Scholarly article on topic 'Issues on Bali Tourism Development and Community Empowerment to Support Sustainable Tourism Development'

Issues on Bali Tourism Development and Community Empowerment to Support Sustainable Tourism Development Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Gusti Kade Sutawa

Abstract Tourism development in Indonesia aims to alleviate poverty, to conserve nature, environment and resources, to develop culture, to improve nation's image, and to strengthen relationship with other country. Bali as the leading tourism destination in Indonesia is able to increase welfare of its people from tourism sector, however in tourism development there are many things to be care of in order to achieve Bali tourism sustainable for the future. There are some issues arise as impact of tourism development. An issue on tourism development in Bali is it is blamed as a cause of damage in agriculture sector as the land use has significantly changes. Also, tourism also creates impacts to culture. Some efforts have been made to reduce the negative impacts of tourism, including the empowerment of local community on tourism development. This paper aims to show how local community empowerment has been made possible through tourism. The paper also gives some case studies. Empowerment of the community will become a main key for tourism development because with empowerment and involvement of the community in tourism development, the community where the tourism is developed will participate in keeping their culture and nature so that at the end the sustainable tourism development will be reached and maintain.

Academic research paper on topic "Issues on Bali Tourism Development and Community Empowerment to Support Sustainable Tourism Development"

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Procedía Economics and Finance 4 (2012) 413 - 422

International Conference on Small and Medium Enterprises Development with a Theme "Innovation and Sustainability in SME Development" (ICSMED 2012)

Issues on Bali Tourism Development and Community

Empowerment to Support Sustainable Tourism Development

Gusti Kade Sutawa

STIE Triatma Mulya Dalung, Kuta Bali ,Indonesia _Doctoral Program, Udayana University, Denpasar Bali, Indonesia_

Abstract

Tourism development in Indonesia aims to alleviate poverty, to conserve nature, environment and resources, to develop culture, to improve nation's image, and to strengthen relationship with other country. Bali as the leading tourism destination in Indonesia is able to increase welfare of its people from tourism sector, however in tourism development there are many things to be care of in order to achieve Bali tourism sustainable for the future. There are some issues arise as impact of tourism development. An issue on tourism development in Bali is it is blamed as a cause of damage in agriculture sector as the land use has significantly changes. Also, tourism also creates impacts to culture. Some efforts have been made to reduce the negative impacts of tourism, including the empowerment of local community on tourism development. This paper aims to show how local community empowerment has been made possible through tourism. The paper also gives some case studies. Empowerment of the community will become a main key for tourism development because with empowerment and involvement of the community in tourism development, the community where the tourism is developed will participate in keeping their culture and nature so that at the end the sustainable tourism development will be reached and maintain.

© 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Parahyangan Catholic University. Keywords: Community empowerment, sustainable tourism development.

Corresponding author. E-mail address: gustikadesutawa@yahoo.com

2212-5671 © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Parahyangan Catholic University.

doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671 (12)00356-5

1. Introduction

Prospect of tourism industry in the future is very promising. As stated by World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) that Inbound Tourism in year 2020 is forecasted at 1,602 billion people. Asia Pacific will reach 438 million in year 2020. Those numbers will create world income at USD 2 trillions in year 2020 (UNWTO, 2011).

Within period 2004 - 2010, tourism of Indonesia was increase continuously. In 2010, Total of foreign visitor is 7,002,944 people, meanwhile in year 2009 reached 6,323,730 people, increasing 10.74 %. When world tourism visitor decreased in year 2009, foreign visitor to Indonesia in 2009 is still increase at 1.43% (Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy, 2011). Meanwhile, foreign visitor direct to Bali in year 2010 reached 2.493.058 people or 35.60% from total foreign visitor to Indonesia, where it was increase 11.80%. Compared with year 2009 (Bali Tourism Authority, 2011).

In line with the economic growth, the increase of tourism activity is supported by the increase of per capita expenses. Furthermore, IT development and transportation cause the growth of accessibility of tourism in the destination. The characteristic numbers of the growth in tourism industry is also followed by the increment of quality demand and various tourism activities, including involvement of community as well as empowerment of local community (people empowerment) in tourism destination.

Empowerment of community in tourism destination is in line with cultural tourism rule and environmentally friendly perspective that is developed in Bali in order to reach sustainable development. UNEP (2002) define the sustainable tourism as follows:

"Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems"

2. Defining sustainable tourism

Sustainable tourism has dimension of economy, environment and socio-cultural. Nature is the most important resources in tourism. Nature destruction is a threats for sustainable tourism in a destination, therefore tourism development must include environment as part of tourism resources that need to be developed in term of quality and its variety. From economy's aspect, tourism has become source of income for the nation, however the most important is tourism must contribute to good impact to livelihoods of local people in a destination, including in helping poverty elimination. Meanwhile form socio-cultural aspect, tourism is unable to prevent transformation of culture to the negative side, giving contribution for heritage conservation and developing local people capacity/ability. Summary: sustainable tourism is a responsible tourism i.e. tourism supporting the Agenda 21, include tourism that supporting conservation of nature and heritage, design tourism as more sustainable industry, and tourism is supporting improvement on public awareness as well as developing people capacity/ability; according to UNEP (2002).

According to United Nation Environmental Program/UNEP (2009), there are some problems of tourism, such as:

a) Tourism development is not oriented on local economy growth

b) Tourism development is ignoring social norms of tourism so that tourism is hopeless to build awareness and community capacity in order to maintaining improve environment quality in their area

c) Tourism developments depend on ecosystem integrity; it is not integrated with an effort of conservation and carrying capacity principle application.

d) Tourism developments not include with local people development and strengthen including its organization and destination management.

3. Local people function and sustainable tourism development

Community who lives in an interesting tourism destination has been significantly under pressure to maintain their uniqueness because of development consequences. This situation is very often come from increment on tourist visit as well as migration, i.e. first visitor who experience the place and become citizen in the growing tourism city (Buckley et al 2003.; Hall et al. 2004; Richins ann Pearce 2000; Ryan et al. 2005).Community who gets impact of tourism development have to decide their action, outside of development and promotion (Heath dan Wall 1992; Kotler et al 199.;Morgan et al. 2002), to the right approach, integrated and collaborative for tourism and planning on community development(Zero 1989; Hall dan Richards 2000;O'Hare 2006; Pearce et al. 1996; Vasiliauskas et al. 2004). Some related approach has been done , including: a method where government and community is integrated, community are participate on decision making, sustainability of development is implemented in regional management, triple / quadruple bottom line, etc as implemented on tourism development ,sustainable tourism management (Arnstein 1969; Box 1998; Brundtland1987; Corson 1994; Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups 1991;Edwards 2005; Farrell 1992; Flint et al. 2002; Giampietro 1994; Hunter 1995; Gurran et al.

2006; Mowforth dan Munt 1998; Pigram 1990; Simpson 2001; Spiller andLake 2003;State of Hawaii 2006; Stettner 1993; Sullivan 2001; Tourism Canada 1990; Vasiliauskaset al. 2004; Wright 1996).

In the latest two decade sustainable mixing concept and tourism have significantly progressive (Australian Government 1997; D'Amore 1993; Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups 1991; Godfrey 1996; Hall 1998;Hunter 1995; Krippendorf 1987; Murphy 1985; Pigram 1990; Romeril1989; Simpson 2001; Stettner 1993; Tourism Canada 1990; Wight 1993b). Main impact of sustainable tourism is also involve a wider agreement strategy, international meeting strategy related with sustainability (Romeril 1989)Declaration 1980, UNEP/WTO Accord 1982, the Brundtland Report, 1987, dan the UnitedNations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED-Earth Summit) tahun 1992. There are also some worries about sustainable tourism (Butler1990; Din 1992; Farrell dan Runyan 1991; Mose 1993; Pigram 1990; Smith 1992; Wright, 1996).

4. Issues on Tourism Development, Result of Studies and Alternative Solution

Tourism development issues that is need concern of all stake holders is to maintain the sustainability of tourism so that the tourism could be also enjoyed by next generation. Government with its regulation and community with it obedience to rule and regulation as well as control or check and balance including community participation are needed in order to achieve the goal of sustainability. Issues on tourism development are as follows:

Land Use's Changes Caused by Tourism in Bali

Land use changing issue that is very fast in Bali has been discussed since a long time. With rapidly growth of Bali tourism creating a fast land use changing because of tourism development and also citizenship growth caused by migration. The changing of land use is caused by development of a destination (urbanized area). Land is a production factor that physically is not move but the existence and the use are controlled by maneuvers of many interesting development of economy, social and politic. With the tourism growth in Bali, there re a lot of agriculture land were changed to become villa, hotel, restaurant, etc.

Management and control of land's use changing is an obligation and it is a must. Keiser, Godschalk and Chapin(1995) offer 2 (two) management models for land use:

a) Model for human ecology structure and economic politic in a mixing concepts of land use management and concept of sustainable development- three legged model.

b) Model for participation concept and problem solving (discourse planning model).

According to Keiser et al. (1995), this model is not admitting the interest of dominant group that is stated in game theory,but also giving opportunity to planners, technical experts and other group to participate.

The model above consists of management concepts of land use .The name of the model is Three-Legged Stool).Each leg represent 3 (three) dominant interest. Management of land use will cover three of them and all together supporting sustainable development. Second model, giving an option that management of land use will be succeed in its function if able derive consensus achievement and participation of community to achieve the goal. However in reality the implementation of the concept is not always possible. Participation through community consensus is important but it is no enough. There must be a certainty that the consensus that want tobe achieved are realistic in practice and implementation. Godschalk and Stiftel (1981) described in details that effectiveness of consensus can be increase if all group of interest are involved in the forming process, including community, government, planner, investor and technical personnel.

Land Use Change

Rusnaet al (2011), describe that the status of land carrying capacity in the Province of Bali is deficit with status point of land carrying capacity less than one i.e. 0,630. Calculation of land's carrying capacity status in all regency in Bali Province , shown that three regency i.e. Bangli, Klungkung and Karangasem are categorized surplus with point over than one, i.e. 2,27 for Bangli regency, Klungkung regency is 1,09 and Karangasem regency is 1,06.Six regencies i.e.Gianyar, Denpasar Badung, Tabanan, Jembrana and Buleleng, the status of land carrying capacity are categorized deficit (point less than 1), where Denpasar has the highest deficit. From those data, all stakeholders needs to be aware and think of the necessary solution and anticipating that sustainable tourism can be achieved properly.

Water Carrying Capacity in Bali

Another issue in Bali is about water carrying capacity. Water availability decreased every year in Bali. Sunarta et all (2008), on research study resulted that based on comparison between total requirement of water and total water supply in Bali province 2008 shown that water carrying capacity in year 2008 was deficit. Water supply was minus 0,75 billion m3/year. Total water required was 5.46 billion m3/year and total water supply 4.71 billion m3/year. All stake holders including government, private sectors, Balinese people, NGO, etc so that tourism development can be well controlled need to take action as the response of the finding; in order to strictly avoid disputes in the future. Government needs to anticipate and do all necessary regulation to protect Bali from continued water deficit.

Tourism Impact towards Balinese Culture

Issues on the impact of tourism towards culture have been discussed since the beginning of 1980.All stakeholders are expected to participate to maintain the sustainability of Balinese culture from negative impact of tourism. Geria (1996;95) pointed that tourism industry development bring two impact on Balinese culture; positive and negative. Positively, Balinese people gain advantages in economic aspect and Balinese culture is stimulated progressively so that reaching culture revitalization development. The negative impacts are some part of culture that are consumed by visitors were mass produced, commercial and material oriented so that it goes to distortion and some forms of cultural problem. Solution to minimize cultural degradation caused by tourism is to involve community and government as regulator to select incoming foreign cultures, accepting the good one and leave the bad one. Socialization is also needed and education from religious leader and academic leaders to protect the community from negative tourism virus. Governent is expected to form a strict regulation to tourism businesses that tend to spread negaif impact toward community morality such as pub, discotheque, etc.

5. Definition of Community Empowerment on Tourim Development

Community is expected to participate in tourism activities. The purpose of community based tourism is to verify whether individual, organization and community has built their ability to anticipate tourism development in their area where their community aree community are living. Tourism development will not be successful without community leader and all community are involved. As one example case study in Shiraz, Iran, the place has good prospect for tourism development, however without community participation, tourism industry in Shiraz is not possible to increase (Aref dan Ma'rof, 2008).

There are a lot of local community realize the importance of tourism in stimulating social change, culture , environment and economic dimension, where tourism activities have had close relationship with local people (Beeton, 2006). Tourism is just like a tool that used by community to promote economic development. In conjunction with the issue, community leaders in the area of development are playing an important role in taking care of tourism problem. Meanwhile, tourism development and community empowerment are community welfare. Godfrey dan Clarke (2000) stated that towards local community. Therefore level of development in tourism activities will be various.

Empowerment concept arises as an effort to give local community or marginal people to quit from voicelessness and powerlessness condition. According to World Bank (2002), basically, empowerment has four main elements i.e.:

1) Access to information, because information is capital in dependence development. Community who has sufficient information will have better position in using the opportunity, easier to get service access, using their rights, also asking for responsibility of the stake holders.

2) Inclusion/participation, chance to participate in tourism development, either is planning, implementation or result use are very important to local community. With those participation, all decisions can be based on local knowledge), local wisdom, as well as the priorities are match with local community aspirations, it will be ended to local community commitment in development process including tourism development.

3) Accountability. Accountability of all stakeholders are needed, including in developing the role, implementation, or any kind of resources usage including funds. Accountability must be done in order to get community trust, in the other side community are also educated to develop their accountability amongst them, with other parties vertically, horizontally and internal accountability (vertical, horizontal and internal accountability).

4) Local organizational capacity. Community empowerment process must be consisted of quality ability development, ability to work in a team, develop and strengthen local organization, as well as

mobilization resources to anticipate any problems. Community will be able to speak out their need and aspiration in a group than individually. Meanwhile, Kusumahadi (2007) stated that a program of development can be categorized as empowerment process if consist of elements as follows:

1) Community capacity development to fulfill felt-need and real-need of the community so that welfare improvement ia achieved.

2) Community capacity development is aim to have better access to any source of resources.

3) Community capacity development is aim to managing local organization (self-management).

4) Community Critical thinking development is aim to develop community to have more critical thinking against themselves and their environment.

5) Community capacity development is aim to do social control against environment aspect. Furthermore, Kusumahadi (2007) mentioned that empowerment is usually implemented with focus on

development aspect. At least there are four dimensions that are use to do in empowerment i.e.:

1) Economic empowerment, focus on access towards capital and resources.

2) Social empowerment, focus on control development towards any aspect of social life of the community.

3) Cultural empowerment, empowerment proses that is stressing on conservation and revitalization local values, especially minority group.

4) Political empowerment, i.e. empowerment that is focus on main concern on local community rights and collective action.

Added by Kusumahadi (2007), efforts on community empowerment consist of some components, implemented parallel or gradually. At least there are eight aspects that have to be done i.e.:

1) Enabling - creating situation to make local community be more empower.

2) Motivating - motivate communities so that they are willing to participate.

3) Educating - rising community awareness to know what is happening in there area and realize the importance of development.

4) Encouraging - encouraging communities so that they are willing to participate in all process of development.

5) Protecting - protecting the weak communities with any policy or role and protection strategy, not letting them to compete in global markets

6) Empowering - develop the potential and capabilities of communities to take part in development.

7) Oportunity Developing - develop opportunities /chances to make community able to participate.

8) Devoluting - rely on some authorities to communities so that they are able to take decision. Community empowerment is one of requirement on development Community-Based Development.

Community based development is the answer against the critics stated that tourism is exclusive and giving no advantages against local community. Community based development is also contribute sustainable development. As stated by Hoddinott (2001), community based development is:

"A form of development occurred in the community, stressing on maximum participation of communities in design and implementation, covering real needs and it is basically dependant".

Furthermore, Hoddinott(2001) stated that community based development is very important to be implemented in tourism industry because of two reasons, i.e.:

1) Community has better knowledge about the local condition (such as poor people that need to be helped or characteristic of local micro environment).

2) Better ability to enforce the role, monitoring habits and verify action related to intervention. Although empowerment is seen as important process for tourism development, empowerment is also done

carefully because in some cases local community empowerment often misinterpreted as relying full authorities from government to community, it may create excess of negative community behavior that is not in line with basic philosophy of development itself. In some cases, as stated in some research study, empowerment were

interpreted by communities as freedom without limitations to get advantages from development, with forgetting other stakeholders. With limited perspective on community, very often decicion and community action just based on sort-term gain perspective and forgetting sustainability of development (long-term perspective) Hoddinot (2001).

6. Application of Community Empowerment in Tourism Development

Naipinit, Areedan Maneenetr (2010)in their research study in Homestay Busai Village, Wangnamkheo District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand stated empowerment and participation of community in tourism management in Busai Village and Home Stay, Wangnamkheo Regency, Nakhon Ratchasim province to study impact of local community behaviour against tourism. The findings is as follows: community participation was very good in term of ideas for tourism management, in location planning for tourism places and for the use of natural resources, in budgeting to support and develop tourism places, and in seeing tourim places financially advantaged for community. Community participation in maintaining cleanliness and security of places, in making up attractions, and in getting information about tourism is also good.

Meanwhile, Gurung and Scholz(2008)in their research study in Jigme Dorji National Park in Bhutan, stated with infrastructure of tourism, level of nature conservation, conservation of culture and local community participation in tourism industry. They suggested encouraging a community based ecotourismin the national park. The study foung participation and community empowerment in tourism development the national park. Community empowerment there is needed to avoid social conflict and the loss of cultural values related to income from tourism. Also added that strategy of tourism development in developing country have to balancing nature conservation, heritage , modernization and economic development.

In Indonesia, efforts in increasing the advantages of tourism development for local community in the area have been seriously taken care of. In the effort of community empowerment, some programs developed with aim to make tourism development can be enjoyed by local community. Community is expected as subject in development, and tourism development is expected inclusive. Some programs has been done such as development of village tourism. Village Tourism is a form that integrated between attraction, accommodation and other supporting facilities in the ambience of village's live, with consistent keeping ethical and traditions of the village (Nuryanti 1993). Development of village tourism is one of best sample in community based development, with main empowerment component is empowerment of local community in the area of development. This model is inline with four-tracks strategy that is programmed by President Soesilo Bambang Yudhoyono, especially in components of pro-poor, pro-job, pro-growth and pro-environment (Ministry of Culture and Tourism 2009).

Development of this village tourism has been started since year 1992, and more stressing in year 2006, with developing village tourism in some provinces in Indonesia. In year 2009, there were 104 villages developed as tourism villages, in year 2010 developed another 200 tourism villages. In year 2011 was targeted in total 569 tourism village developed. Tourism village in year 2014 is targeted 2.000 villages developed as tourism villages (Kemenbudpar/ Ministry of Tourism and Culture 2009).

In developing this tourism village, Government through Ministry of Tourism and Culture (now become Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy) also gives direct support through PNPM (National Program for Community Empowerment and Dependence). Funds is given to support tourism development in the village, for physics and non physics developments. Physical activities such as parking lot renovation, acces to tourism object, improvement on facilities around the object, or signage. Meanwhile non physics activities are such as improving management of the village tourism, training on human resources capacity development and hospitality training. In developing the program of tourism village, the community is helped by facilitator who understands tourism. To implement those programs, every tourism village coached for two years. On First year every tourism village donated at 100 million, and second year at 150 million (Kembudpar 2009).

Tourism development through tourism village will be able to answer critics against tourism that are categorized capitalistic and not pro-people. At least, there are huge potential of tourism, it will giving direct With village tourism development, community has wide opportunity to participate in every step of development; any kinds of local knowledge and local wisdom, will become important inputs in tourism planning and tourism management; local community are able to optimize asset usage and resources for economic activities; conservation of culture and village environment will be more naintained (Permanasari 2011; Darma Putra dan Pitana 2010; Soekarya 2010).

Beside the direct advantages, there are some indirect impacts that are received by community of the village related with village tourism development, such as transportation infrastructure improvement, development of utilities and facilities of health and sanitation, development of micro industry in the village, etc. Permanasari (2011) reported that indirect impact of village tourism event more importance compared to direct impact.This study is also inline with research study done by Bater (2001). In a seminar in Gianyar regency (Bali Post 2011), were concluded that village tourism as implementation of community based tourism, it is a good break-through in poverty elimination and job opportunity as well as anticipating environment degradation. However, development of village tourism has not showing an expected result. From some evaluation study, for example done in village tourism (Desa Wisata Kebon Agung, Jogyakarta), found that consciousness of community is still low, it caused that the community felt they don't get any real advantages from village tourism in their village. The similar findings are also reported by Permanasari (2011) from her research study in tourism village (Desa Wisata Candirejo, Jawa Tengah).

UNWTO (2009) succinctly summarizes various successes and obstacles in developing a community-based tourism, which is called Desa Wisata, as follows:

"Community/village based tourism is very important to develop niche product that offer village live experience and traditional culture to visitor and also homestay built in the village, giving opportunity for job availability, as selling tools for accommodation, local handicrafts, food and some types of beverages and crating positive dialogue between visitor and traditional live for the community. There are some samples that is impressed from successful project but some of them facing difficulties, especially with marketing and those things need an important attention".

7. Conclusion

Community empowerment is a main key in order to develop community welfare through tourism. Community empowerment is also a requirement to develop sustainable tourism. Village tourism development as one of co^m^ty empowerment's form in tourism, need to be continued with any othe empowerment and there is an important thing also to be done i.e. development on tourism knowledge for community and tourism stakeholders personnel in conjunction with the importance of sustainable tourism development.

Empowerment process done by community is hopefully forming them become dependant people, having an ability to take decision and implementing all decisions individually or in a group, in utilizing local resources to improve their welfare. Empowerment is done step by step with the right perceptions and interpretations in order to avoid wrong empowerment that is not supporting sustainable empowerment principals.

Sustainable tourism development is responsibility of all stake holders. All issues on tourism development that create negative impact must be handled by all concerned stakeholders, i.e. government, NGO, Local people/community, etc in order to prevent or avoid destruction on socio cultural and environment. By participation of all stakeholders, sustainable tourism development will be easier to achieve.

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