduction at the 1 day dry- 1240

ing age was approximately 55.8% and 60.5% with the inclu- 1241

sion of 50% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the reduction 1242

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16 A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx

1243 at age of 6 months was approximately 46.9% and 52.5%,

1244 respectively. When fixed dosage of SP was used, the trend

1245 of drying shrinkage increased. Wu et al. (2006) reported

1246 a reduction in the shrinkage of concrete specimens at ages

1247 ranging from 3 to 180 days with the inclusion of 50%, 60%

1248 and 70% FA as cement replacement. At a w/b ratio of 0.3,

1249 the reduction in the shrinkage at age of 3 days was 10.34%,

1250 9.48% and 11.21% with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70%

1251 FA, respectively, whilst the reduction at age of 180 days

1252 was 10.29%, 11.45% and 11.74%, respectively. §ahmaran

1253 et al. (2009) reported a reduction in the drying shrinkage

1254 of concrete specimens with the inclusion of HVFA as

1255 cement replacement. The reduction in the drying shrinkage

1256 strain at age of 365 days was 31.94%, 13.96% and 38.56%

1257 with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively.

1258 On the other hand, Huang et al. (2013) reported an

1259 increase in the drying shrinkage of concretes with the inclu-

1260 sion of 60% and 80% FA as cement replacement. The dry-

1261 ing shrinkage increased with increasing FA content. The

1262 drying shrinkage value of 60% FA was 673 x 10~6, whilst

1263 it was 683 x 10~6 for 80% FA. Kate and Murnal (2013)

1264 reported an increase in the drying shrinkage of concrete

1265 specimens with increasing FA content up to 70%.

1266 From the above mentioned studies in this section, it can

1267 be concluded that the inclusion of HVFA in the matrix

1268 decreased its drying shrinkage. The inclusion of HVFA in

1269 the matrix reduced the water demand, at the same time,

1270 produced finer paste structure, as a result of which the less

1271 of pore water within the paste system is restricted and con-

1272 sequently the drying shrinkage reduced. Kumar et al.

1273 (2007) reported that cracking occurs when the stresses

1274 induced by shrinkage strain, at any time, exceed the tensile

1275 strength of concrete. Any delay in sawing of joints beyond

1276 the time when significant concrete shrinkage occurs may

1277 induce uncontrolled cracking in the concrete. HVFA con-

1278 crete, owing to its low shrinkage, is expected to lower the

1279 cracking tendency and the risk of uncontrolled cracking

1280 due to any delay in sawing of joints. The reduction in the

1281 drying shrinkage with the inclusion of HVFA as cement

1282 replacement is one advantage of using this system. As

1283 known, drying shrinkage is one of the main reasons that

1284 cause cracks in large concrete structures. Consequently,

1285 using HVFA in large concrete structures, such as floors

1286 and dams, can alleviate this problem.

1287 16. pH value

1288 Zhang et al. (2000) reported a reduction in the pH value

1289 of paste specimens containing 50% and 60% FA. This

1290 reduction increased with increasing FA content. Shi and

1291 Qian (2001) reported a reduction in the pH value by par-

1292 tially replacing cement in pastes with 50% and 70% FA.

1293 The pH value decreased with increasing FA content. Wu

1294 et al. (2006) reported a reduction in the pH value of con-

1295 crete specimen with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70%

FA as cement replacement. The pH value decreased with 1296

increasing FA content. 1297

Although there are limited investigations related to the 1298

effect of HVFA content on the pH value, it can be con- 1299

cluded that the inclusion of HVFA in the matrix reduced 1300

the pH value. The pH value decreased with increasing 1301

FA content, but it wouldn't decrease to the degree that 1302

destroys the passivated film of reinforcement (Wu et al. 1303

(2006). The reduction in the pH value with the inclusion 1304

of HVFA could be related to the FA absorbed the OH" 1305

and other cations in the pore solution and decreased the 1306

pH of the pore solution, which resulted a reduction in 1307

the pH of the extract (Shi and Qian (2001). The reduction 1308

in the pH value with the inclusion of HVFA could be 1309

related to the pozzolanic reaction of FA which can cause 1310

the decline of the alkalinity of pore solution, and in the 1311

meantime consume the CH from the hydration of cement 1312

(Zhang et al., 2000). 1313

17. Porosity and water absorption 1314

Poon et al. (2000) reported 16.11% and 46.94% incre- 1315

ment in the porosity of paste specimens at ages of 28 and 1316

90 days, respectively, by partially replacing cement with 1317

45% FA when the w/b ratio was 0.24. At a w/b ratio of 1318

0.19, the increment in the porosity was 15.99% and 1319

42.1% at the same ages, respectively. Poon et al. (2000) 1320

reported that the inclusion of 45% FA as cement replace- 1321

ment in concrete specimens did not increase the porosity 1322

when the w/b ratio was 0.24. At a w/b ratio of 0.19, higher 1323

porosity was obtained compared to that at a w/b ratio of 1324

0.24. Jiang and Guan (1999) reported 40.64%, 54.64% 1325

and 61.57% increment in the porosity of paste specimens 1326

with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement at 1327

ages of 3, 28 and 90 days, respectively. Filho et al. (20 1 3) 1328

reported 32.74% increment in the concrete specimens 1329

porosity with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replace- 1330

ment. Younsi et al. (2011) reported 5% and 10.14% incre- 1331

ment in the percentage of porosity of concrete specimens 1332

with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement at 1333

ages of 2.5 and 14 days, respectively. If 0.57% air- 1334

entraining agent (AEA) was added to the 50% FA mixture, 1335

1.9% and 5.8% increment in the percentage of porosity was 1336

obtained at ages of 2.5 and 14 days, respectively. 1337

Lammertijn and De Belie (2008) reported 38.36% incre- 1338

ment in the total permeable porosity of concrete specimens 1339

with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement at age 1340

of 1 month, whilst it decreased by 2.36% and 0.49% at ages 1341

of 3 and 6 months, respectively. The inclusion of 67% FA 1342

as cement replacement resulted 42.45%, 11.64% and 1343

26.46% increment in the total permeable porosity at ages 1344

of 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Gesoglu et al. (2009) 1345

reported 50% reduction in the water permeability of con- 1346

crete specimens with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement 1347

replacement. Mardani-Aghabaglou et al. (2013) reported 1348

that the percentage of water absorption and permeable 1349

void of concrete specimens increased by approximately 1350

A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx 17

1351 33.34% and 25.3% at age of 56 days with the inclusion of

1352 60% FA as cement replacement, respectively. Mukherjee

1353 et al. (2013) reported an increase in the percentage of

1354 apparent porosity and water absorption of concrete speci-

1355 mens with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as

1356 cement replacement. The increment increased as the con-

1357 tent of FA increased. Silva and de Brito (2013) reported

1358 a reduction in the capillarity water absorption of concrete

1359 specimens at ages of 7, 28, 91 and 182 days with the inclu-

1360 sion of 60% FA as cement replacement, whilst 70% FA

1361 increased it.

1362 From the above review of the literature in this section, it

1363 can be concluded that the inclusion of HVFA in the matrix

1364 increased its porosity and water absorption. Both of poros-

1365 ity and water absorption increased with increasing FA con-

1366 tent. Increasing porosity and water absorption with the

1367 inclusion of HVFA is one disadvantage of using this sys-

1368 tem. However, in general, the use of FA increased the

1369 porosity because of smaller amount of cement in mixture

1370 proportions. The hydration of cement fills the volume ini-

1371 tially occupied by the water, reducing the total porosity

1372 of the systems. The pozzolanic activity of FA consumes

1373 portlandite and precipitates secondary CSH, without

1374 changing the porosity, but reducing the interconnectivity

1375 of the pore structure (Filho et al., 2013).

1376 18. Chloride ion penetration and permeability

1377 Poon et al. (2000) reported 62.1% and 85.88% reduction

1378 in the chloride diffusion of concrete specimens at ages of 28

1379 and 90 days, respectively, by partially replacing cement

1380 with 45% FA, when w/b ratio was 0.24. At w/b ratio of

1381 0.19, the reduction in the chloride diffusion was 39.1%

1382 and 76.67% at ages of 28 and 90 days, respectively.

1383 Burden (2006) reported a reduction in the rapid chloride

1384 permeability of concretes with the inclusion of 50% FA

1385 as cement replacement. This reduction was 18.4%, 3.63%,

1386 30% and 31.9% at ages of 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days, respec-

1387 tively, when the w/b ratio was 0.4. Filho et al. (2013)

1388 reported that the chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete

1389 specimens at age of 91 days reduced 13.25% with the inclu-

1390 sion of 50% FA as cement replacement. On the same line,

1391 the total charge passed (Coulombs) decreased by approxi-

1392 mately 18.29%. Chalee et al. (2007) reported that the chlo-

1393 ride penetration of concrete specimens decreased with the

1394 inclusion of 50% FA <as cement replacement. van den

1395 Heede et al. (2010) reported that concretes containing

1396 50% FA as cement replacement exhibited 78.9% and 78%

1397 lower apparent gas permeability at ages of 28 and 91 days,

1398 respectively, compared to the control. §ahmaran et al.

1399 (2008) reported 65.3%, 62.94 and 0% reduction in the rapid

1400 chloride permeability (RCPT) of concrete specimens at

1401 ages of 28, 43 and 58 days with the inclusion of 55% FA

1402 as cement replacement.

1403 Balakrishnan and Abdul Awal (2014) exposed concrete

1404 specimens after curing for 28 days to chloride attack. The

results showed a reduction in the chloride penetration 1405

depth with the inclusion of HVFA at ages of 7, 28 and 1406

90 days of exposure. This reduction increased with increas- 1407

ing FA content. The reduction in the 28 days was approx- 1408

imately 57% and 61% with the inclusion of 50% and 60% 1409

FA, respectively. El-Chabib and Ibrahim (2013) reported 1410

53.79% reduction in the rapid chloride permeability of con- 1411

crete specimens at age of 56 days with the inclusion of 60% 1412

FA as cement replacement. Gesoglu et al. (2009) reported 1413

that the chloride permeability of concrete specimens which 1414

tested at age of 90 days was reduced by 28.57% with the 1415

inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Sujjavanich 1416

et al., 2005 reported a significant reduction in the chloride 1417

ion penetration of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 1418

50% and 65% FA as cement replacement. The HVFA con- 1419

cretes exhibited a very low level of chloride permeability. 1420

§ahmaran et al. (2009) reported a reduction in the RCRT 1421

of concrete specimens at ages ranging from 28 days to 1422

365 days with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as 1423

cement replacement. This reduction increased with increas- 1424

ing FA content at ages of 90, 180 and 365 days. Yerramala 1425

and Babu (2011) reported less permeability of concrete 1426

specimens with the inclusion of 60-70% FA as cement 1427

replacement. 1428

On the other hand, Zhang et al. (2014) reported that the 1429

charge passed increased in the engineered cementitious 1430

composites (mortars) as the HVFA content increased. 1431

Shaikh and Supit (2014) reported 76.5% and 69.3% incre- 1432

ment in the chloride passed (Coulombs) of concretes at 1433

ages of 28 and 90 days with the inclusion of 60% FA as 1434

cement replacement, respectively. Kayali and Ahmed 1435

(2013) reported that the values of total chloride content 1436

in 50% and 70% HVFA concretes were larger than those 1437

of the control. Mardani-Aghabaglou et al. (2013) reported 1438

76.5% and 69.31% increment in the charge passed (Cou- 1439

lombs) at ages of 28 and 90 days with the inclusion of 1440

60% FA as cement replacement, respectively. 1441

From the above discussion, it is evident that the inclu- 1442

sion of HVFA in the matrix has a positive effect on the per- 1443

meability and chloride ion penetration. The reduction in 1444

the permeability caused an improvement in long-term 1445

durability and resistance to various forms of deterioration. 1446

The addition of FA results in considerable pore refinement. 1447

It transforms bigger pores into smaller ones to the forma- 1448

tion of pozzolanic reaction products concomitant with 1449

the progress of cement hydration. Since impermeability 1450

and strength are oppositely related to the volume of pores 1451

larger than 100 A in hydrated paste, the phenomenon of 1452

pore refinement in FA concrete leads to the improvement 1453

in these characteristics. The CH is consumed in the poz- 1454

zolanic reactions and converted to water insoluble hydra- 1455

tion products. The reactions reduce the risk of leaching 1456

CH. The reaction products also tend to fill capillaries, 1457

thereby reducing permeability Siddique, 2008a. 1458

Manmohan and Mehta (1981) believed that transformation 1459

of large pores to fine pores, as a consequence of the poz- 1460

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1461 zolanic reaction between cement paste and FA, substan-

1462 tially reduced permeability.

1463 19. Sorptivity

1464 Misra et al. (2007) reported a reduction in the sorpitivity

1465 of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 50% FA as

1466 cement replacement. Sahmaran et al. (2008) reported

1467 21.24% and 50.98% reduction in the sorptivity index of

1468 concrete specimens at ages of 28 and 58 days with the inclu-

1469 sion of 55% FA as cement replacement. Gesoglu et al.

1470 (2009) reported 12.9% reduction in the sorptivity index of

1471 concrete specimens at age of 90 days with the inclusion of

1472 60% FA as cement replacement. §ahmaran et al. (2009)

1473 reported a reduction in the sorptivity index of concrete

1474 specimens at ages ranging from 28 to 365 days with the

1475 inclusion of HVFA as cement replacement. At age of

1476 28 days, the reduction in the sorptivity index was 45.19%,

1477 53.85% and 53.85% at age of 28 days with the inclusion

1478 of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst it was

1479 32.2%, 35.59% and 42.37% at age of 365 days, respectively.

1480 On the other hand, Zhang et al., 2014 reported that the

1481 sorptivity of engineered cementitious composites (mortars)

1482 increased with increasing HVFA content, of which more

1483 porous matrix was produced. Mardani-Aghabaglou et al.

1484 (2013) reported approximately 61.3% increase in the sorp-

1485 tivity of concrete specimens at age of 56 days with the

1486 inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Shaikh and

1487 Supit (2014) reported approximately 26.6% increase in

1488 the water sorptivity at ages of 28 and 90 days of concrete

1489 specimens with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement

1490 replacement.

1491 From the previous mentioned studies in this section, it

1492 can be noted that there are contradictory results regarding

1493 the effect of HVFA on the sorptivity. Some studies believed

1494 that the inclusion of HVFA in the matrix reduced sorptiv-

1495 ity. Minimizing sorptivity is important in order to reduce

1496 the ingress of chloride-containing or sulphate-containing

1497 water into concrete, which can cause serious damage

1498 (McCarter et al., 1992). On the other hand, other studies

1499 reported higher sorptivity with the inclusion of HVFA in

1500 the matrix. Indeed, this property still needs more

1501 investigations.

1502 20. Chemical resistance

1503 Torii et al. (1995) partially replaced cement in concretes

1504 with FA up to 50%, by weight. After curing for 28 days,

1505 concrete specimens were exposed to 10% Na2SO4 for

1506 2 years. The results showed that HVFA concrete specimens

1507 exhibited higher sulphate resistance. Baert et al. (2008)

1508 reported that concrete specimens containing 60% FA as

1509 cement replacement exhibited better performance in lac-

1510 tic/acetic and sulphuric acid. Balakrishnan and Abdul

1511 Awal (2014) exposed concrete specimens to 2% hydrochlo-

1512 ric acid solution for up to 1800 h, after 28 curing days. The

results showed that the inclusion of 50% and 60% FA as 1513

cement replacement exhibited weight loss lesser than the 1514

control. The weight loss decreased with increasing FA con- 1515

tent. They also exposed some specimens to 10% Na2SO4, 1516

after 28 curing days, for 28, 90 and 550 days. They reported 1517

that the specimens containing HVFA stayed intact in sul 1518

phate solution throughout the period of exposure. 1519

From the mentioned studies in this section, it can be 1520

noted that there is a distinct lack in the literature regarding 1521

the effect of HVFA on the chemical resistance. According 1522

to the available studies, it can be concluded that the inclu- 1523

sion of HVFA in the matrix increased its resistance against 1524

sulphate attack. The excellence of high HVFA concrete 1525

specimens to sulphate resistance was attributed primarily 1526

to the prevention of ingress of sulphate ions into concrete, 1527

resulting in little formation of gypsum and/or ettringite in 1528

concrete (Torii et al., 1995). Siddique and Khan (2011) 1529

reported that FA induced three phenomena which improve 1530

sulphate resistance: (i) consumed the free lime resulted it 1531

unavailable to react with sulphate, (ii) reduced permeability 1532

which prevented sulphate penetration, and (iii) by replacing 1533

cement, the reactive aluminates was reduced. The positive 1534

effect of FA on acid resistance could be related to the poz- 1535

zolanic reaction between FA and CH liberated during the 1536

hydration of cement, which forms additional cementitious 1537

compound mainly CSH. 1538

21. Carbonation and corrosion resistance 1539

Burden (2006) exposed concrete specimens to different 1540

methods of carbonation namely accelerated carbonation 1541

(1% CO2), indoor carbonation and outdoor carbonation 1542

for different durations. The results showed a reduction in 1543

the carbonation resistance of concrete specimens with the 1544

inclusion of 50% as cement replacement, for all carbona- 1545

tion methods. Feng et al. (2006) reported an increase in 1546

the carbonation depth of concrete specimens with the 1547

inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Bouzoubaa 1548

et al. (2010) reported a reduction in the carbonation resis- 1549

tance of concrete specimens containing 50% Lingan FA 1550

exposed to 3% CO2 for 140 days or exposed to natural car- 1551

bonation for 4 years, after 7 days of curing. The accelerated 1552

carbonation rate increased by 136% with the inclusion of 1553

FA, when strength class was 25 MPa. The carbonation rate 1554

increased by 39.5% and 440% by natural indoor and out- 1555

door exposure, respectively, when the strength class was 1556

25 MPa. Younsi et al. (2011) measured the carbonation 1557

depth of concrete specimens containing up to 50% FA as 1558

cement replacement. The specimens were oven dried for 1559

2.5 and 14 days and exposed to accelerated carbonation 1560

for 7 days. The results showed an increased in the carbon- 1561

ation depth with the inclusion of FA. The carbonation 1562

depth increased with increasing FA content (Fig. 12).Fur- 1563

thermore, they measured the natural carbonation up to 1564

1 year. The results showed approximately 20.8% and 1565

62.2% increment in the carbonation depth with the inclu- 1566

sion of 50% FA in the case of air and water curing, respec- 1567

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tively. Khunthongkeaw et al. (2006) exposed concrete specimens containing 0% and 50% FA as cement replacement to 4% CO2 for 4 and 8 weeks, after 28 days of curing. They reported that carbonation coefficient of concrete increased with the inclusion of FA. This means that the carbonation resistance decreased with the inclusion of FA. Jia et al. (2012) reported higher carbonation depth of concrete specimens containing 50% FA as cement replacement after exposure to accelerated carbonation or natural carbona-tion compared to the control. Lammertijn and De Belie (2008) reported a reduction in the carbonation resistance of concrete specimens with the inclusion of 50% and 67% FA as cement replacement. This reduction increased with increasing FA content. Baert et al. (2008) reported that the carbonation depth after 9 weeks of exposing concrete specimens to 10% CO2 environment increased with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. Mingzhi and Guofan (1994) reported that when the total amount of cementitious material was 222 kg/m3, the depth of car-bonation of concrete specimens containing 55% FA increased mildly, whilst the depth of carbonation increased rapidly with the inclusion of 70% FA. Wu et al. (2006) reported an increase in the carbonation depth with the inclusion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement. The carbonation depth of concrete specimens increased with increasing FA content. Atis (2003a,b) exposed concrete specimens containing 0% and 70% FA as cement replacement to 5% CO2. The specimens were exposed to CO2 for 2 weeks after 3, 7 and 28 days and 3 months of curing at 20 °C with 65% RH. The results showed an increase in the carbonation depth with the inclusion of 70% FA. The increment in the carbonation depth was 55.21%, 57.65%, 73.85% and 78% for 70% FA specimens cured for 3, 7, 28 days and 3 months, respectively, before carbonation exposure.

Jiang et al. (2004) reported a reduction in the corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement embedded in concrete con-

taining 60% FA as cement replacement compared to the control. Kayali and Ahmed (2013) reported that the inclusion of 70% FA in concrete as cement replacement caused a possibility of corrosion occurring. On the other hand, Chalee et al. (2007) reported that the inclusion of 50% FA in concrete specimens as cement replacement when a w/c ratio of 0.65 exhibited corrosion resistance at 4 years exposure as good as the control when w/c ratio was 0.45. Sujjavanich et al. (2005) reported that the anti-corrosion risk of concretes containing 50% and 65% FA as cement replacement was significantly improved and the probability of no corrosion risk was higher than 90%.

From the above review in this section, it can be noted that the inclusion of HVFA in the matrix decreased its car-bonation resistance. This reduction in the carbonation resistance is logical, of which Nagataki et al. (1986) reported a direct relationship between 28 day compressive strength and carbonation depth irrespective of FA replacement in concrete, and also mentioned that the extent of car-bonation decreased with increasing compressive strength. In HVFA, the carbonation could be related to the decalcification of CSH by CO2 exposure. This caused carbonation shrinkage when the Ca/Si ratio of CSH dropped. Regarding the effect of HVFA on corrosion resistance, the effect of HVFA on the corrosion resistance is not clearly understood, as the results obtained have trended to vary. This item still needs more investigations.

22. Electrical resistivity and conductivity

t Gesoglu et al. (2009) reported an increase in the electrical resistivity of concrete specimens which tested at age of 90 days with the inclusion of 60% FA as cement replacement. The increment of electrical resistivity was 9.1%. Liu and Presuel-Moreno (2014) reported an increase in the electrical resistivity of concrete specimens at ages of 28 and 365 days with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Filho et al. (2013) reported that the electrical resistivity of concrete specimens increased by approximately 4.8 times with the inclusion of 50% FA as cement replacement. Shi and Qian (2001) reported a reduction in the electrical conductivity of extract of paste specimens with the inclusion of 50% and 70% FA as cement replacement. The electrical conductivity decreased with increasing FA content.

As shown, there is a lack in the literature related to the effect of HVFA on the electrical resistivity and conductivity. However, according to the available studies, it can be concluded that the inclusion of HVFA in the matrix increased the electrical resistivity, but decreased electrical conductivity.

In general view, using HVFA as cement replacement in the matrix shows some advantages, of which some properties are improved, and some disadvantages, of which some properties are defected. The advantages of using HVFA in the matrix are decreasing heat of hydration, increasing workability, decreasing bleeding, decreasing segregation,

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1660 decreasing density, increasing fire resistance, decreasing

1661 drying shrinkage, decreasing permeability, decreasing chlo-

1662 ride ion penetration, decreasing sorptivity, increasing

1663 chemical resistance and increasing electrical resistivity. It

1664 is safe to conclude that HVFA can be applied for mass con-

1665 crete, marine concrete, dam concrete, floor concrete, con-

1666 crete in hot weather, non-structural works, construction

1667 material where thermal insulation properties are required,

1668 construction material where high durability is required

1669 HPC where high workability is required etc. Because

1670 HVFA replaced cement, this means that the PC will be

1671 eliminated. Consequently, the CO2 emission caused by

1672 decomposition during sintering process of Portland clinker

1673 will be reduced and the consumption of natural raw mate-

1674 rials (limestone and sand) required will be reduced. The dis-

1675 posal of FA will be eliminated. Therefore, there are extra

1676 advantages of using HVFA system such as lower emission

1677 of pollutants into atmosphere, reduction in consumption of

1678 natural resources, eliminate the disposal of FA and reduc-

1679 ing the unit cost. However, on the other hand, the disad-

1680 vantages of using HVFA system are sharply decreasing

1681 mechanical strength at early ages, decreasing modulus of

1682 elasticity, decreasing abrasion resistance, decreasing car-

1683 bonation resistance, increasing porosity and water absorp-

1684 tion. Increasing setting time by using HVFA can be

1685 considered as an advantage or as a disadvantage. This

1686 depends on the application that the HVFA concrete used

1687 for. However, studies have tried to solve some of these dis-

1688 advantages by adding different additives as shown in the

1689 following section.

1690 23. Additives to improve some properties of HVFA matrix

1691 23.1. Nano particles

1692 Li (2004) reported that the inclusion of 4% nano-SiO2

1693 (NS) in concrete specimens containing 50% FA as cement

1694 replacement significantly increased the pozzolanic activity

1695 of FA. The inclusion of NS enhanced the compressive

1696 strength of HVFA concrete by 80.95%, 59.1%, 68.57%,

1697 3 9.34%, 18.72%, 7.58%, 9.54% and 6.82% at ages of 1, 3,

1698 7, 28 , 56, 112, 3 60 and 720 days, respectively. Zhang and

1699 Islam (2012) reported 62.16%, 24.31%, 17.1%, 6.86% and

1700 4.35% enhancement in the 1, 3, 7, 28 and 91 day compres-

1701 sive strength of 50% FA mortar specimens by replacing 1%

1702 FA with NS, respectively. The inclusion of 2% NS as FA

1703 replacement in concrete specimens reduced the initial and

1704 final setting time by 28.1% and 22.1%, respectively. Hou

1705 et al. (2013) modified HVFA mortars by adding 2.25%

1706 and 5% colloidal NS. They reported that the early-age

1707 compressive strength of HVFA mortars could be greatly

1708 improved by the addition of colloidal NS. The higher the

1709 dosage, the greater the improvement. On the other hand,

1710 colloidal NS adversely affect strength gain at later ages.

1711 The higher the dosage, the greater the reduction in the rate

1712 of strength gain. Shaikh et al. (2014) partially replaced 2%

1713 of FA in mortars containing 50%, 60% and 70% FA as

cement replacement with NS particles. The inclusion of 1714

NS enhanced the 28 day compressive strength of 50%, 1715

60% and 70% FA mortars by 4.76%, 25% and 55.56%, 1716

respectively. On the other hand, there was 7.69%, 25% 1717

and 0% reduction in the 7 day compressive strength, 1718

respectively. They also replaced 2% of FA with NS in con- 1719

crete specimens containing 60% FA. The results showed 1720

95% enhancement in the 3 day compressive strength, but 1721

no such improvement at ages of 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. 1722

Mardani-Aghabaglou et al. (2013) modified some prop- 1723

erties of HVFA concrete and mortar specimens containing 1724

60% FA as cement replacement by partially replacing 1% 1725

FA with nano CaCO3 (NC) particles. The compressive 1726

strength results showed 100% and 106.25% enhancement 1727

in the 7 and 28 day compressive strength of mortars with 1728

the inclusion of NC, whilst the enhancement in the 3 , 28 1729

and 90 day compressive strength of concretes was 25%, 1730

15% and 8.33%, respectively. The sorptivity test results 1731

showed that the use of 1% NC in HVFA concrete speci- 1732

mens significantly reduced the rate of water absorption at 1733

age of 90 days (30.49%). The volume of permeability voids 1734

reduced by 7% and 21% at ages of 28 and 90 days, respec- 1735

tively, with the inclusion of 1% NC. The chloride ion per- 1736

meability resistance of concretes increased with the 1737

inclusion of NC, of which the charge passed (Coulombs) 1738

reduced by 11.77% and 7.72% at ages of 28 and 90 days, 1739

respectively. Table 2 summarizes the mentioned studies 1740

about the effect of nano particles on some properties of 1741

HVFA mortar and concrete. 1742

From the above mentioned studies in this section, it can 1743

be concluded that the inclusion of NS increased the com- 1744

pressive strength of HVFA mixture as well as reduced the 1745

initial and final setting time. Zhang and Islam (2012) 1746

reported that NS is highly reactive pozzolanic material 1747

which can react with CH liberated from cement hydration 1748

to produce CSH. The pozzolanic reaction of the NS might 1749

have started before 24 h. The pozzolanic reaction of the NS 1750

at very early age might have also contributed to the 1751

reduced setting time and increased early strength of HVFA 1752

matrix. The NS might reduce porosity in cement paste and 1753

in interface transition zone (ITZ) between the cement paste 1754

and aggregate. Consequently, the bonding between the 1755

cement paste and aggregate increased which might have 1756

contributed to the strength development. On the same line, 1757

the inclusion of NC in the HVFA matrix enhanced the 1758

compressive strength, reduced the sorptivity and the vol- 1759

ume of permeability voids. 1760

23.2. Silica fume, slag, metakaolin and ultra-fine FA 1761

Gesoglu et al. (2009) reported that the compressive 1762

strength of 60% FA concrete specimens can be enhanced 1763

by 5.65% when 15% FA was replaced with silica fume 1764

(SF), by weight. Zhang and Islam (2012) reported 1765

13.51%, 14.92%, 10.41%, 3.68% and 1.24% enhancement 1766

in the 1, 3, 7, 28 and 91 day compressive strength of 50% 1767

FA mortars by replacing 1% FA with SF, respectively. 1768

A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx 21

Table 2

Effect of nano particles on some properties of HVFA mortar and concrete.

References % Nano Type Effect

Li(2004) 4 NS Concrete - Enhanced compressive strength

Zhang and Islam (2012) 1 NS Mortar - Enhanced compressive strength

Zhang and Islam (2012) 2 NS Concrete - Reduced setting time

Hou et al. (2013) 5 NS Mortar - Enhanced early ages compressive strength

- Reduced later ages compressive strength

Shaikh et al. (2014) 2 NS Mortar - Enhanced 28 day compressive strength

- Reduced 7 day compressive strength

2 NS Concrete - Enhanced 3 day compressive strength

- Reduced 7-90 day compressive strength

Mardani-Aghabaglou et al. (2013) 1 NC Concrete - Enhanced 7 and 28 day compressive strength

- Reduced sorptivity

- Reduced permeability voids

- Reduced chloride ion permeability

1 NC Mortar - Enhanced 7 and 28 day compressive strength

1769 The inclusion of 2% SF as FA replacement in concrete mix-

1770 ture reduced the initial and final setting time by 9.92% and

1771 1.23%, respectively. El-Chabib and Ibrahim (2013) modi-

1772 fied concretes containing 60% FA as cement replacement

1773 by partially replacing FA with 10% SF or 30% slag coupled

1774 with 10% SF. The inclusion of 10% SF enhanced the com-

1775 pressive strength by 66.97%, 34.9% and 30% at ages of 1, 7

1776 and 28 days, respectively, whilst the inclusion of 30% slag

1777 coupled with 10% SF enhanced it by 31.6%, 90% and

1778 6 5.62%, respectively. The inclusion of 10% SF reduced

1779 the rapid chloride permeability (Coulombs) at age of

1780 56 days by 71.93%, whilst the inclusion of 30% slag coupled

1781 with 10% SF reduced it by 74.78%. Rashad et al. (2014)

1782 tried to modify the compressive strength and abrasion

1783 resistance of concrete containing 70% FA as cement

1784 replacement by partially replacing 10% and 20% FA with

1785 SF, slag and SF coupled with slag. The results showed that

1786 SF and SF coupled with slag enhanced the compressive

1787 strength (Fig. 13) and abrasion resistance of HVFA con-

1788 cretes. As the SF content increased as the enhancement

increased. On the other hand the inclusion of slag reduced 1789

them. The inclusion of 10% SF enhanced 7, 28, 91 and 1790

180 day compressive strength by 5.84%, 40%, 15.72% and 1791

5.24%, respectively, whilst the inclusion of 20% SF 1792

enhanced it by 7.56%, 91.36%, 27.39% and 5.1%, respec- 1793

tively. The inclusion of 10% SF reduced the 7, 28, 91 and 1794

180 wear loss by 1.9%, 4%, 0.9% and 1.91%, respectively, 1795

whilst the inclusion of 20% SF reduced it by 9.26%, 1796

25.45%, 2.94% and 1.9, respectively. Rashad (2015a) used 1797

SF to modified concrete containing 70% FA as cement 1798

replacement. FA was partially replaced with 10% and 1799

20% SF, by weight. Some specimens were exposed to ele- 1800

vated temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 1000 °C with 1801

a step of 200 °C for 2 h. The results showed that the inclu- 1802

sion of SF exhibited good fire resistance up to 600 °C, then 1803

severe degradation in the residual strength was observed at 1804

800 and 1000 °C. The inclusion of 10% SF enhanced the 1805

residual compressive strength of HVFA concretes after 1806

being exposed to 400 and 600 °C by 14.53% and 28.83%, 1807

respectively, whilst 21.37% and 23.42% reduction at 800 ° 1808

Fig. 13. Effect of SF, slag and their combinations of compressive strength of HVFA concrete (Rashad et al., 2014).

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C and 1000 °C was obtained, respectively. The inclusion of 20% SF enhanced the residual strength at 400 and 600 °C by 29.37% and 33.25%, respectively, whilst 20.71% and 5.65% reduction was obtained at 800 and 1000 °C, respectively. Similar results, but with lower trend, was obtained when 10% and 20% FA was replaced with SF coupled with slag (Rashad, 2015c). On the other hand, the inclusion of 10% and 20% slag as partially replacement of FA in concrete specimens containing 70% FA exhibited adverse impact of fire resistance compared to the control (70% slag) (Rashad, 2015b).

Zhu et al. (2012) reported that the mechanical properties of concrete specimens containing 70% FA as cement replacement could be modified by partially replacing 10%, 20% and 30% of FA with slag. The inclusion of 10% slag increased tensile strength by 4.72% and 3.93% at ages of 28 and 90 days, respectively, whilst the inclusion of 30% slag increased it by 14.38% and 19.25%, respectively. The compressive strength and flexural strength increased with increasing slag content. The compressive strength at age of 28 days increased by 13%, 26% and 30% with the inclusion of 10%, 20% and 30% slag, respectively. The inclusion of 10% slag enhanced 3, 14, 28 and 90 days flexural strength by 13.33%, 19.15%, 16.67% and 22.4%, respectively, whilst the inclusion of 30% enhanced it by 46.67%, 17%, 25.93% and 37.93%, respectively. Wei et al. (2007) partially replaced FA in concrete specimens containing 50% with 5% SF or metakaolin (MK) aiming

to increase the compressive strength. The results showed an enhancement in the compressive strength by approximately 180.9%, 200%, 150%, 77.4% and 65.4% with the inclusion of 5% MK at ages of 3, 7, 28 and 56 days, respectively, whilst the inclusion of 5% SF showed an enhancement of 90.5%, 126.7%, 127.5%, 63.9% and 60.5%, respectively. Supit et al. (2014) enhanced the 7 and 28 day compressive strength of mortars containing 50%, 60% and 70% FA as cement replacement by replacing 8% of FA with ultra-fine FA. The enhancement in the 28 day compressive strength was 28.57%, 25% and 22.22%, respectively. Table 3 summarizes the mentioned studies about the effect of SF, slag, MK and ultra-fine FA on some properties of HVFA mortar and concrete.

From the above mentioned studies, it can be concluded that the inclusion of SF in HVFA matrix enhanced the compressive strength, abrasion resistance as well as reduced the initial and final setting time. The inclusion of SF in HVFA concretes reduced the apparent porosity which was found in HVFA sample, of which the matrix looks more continuous and compact (Fig. 14). Similar behaviour was found with the inclusion of SF coupled with slag. On the other hand, there is a contradictory result about the effect of slag on HVFA matrix, of which one study reported a positive effect, whilst another reported a negative effect. This item still needs more investigations. The inclusion of MK in HVFA matrix enhanced the strength due to its high contents of SiO2 and Al2O3 which

Table 3

Effect of SF, slag, MK and ultra-fine FA on some properties of HVFA mortar and concrete.

References

% Additive

Effect

Gesoglu et al. (2009) Zhang and Islam (2012)

El-Chabib and Ibrahim (2013)

Rashad et al. (2014)

Rashad (2015a)

Rashad (2015c)

Rashad (2015b) Zhu et al. (2012)

Wei et al. (2007) Supit et al. (2014)

2 SF 10 SF

10 SF + 30 slag 10-20 SF

5 SF + 5 slag

10 SF + 10 slag

10-20 slag

10-20 SF

10-20 (SF + slag)

10-20 slag 10-30 slag

5 SF 5 MK

8 ultra-fine FA

Concrete Mortar Concrete Concrete

Concrete Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete Concrete Mortar

Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced compressive strength Reduced setting time Enhanced compressive strength Reduced chloride permeability

Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced abrasion resistance Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced abrasion resistance Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced abrasion resistance Decreased compressive strength Decreased abrasion resistance Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced fire resistance up to 600 °C Reduced fire resistance beyond 600 °C Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced fire resistance up to 600 °C Reduced fire resistance beyond 600 °C Decreased compressive strength Decreased fire resistance Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced tensile strength Enhanced flexural strength Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced compressive strength

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70% FA

60% FA + 10% SF

50% FA + 20% SF

Fig. 14. SEM micrographs of fracture surface of hardened HVFA without and with SF (Rashad, 2015a).

favours the formation of C2ASH8, beside converting CH to CSH (Wei et al., 2007).

23.3. Fibres

Siddique et al. (2012) modified compressive strength and abrasion resistance of concretes containing 50% FA as cement replacement by adding 0.03-0.05% polyester fibres. The inclusion of 0.03% fibres enhanced 7, 28 and 56 day compressive strength by 2.82%, 2.48% and 3.83%, respectively, whilst the inclusion of 0.05% enhanced it by 13.38%, 4.96% and 8%, respectively. The abrasion resistance marginally increased with increasing polyester fibres content. The abrasion resistance increased by 3.8%, 6.3% and 10% with the inclusion of 0.03%, 0.04% and 0.05% fibres, respectively. Patel and Modhera (2010) reported higher compressive strength by adding 0.25% polyester fibres to concretes containing 50%, 55% and 60% FA as cement replacement. At grade of M40, the inclusion of the fibres enhanced the 3, 7 and 28 day compressive strength by 5.97%, 11.84% and 14.5%, respectively, in concrete specimens containing 50% FA, whilst the enhancement was 5.75%, 8.32% and 12.5%, respectively, in concrete specimens containing 55% FA. The inclusion of the fibres enhanced the 3, 7 and 28 day compressive strength by 6.74%, 8.75% and 12.5%, respectively, in concrete specimens containing 60% FA. In another investigation, Patel and Modhera (2013) reported that the inclusion of 0.15% and 0.25% polyester fibres in concretes containing 50%, 55% and 60% FA as cement replacement increased the chloride penetration resistance. This resistance increased with increasing fibres content. Rohit et al. (2012) reported that the inclusion of 0.15% and 0.25% of 12 mm triangular shaped polyester fibres increased the flexural strength of concretes containing 50%, 55% and 60% FA as cement replacement. The inclusion of 0.15% fibres increased the 7 days flexural strength of concretes containing 50%, 55% and 60% FA by 2%, 4.11% and 14.29%, respectively, whilst the enhancement in the 56 days flexural strength was 5.8%, 8.36% and 13.4%, respectively. The inclusion of 0.25% fibres increased the 7 days flexural strength of concretes containing 50%, 55% and 60% FA by 4.53%, 10.4% and 18.1%, respectively, whilst the enhancement in the 56 days flexural strength was 18.45%, 16.55% and 14.47%, respec-

tively. Sounthararajan and Sivakumar (2013) reported that the inclusion of 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% steel fibres in concretes containing 50% FA as cement replacement increased the 7 day compressive strength by 10.81%, 7.57% and 10.27%, respectively, whilst the inclusion of steel fibres increased the 28 day compressive strength by 7.3%, 7.46% and 9.2%, respectively. The 28 day splitting tensile strength increased by 21.95%, 20.43% and 38.41% with the inclusion of 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% steel fibres, respectively, whilst the enhancement in the 28 day flexural strength was 21.62% for all levels of steel fibres. Sahmaran and Yaman (2007) added 60 kg/m3 (12%) of hooked ends steel fibres to concrete containing 50% FA as cement replacement. The inclusion of fibres enhanced the splitting tensile strength of HVFA concrete by 9.9% and 10.4% at ages of 28 and 56 days, respectively, whilst the inclusion of fibres decreased compressive strength by 15.9% and 14.33%, respectively. Sofi et al. (2013) added steel fibres to concrete containing 60% FA as cement replacement. The inclusion of 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% fibres enhanced the 28 days flexural strength of HVFA concrete by 27.54%, 34.75% and 37.38%, respectively. Siddique (2004b) added 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% of san (Crotalaria juncea) fibres to concretes containing 45% and 55% FA as cement replacement. The flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and impact strength of HVFA concretes increased with increasing san fibres content. On the other hand, workability and compressive strength decreased with increasing san fibre content. The inclusion of san fibres increased the flexural strength between 5% and 10.8% for 45% FA, whilst they increased the flexural strength between 4% and 9% for 55% FA (Fig. 15). The splitting tensile strength was enhanced by 9-24% and 822% for 45% and 55% FA, respectively. The impact strength increased by 1.5-2 and 1-1.5 times for 45% and 55% FA, respectively. Siddique (2008b) reported that the inclusion of 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% san fibres in concretes containing 50% FA as cement replacement did not affect significantly the compressive strength, but increased fracture toughness and impact strength. Table 4 summarizes the mentioned studies about the effect of fibres on some properties of HVFA mortar and concrete.

From the mentioned studies in this section, it can be concluded that the inclusion of polyester fibres have positive effect on strength and abrasion resistance of HVFA

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24 A.M. Rashad/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2015) xxx-xxx

«- -♦---

—*- 35% fly ash

-o- 45% fly ash

55% fly ash

0,25 0.5 0.75

Fibers (%)

Fig. 15. Effect of san fibres of flexural strength of HVFA concrete (Siddique, 2004b).

1951 concrete. fibres acted as crack arrester which related to

1952 their ductility and tensile strength, etc. Thus, tensile

1953 strength was improved and abrasion was delayed. Their

1954 contribution in enhancing the compressive strength is not

1955 significant in comparison with tensile and ductility proper-

1956 ties (Siddique et al., 2012).

1957 23.4. Chemical activators

CaCl2. By adding 3% of CaCl22H2O, the compressive 1970

strength of the pastes containing 50% FA as cement 1971

replacement increased by approximately 50%, 95% and 1972

70% at ages of 7, 28 and 56 days, respectively. As the 1973

CaCl22H2O dosage increased from 3% to 5%, the activa- 1974

tion effect decreased. The addition of 3% CaCl2 2H2O to 1975

pastes containing 70% FA increased the compressive 1976

strength by approximately 90%, 100% and 60% at ages of 1977

7, 28 and 56 days, respectively. Increasing CaCl22H2O 1978

dosage from 3% to 5% resulted a reduction in the activa- 1979

tion effect. Antoni et al. (2013) reported that the inclusion 1980

of sodium silicate and NaOH in concretes containing 60% 1981

and 80% FA as cement replacement produced better sul 1982

phuric acid attack and ion chloride penetration, of which 1983

lower mass loss, lower strength reduction and lower diffu- 1984

sion coefficient were obtained. Younsi et al. (2011) reported 1985

that the inclusion of 0.57% AEA in concrete containing 1986

50% FA as cement replacement can improve compressive 1987

strength and reduce porosity. The enhancement in the 2, 1988

7 and 28 day compressive strength was 63.64%, 32% and 1989

10.56%, respectively. The percentage of porosity decreased 1990

by 14.47% at the age of 14 days. Table 5 summarizes the 1991

mentioned studies about the effect of chemical activators 1992

on some properties of HVFA paste and concrete. 1993

1958 Zhang et al. (2000) reported that the addition of 3%

1959 Na2SO4 to pastes containing 50% and 60% FA could accel-

1960 erate the hydration at early ages. Wu et al. (2006) reported

1961 that the compressive strength of HVFA concretes can be

1962 enhanced by adding 1% sulphate. At w/b ratio of 0.25,

1963 the addition of 1% sulphate enhanced the 3 day compres-

1964 sive strength by 37.63%, 31.45% and 13.73% with the inclu-

1965 sion of 50%, 60% and 70% FA, respectively, whilst the

1966 enhancement in the 56 day compressive strength was

1967 26.93%, 28.1% and 29%, respectively. Shi and Qian

1968 (2001) reported that the compressive strength of HVFA

1969 pastes could be enhanced by adding suitable dosage of

23.5. Other materials 1994

Bentz (2014) tried to solve the problem of longer setting 1995

time of HVFA paste mixtures. FA was partially replaced 1996

with 15% CaCO3, by weight, in paste specimens containing 1997

60% FA. The results showed shorter initial setting time 1998

with the inclusion of CaCO3. The initial setting time 1999

reduced by 40.15%, 35.94% and 38.81% at 15, 25 and 2000

40 °C, respectively. Feng et al. (2006) tried to decrease 2001

the carbonation depth of concrete containing 50% FA by 2002

partially replacing 5% FA with slaked lime. The results 2003

showed a reduction in the carbonation depth with the 2004

Table 4

Effect of fibres on some properties of HVFA mortar and concrete.

References

% fibres

Effect

Siddique et al. (2012)

Patel and Modhera (2010) Patel and Modhera (2013) Rohit et al. (2012)

Sounthararajan and Sivakumar (2013) Sahmaran and Yaman (2007)

Sofi et al. (2013) Siddique (2004b)

Siddique (2008b)

0.03 polyester

0.25 polyester 0.15 and 0.25 polyester 0.15 and 0.25 polyester 0.5, 0.75 and 1 steel 12 hooked ends steel

1.5, 2 and 2.5 steel 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 san

0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 san

Concrete

Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete

Concrete Concrete

Concrete

Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced abrasion resistance Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced chloride penetration resistance Enhanced flexural strength Enhanced mechanical strength Enhanced splitting tensile strength Reduced compressive strength Enhanced flexural strength Enhanced splitting tensile strength Enhanced flexural strength Enhanced impact strength Decreased compressive strength Decreased workability Enhanced fracture toughness strength Enhanced impact strength No effect on compressive strength

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Table 5

Effect of chemical activators on some properties of HVFA paste and concrete.

References

Additive

Effect

Zhang et al. (2000) Wu et al. (2006) Shi and Qian (2001)

Antoni et al. (2013)

Younsi et al. (2011)

3% Na2SO4 1% sulphate 3% CaCl2 5% CaCl2

8 M and 14 M sodium silicate + NaOH

0.57% AEA

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Accelerate hydration at early ages Enhanced compressive strength Enhanced compressive strength Decreased compressive strength Enhanced sulphuric acid resistance Reduced chloride penetration Reduced diffusion coefficient Enhanced compressive strength

inclusion of slaked lime. Filho et al. (2013) reported that the addition 20% of hydrated lime in concrete specimens containing 50% FA as cement replacement increased the electrical resistivity by 24.63%, reduced the porosity by 2.73% and reduced the total charge passed (Coulombs) by approximately 10%. The addition of hydrated lime almost did not affect the 91 day compressive strength. Bondar and Coakley (2014) reported that compressive strength of paste specimens containing 70% FA could be enhanced by partially replacing 10% FA with cement kiln dust (CKD). The enhancement in the 2, 7 and 28 day compressive strength was approximately 40%, 29% and 13%, respectively. They also reported that using gypsum instead of CKD is not effective at age of 2 days, but can contribute more effectively at age of 28 days and ages beyond. Bentz and Ferraris (2010) reported that the addition of 5% calcium hydroxide or 5-10% rapid set cement to paste specimens containing 50% FA as cement replacement could significantly reduce the setting time that exhibited excessive retardation. The addition of 5% Ca(OH)2 reduced the initial and final setting time by 39.53% and 42.16%, respectively, whilst the addition of 5% rapid set cement reduced it by 61.63% and 55.88%, respectively. The addition of 10% rapid cement reduced the initial and final setting time by 86% and 83.33%, respectively. McCarthy and Dhir, 2005 blended rapid hardened PC or low energy clinker with 45% FA in concrete mixtures aiming to rise the early age compressive strength. The results at early age strength values were compared with that of plain PC concrete. The results showed comparable compressive strength, higher modulus of elasticity, lesser drying shrinkage, creep, intrin-

sic permeability, initial surface absorption and chloride diffusion coefficient values of HVFA concretes compared to that manufactured from plain PC. Table 6 summarizes the mentioned studies about the effect of different materials on some properties of HVFA paste and concrete.

24. Remarks

The current review paper carried out on reviewing the previous works that investigated the effect of Class F HVFA (p45%) which used as cement replacement on some properties of pastes, mortars and concretes. Fresh properties, hardened properties and durability of matrices containing Class F HVFA were reviewed. The remarks of this literature review can be summarized as following:

1. The inclusion of HVFA in the mixture reduced the heat of hydration, the degree of hydration, bleeding, segregation, density, but increased workability and setting time.

2. The inclusion of HVFA in the matrix sharply decreased the mechanical strength and abrasion resistance especially at early ages. The gap of mechanical strength and abrasion resistance between the HVFA and the control decreased with increasing curing age. The mechanical strength and abrasion resistance decreased with increasing FA content.

3. The inclusion of HVFA in the matrix approximately did not affect the freeze/thaw resistance, but reduced drying shrinkage and pH value. The drying shrinkage and pH value decreased with increasing FA content.

Table 6

Effect of different materials on some properties of HVFA paste and concrete.

References

Additive

Effect

Bentz (2014) Feng et al. (2006) Filho et al. (2013)

Bentz and Ferraris (2010) McCarthy and Dhir (2005)

15% CaCO3 5% slaked lime 20% hydrated lime

10% CKD

10% gypsum

5% Ca(OH)2, or 5-10% rapid set cement Rapid cement

Concrete

Concrete

Paste Paste

Paste Concrete

Reduced setting time Enhanced carbonation resistance Increased electrical resistivity Reduced porosity

No effect on 91 day compressive strength

Enhanced 2, 7 and 28 day compressive strength

Enhanced 28 day compressive strength

No effect on 2 day compressive strength

Reduced setting time

Enhanced early age compressive strength

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2080 2081 2082

2100 2101 2102

4. The inclusion of HVFA in the matrix increased the porosity and the percentage of water absorption, but decreased the permeability and the chloride ion penetration which can improve long-term durability.

5. There are contradictory results about the effect of HVFA on the sorptivity.

6. The inclusion of HVFA in the matrix increased the sulphate resistance, acid resistance and electrical resistivity, but decreased the carbonation resistance and electrical conductivity.

7. 1-5% NS can be used to reduce setting time and enhance the compressive strength of HVFA matrix at early ages, but this may reduce the compressive strength at later ages.

8. HVFA matrix can be modified with 1% NC, of which sorptivity, permeability voids and chloride ion permeability can be reduced, whilst the 7 and 28 day com-pressive strength can be increased.

9. The inclusion of 10-20% SF or SF coupled with slag in HVFA matrix can be used to modify the abrasion resistance, compressive strength and fire resistance up to 600 °C. 8% Ultra-fine FA, 5% MK can be used to enhance the compressive strength of HVFA matrix. On the other hand, there are contradictory results about the effect 10-20% slag on HVFA matrix.

10. 0.15-0.25% polyester fibres and 0.5-1% steel fibres can be used to enhance mechanical properties of HVFA matrix. The inclusion of 0.25-0.9% san fibres in HVFA matrix increased splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and fracture toughness, but decreased workability and compressive strength.

11. The inclusion of different chemical activators such as 3-5% sulphate and 3% CaCl2 in HVFA matrix can accelerate the hydration and enhance the compressive strength, whilst the inclusion of 8-14 M sodium silicate + NaOH reduced the chloride penetration, reduced the diffusion coefficient and increased the acid resistance.

12. 15% CaCO3, 5% slaked lime, 20% hydrated lime, 10% CKD, 10% gypsum, 5% Ca(OH)2 and 5-10% rapid set cement can be used to enhance the compressive strength of HVFA matrix.

25. Uncited references

ASTM International (2012), Atis (2003), Naik et al. (1994), Stem (2006), Wew et al. (2007).

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