Scholarly article on topic 'A Roadmap towards Sustainable Mobility in Breda'

A Roadmap towards Sustainable Mobility in Breda Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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Abstract of research paper on Social and economic geography, author of scientific article — Ron Bos, Rob Temme

Abstract Currently, the transportation sector is responsible for about 30% of the CO2-emissions. In the near future, this percentage is expected to increase. CO2-reduction in the mobility sector is difficult to achieve as mobility related carbon emissions are not location-specific and therefore difficult to assign. This article describes a case study performed in the city of Breda, the Netherlands in its goal to become completely carbon-neutral by the year 2044. By using traffic models and discussing the results in workshops with a diversity of municipal departments we gained a quantitative insight in assessing the potential for realizing the goal of a carbon neutral mobility system by the year 2044. The results led to the preparation of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) including new bicycle and public transport action plans. This plan was incorporated in the new spatial development plan Breda 2030. Next to this climate action plans were set up between the municipality and private stakeholders.

Academic research paper on topic "A Roadmap towards Sustainable Mobility in Breda"

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Transportation Research Procedia 4 (2014) 103 - 115

Transportation

Procedia

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

Mobil. TUM 2014 "Sustainable Mobility in Metropolitan Regions", May 19-20, 2014

A roadmap towards sustainable mobility in Breda

Ron Bos, M.Sc. a*, Rob Temme b

a Goudappel Coffeng, Snipperlingsdijk 4, 7400 AD, Deventer, The Netherlands b Municipality of Breda, Claudius Prinsenlaan 10, 4800 RH, Breda, The Netherlands

Abstract

Currently, the transportation sector is responsible for about 30% of the CO2-emissions. In the near future, this percentage is expected to increase. CO2-reduction in the mobility sector is difficult to achieve as mobility related carbon emissions are not location-specific and therefore difficult to assign. This article describes a case study performed in the city of Breda, the Netherlands in its goal to become completely carbon-neutral by the year 2044. By using traffic models and discussing the results in workshops with a diversity of municipal departments we gained a quantitative insight in assessing the potential for realizing the goal of a carbon neutral mobility system by the year 2044. The results led to the preparation of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) including new bicycle and public transport action plans. This plan was incorporated in the new spatial development plan Breda 2030. Next to this climate action plans were set up between the municipality and private stakeholders. © 2014TheAuthors.Publishedby ElsevierB.V. Thisis an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Technische Universität München

Keywords: Sustainable mobility; Breda; Traffic modeling; CO2-emission; SUMP; Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan; SUMP

1. Mobility important factor within the sustainability debate

Sustainability is becoming a serious factor. The Dutch government has signed agreements on carbon-emissions, which state that in the year 2020 these emissions should be reduced with 20% compared with 1990's emissions. In 2050 carbon emissions related to the industrialized countries should be reduced with 80% compared to 1990.

As shown in figure 1, currently around 30% of Europe's carbon emissions are related to transportation of people and goods (SEC, 2011). Within the sustainability debate the mobility sector will need special attention; in the future this percentage is expected to rise, mainly as a result of innovations in other sectors such as housing, production industries and energy industries. In contrary to these industries, mobility as a sector does not have a clear 'problem

* E-Mail address: rbos@goudappel.nl

2352-1465 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Technische Universität München doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2014.11.009

owner' who should reduce mobility emissions. Neither the government, nor vehicle industries, nor the consumer is primarily responsible. Creating sustainable mobility therefore needs a multi-actor approach, including all stakeholders.

I Transport Industry I Tertiary

I Energy industries I Residential

Fig. 1. Projected carbon emissions in Europe: (Impact Assessment - Accompanying document to the White Paper on Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system (SEC, 2011)

One other issues is the geographical level: carbon emitted by mobility (or: transportation) will be harder to reduce as it is 'fluid' and not related to one particular geographical area. Most of the mobility (at least in the Netherlands) is regionally based. Therefore sustainable mobility policy on a local level will not be sufficient to reduce emissions. A regional or national approach will be necessary.

2. The sustainable mobility paradigm

It is recognized by many scholars that current transport planning is at a point of crisis: it underestimates the key challenges of current planning issues in terms of increasing congestion due to the growth of cities and CO2-emissions (Banister, 2008). The question however is how the concept of sustainable mobility can be defined.

Sustainable mobility is a container concept and various stakeholders often explain it differently. It therefore is important to be precise about how this link between mobility and sustainability can be defined. Banister (2008) made a good attempt in his article 'the sustainability mobility paradigm' in how to achieve a more sustainable mobility system. He distinguishes four different possible actions:

1. The need to reduce travel - trip substitution. The substitution of travel relates to the emergence of ICT and working from home. In its pure form it means that a trip no longer is made due to working from home, however in reality the consequences of working from home are more ambiguous. Nevertheless policy measures that encourage employees to work at home have positive effects on the sustainability of the mobility system.

2. Land-use policy measures - distance reduction. These policy measures have the main aim of reducing the amount of kilometers made: the intention is to implement sustainable mobility into patterns of urban forms. One can think of increasing densities and concentration, or mixed-use development (for example by combining shopping and living functions). Policy measures of this type are only possible when one redevelops neighbourhoods.

3. Transport policy measures - modal shift. Transport policy measures can make the mobility system more sustainable by reducing levels of car use, promoting modal shift by encouraging walking and cycling and making the public transport system more attractive. Possible measures in this type of measures are road-pricing and promoting public transport when developing new neighborhoods, such as Transit Oriented Development.

4. Technological innovation -efficiency increase. Technological efficiency and behavioural change such as driving in a more sustainable manner make a mobility system cleaner and more efficient. It is therefore important to use the best available technology and encourage the uptake of these technologies. One can think of for example electric cars.

These four strategies will be used in order to propose measures improving sustainable mobility in our case study of Breda in the Netherlands.

3. Case study: Creating a sustainable urban mobility plan in Breda, Netherlands

Breda is a city of 180.000 inhabitants in the southern part of the Netherlands. Breda could be described as a 'typical average Dutch city': a medieval urban core, surrounded by different expansion added mostly during the 20th century. The municipal political decision makers have a goal to make Breda a climate-neutral city by the year 2044, meaning the city as a whole (including industry, energy, housing and mobility) does affect the climate by adding more carbon emissions than it can absorb. All energy the city needs should be sustainable. Any surplus of carbon emissions should be compensated.

3.1. Step 1: Where do we stand now?

First a benchmark was performed on the modal use of comparable cities in the Netherlands. We used measured data from the source 'Onderzoek Verplaatsingsgedrag in Nederland' (OViN) and compared Breda with similar cities such as Arnhem, Groningen, Eindhoven and Tilburg. Figure 2 shows the modal share of bike (upper) public transport (middle) and car (below) for internal trips made within the city (left graphs) and external trips made to and from the city (right graphs). Inhabitants of Breda and its region are cycling less towards and from the city, compared to similar cities in the Netherlands. Inner city cycling trips are average (apart from Groningen, due to its infrastructural pattern). A similar pattern is visible comparing public transport trips made towards and from the city; a relatively low figure is visible here (apart from Eindhoven, which has higher external cycling trips). The benchmark showed us a reasonable potential for increasing the modal share of sustainable transport modes, especially on external trips to and from the city of Breda.

We also compared mobility related CO2-emissions, using the same source (OViN). Figure 3 shows the amount of CO2 emitted per inhabitant (left) and per visitor (right) measured in 1.000kg CO2 per year. The figures show a relatively high emission per inhabitant for Breda and an average emission for visitors. When zooming in at the city Breda it becomes visible 73% of all trips, both internal and external combined, are made by cars and it is expected that in the future this number will grow further. This means the already stressed infrastructure will further get more congested as autonomous growth will occur and new developments will take place within the city. The municipality aims at stabilizing car trips in the future at current absolute level, meaning no extra car trips should be made. In order to achieve this goal, the modal share of car will have to decline to 55% in the total modal split. This would imply the share of public transport should increase from 2% to 10% and the share of bicycle trips should increase from 31% to 35% of the total modal split. This is described by the municipality as a 'quantum leap' for sustainable mobility planning in the city.

As a result, the following can be concluded from this step:

• Breda scores relative low on the use of cycling and public transport on trips made to and from the city;

• Internal trips are comparable to other cities, though improvement is possible;

• More effort on increasing the modal share of bicycle and public transport will benefit the sustainability score.

32. Step 2: Where do we go without any interference?

After getting an image of the relative position of Breda concerning modal use and CO2-performance, the next step would be to get a grip on the carbon emission footprint of the municipal mobility system. In order to get a grip on flows of traffic and their implications on carbon-emissions, we distinguished four main 'transportation markets':

• Internal trips: mobility within the municipal boundaries of Breda;

• Bicycle fringe: mobility flowing in and out of the municipality which has an origin or destination within 15 km distance from the city, such as Alphen-Chaam; Dongen; Drimmelen; Oosterhout; Rucphen and Zundert;

• Public transportation market: cities with a direct train connection, such as Bergen op Zoom; Dordrecht; Roosendaal and Tilburg;

• External traffic: the remaining flows of traffic having an origin or destination in Breda.

Fig. 2. Benchmark modal use cycling (upper), public transport (middle) and car (below) for internal trips made (left) and external trips made

(right): (Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, 2011)

Fig. 3. Benchmark CO2 -emissions related to mobility per inhabitant (left) and visitor (right) measured in 1000 kg CO2 / year: (Centraal Bureau

voor de Statistiek, 2011)

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barendrecht

Heeijansdam / ^L > v

3 » odrechl Dordrccht j snd v J Dubbelday ■

linli i ilm unCTliiiBiir i

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Wijk en Aalburg

Willemslad HoUa^ Helwijk

Dinieloord I ijnaan

Fig. 4. Transportation markets: (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

Figure 4 shows the four transportation markets and its geographical boundaries. The definitions are based on 'owners' for policy measures: inner city traffic can be affected by municipal policy, the short distance trips are potentially interesting for the upcoming e-bike, public transport is related to national policy and the Dutch Railways. The latter category consists of remaining trips and is harder to assign to a particular stakeholder. After assigning these mobility markets, we used the municipal traffic model for quantifying flows of traffic within and between these markets. We took the projective year 2020 of the municipal traffic model. Only trips having an origin and/or destination in Breda are included. Passing vehicles (for example on highways) are left outside of these calculations. The reason for doing so is to get a clear idea of municipal related flows of mobility.

Figure 5 and Table 1 show the percentages of trips made to and from a certain transportation market, categorized by transport mode. Internal trips make up 56% of all trips made. The modal share of inner city cycling trips is 41%. Cars make up for 56% of all inner city trips and public transport 3%. Looking at the 'bicycle fringe' (which make up 24% of all trips made), 15% of all trips are made by bike, 2% by public transport and 83% made by car. A quarter of all trips made to and from neighbouring cities (10% of all trips made) are made by public transport (train). Regarding the rest of the surrounding areas, a similar image is visible.

■ Internal trips

■ Bicycle fringe

Public transport market External traffic

Fig. 5. Modal share of transportation markets: (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

Table 1. Amount of trips yearly made per mobility market (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

Mobility market Total Car Public transport Bike

Internal traffic 402.500 56% 226.000 56% 10.900 41% 165.600 3%

Bicycle fringe 170.800 24% 142.100 83% 3.100 15% 25.700 2%

Public transport market 74.000 10% 55.600 75% 18.300 25% 100 0%

External trips 76.900 11% 58.500 75% 18.300 25% 100 1%

Total 724.200 100% 482.200 67% 50.100 7% 191.500 26%

We multiplied the amount of trips by the length and further multiplied these figures with carbon emission factors. This gives an overview of the amount of carbon emissions produced by traffic flowing within, towards and from the city. The total amount of CO2 emitted by transportation on land to and from Breda on a yearly basis is 0,37 Mton (megaton). To give a point of reference: the total amount of CO2 emitted by transportation on land in the Netherlands is around 32 Mton (figures for 2007) and for cars only this number is 19 Mton (source: CBS Netherlands). When elaborated this 0,37 Mton of CO2 onto the four mobility markets, the following figure is visible: internal trips are responsible for 17% of all emissions; trips made to and from the surrounding area 18%, trips made to and from neighbouring cities 20% and all further external trips account for 45% of all carbon emissions, as shown in figure 6.

TOTAL Internaltrips Bicycle fringe

Fig. 6 Carbon emissions of trips made within, towards and from Breda, per mobility market: (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

This gives a first insight in the possibilities for developing a sustainable mobility action plan. 'Only' around one fifth of all emissions can be located within the municipal boarders. For the remaining 80% trips between municipalities are responsible. This gave us the first lesson: sustainable transport policy is mainly effective when being implemented

on a regional scale. Municipal policy alone is not enough. It also gave further directions for regional policy measures: it is reasonable to think regional cycling and public transport-trips can be enlarged, considering the modal share in these markets.

Based on these figures, each mobility market's carbon emissions were further elaborated by transport mode (car, freight and public transport; bike is carbon neutral). Public transport has a low emission factor; freight accounts for a large factor, as is shown in figure 7 and Table 2.

In total 53% of all emissions are due to car; 42% is related to freight. Inner city car trips make up 13% of all emissions (50 kton out of 370 kton). Car trips made to and from the bicycle fringe make up another 13% of all emissions (48 kton out of 370 kton). So about a quarter of all transport related CO2-emissions can easily be shifted to sustainable modes of transport, as they are short distance trips. Another 10% can be reduced when trips to and from the surrounding cities connected to public transport are shifted from car to train. Adding these figures, a third of all transport related CO2 emissions have a reasonable potential to be performed by sustainable transport modes, such as walking, cycling and public transport.

Next to this, freight transport makes up a significant portion of emissions: 16% of all emissions are due to transport of goods within the city and to and from the bicycle fringe and surrounding cities. A larger part (44% of all emissions) is related to (inter)national transport, this is due to Breda's geographical location along international transport corridors.

internal trips public transport market

Fig. 7. Transport related CO2-emissions measured in kton/year divided on modality and mobility market (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

Table 2. Amount of CO2-emissions measured in kton / year divided on modality and mobility market: (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

Mobility market Total Car Public transport Freight

Internal traffic 64 17% 50 78% 2 4% 64 18%

Bicycle fringe 67 18% 48 72% 0 1% 67 27%

Public transport market 75 20% 39 51% 7 9% 76 39%

External trips 164 44% 61 37% 8 5% 164 58%

Total 370 100% 198 53% 18 5% 370 42%

The following can be concluded from step 2:

• A third of all transport related CO2-emissions have a reasonable potential to be transformed to sustainable modes of transport. Policy measures focusing on sustainable mobility should be focused on a modal from car to

sustainable modes of transport especially on short distance trips (<15 km) within the city and to and from the surrounding region.

• Over another third of all emissions are related to transport of goods. On this topic (inter)national policy measures are needed in order to increase sustainability.

3.3. Step 3: Designing sustainability measures

The analysis of the mobility system of the city and its emissions gave us insight in the current state of emissions and its potential for creating a more sustainable mobility system. The next was designing sustainability measures and assessing its impact on the total CO2 emissions. We used the sustainability framework from Banister (2008) and 'translated' this framework into four possible strategies, as shown in figure 8:

1. Avoid (avoid trips made through substitution by for example ICT);

2. Reduce (reduce distance & travel time reduction by infrastructural & land use measures);

3. Shift (modal shift towards sustainable transport modes);

4. Improve (increase efficiency by technical innovation).

During a workshop with a diversity of policy makers from the municipality of Breda, we translated these strategies into measures relating to sustainable transport. Next to that, we estimated what the effect would be on the modal split of Breda. In other words: what would reasonably be expected from a measure, considering the current modal split and the geographical setting of the city? This resulted in a number of 8 measures and its expected implications:

• Teleworking: new ICT developments and a shift in working regulations between employers and companies could reduce up to 20% of all commuting trips within 5 years. In order to achieve this, employers need to be stimulated to work at home 1 day per full working week.

• Land-use measures: Park & Ride and Transit Oriented Development are expected to reduce distance of car-trips with 10% on the long term as it takes time as commuters gradually will change travel behaviour;

Fig. 8. Sustainable mobility strategies (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

• Mobility-management: Car-sharing is becoming more popular and easier to implement. By using new smartphone technologies is expected that this could result in a 10% higher utilization degree of cars commuting within 5 to 10 years;

• Encouraging the use of (e-)bike: the current growing e-bike popularity is expected to increase general bicycle use by 25% within 5 years time;

• ncreasing the use of public transport: Various measures such as target-group marketing and faster public transport is expected to increase the use of public transport by 25% within 5 years time;

• Electric cars: the gradual introduction of electrical cars in the Netherlands over the last years are expected to increase the use of electrical cars by 25% between 5 till 10 years time. This is a national trend of which the city will benefit also;

• Bio-fuels for freight: the gradual introduction of bio-fuels in the Netherlands for freight are expected to increase the use of sustainable bio-fuels by 25% between 5 till 10 years time. This is a national trend of which the city will benefit also;

• Clean Public Transport: it is expected clean public transport will reduce CO2-emissions with 100% within 5 till 10 years time1.

After setting up these measures, we calculated the effect with the same traffic model and CO2-tool used in the previous steps. Each measure is translated into parameters such as less strips made; less car kilometers made; more bike and public transport kilometers made or less emissions per kilometer. By changing the parameters in the model using elasticity's (abstracted from the average emission per kilometer made in 2020) we were able to give an estimation of the effect of mentioned measures on CO2-emissions2;

• Tele-working reduce 20% of trips made and will reduce CO2-emissions by 4%;

• Land-use measures reduce 10% of trip-distances and reduce CO2-emissions by 5%;

• An increase of 10% utilization degree in cars will reduce CO2-emissions by 2%;

• An increase of 25% of bicycle trips reduce CO2-emissions by 2%;

• An increase of 25% of public transport trips reduce CO2-emissions by 1%;

• A share of 25% of electric cars (well to wheel) reduce CO2-emissions by 13%;

• A share of 25% of bio-fuels for freight transport reduce CO2-emissions by 11%;

• Clean public transport (well 2 wheels) reduce CO2-emissions by 5%.

Adding these figures, as shown in figure 9 and Table 3, the measures above would imply a reduction of transport related CO2-emissions of 43% in 2044 compared to the autonomic situation expected in 2020. In terms of CO2-emissions this means a reduction of 0,15 Mton of CO2 (from the projected amount of 0,37 Mton). To give a reference, this amount of saved emissions corresponds to the isolation of 300.000 houses. As Breda has around 84.000 households; this would imply over 3 times the amount of houses in the city. The following can be concluded from step 2:

• The calculations showed that it is to expect that around 40% of all CO2-emissions can be reduced within 30 years time, using current parameters and knowledge;

• As the majority of trip kilometers are made by car, short term measures such as improvement of vehicles efficiency will have a large effect on CO2-emissions

• Long-term effects such as stimulation of bicycle use and the use of public transport will have a smaller effect on CO2-emissions.

1 At the moment of writing this article Breda is the first city in the Netherlands with full clean energy public transport. This is implemented faster than expected by the time this study was performed.

2 The traffic model used consisted of the future scenario of 2020. We used this model in order to assess effects for the 2044, not changing demographical, infrastructural or economical parameters. Only primary effects were calculated, no secondary land use changing or modal substitution-effects are taken in account.

■ Teleworking

■ Land-use measures

■ Mobility management

■ Stimulating use of (e-)bike

■ Stimulating use public transport

■ Stimulating use of electric cars

■ Stimulating bio-fuels freight

■ Clean public transport Non-renewable

Fig. 9. Sustainable mobility measures and their effects on reduction of CO2-emissions in 2044 (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011) Table 3. CO2 measures and their estimated impact (Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

Measure Policy term Mobility effect CO2-effect

Teleworking < 5 years -20% trips made in general -4%

Land-use measures > 10 years -10% distance in car trips -5%

Mobility management 5-10 years +10% utilization degree -2%

Encouraging the use of (e-)bike < 5 years +25% more bicycle trips -2%

Increased public transport use < 5 years +25% public transport trips -1%

Increased use of electric cars 5-10 years 25% cars are electric -13%

Encouraging bio-fuels freight 5-10 years 25% biofueled freight -11%

Clean public transport 5-10 years 100% clean public transport -5%

Total effect -43%

3.4. Step 4: where do we end up?

Breda has set a goal to be a climate-neutral city by the 2044. Within the transportation sector, achieving these goals is challenging. The calculations showed that a reduction of around 40% of transport related CO2-emissions is possible within the timeframe of 30 years, considering certain demographical, infrastructural and economical parameters. But how does this relate to the expected change within these parameters?

Looking back at mobility growth between 1990 and 2010, the Netherlands has experienced a growth in the amount of car-kilometers travelled of around 35% (figure 10, 2010). Projecting trends, between 2010 and 2044 another 30% growth of automobile use is to be expected (using the Dutch SE-scenario, which implies a modest growth). This in turn implies an indexed growth of 80% of CO2-emissions between 1990 and 2044, excluding any sustainability measures taken by the government (figure 10, 2044 autonomic scenario).

O <u u 1 60

1111 i

public transport freight

1990 2010 2044 2044 2044 extra autonomic national measures scenario policy city of Breda

Fig. 10. Trend projection of transport-related CO2-emissions in Breda:(Goudappel Coffeng, 2011)

As measures are being taken in national policy, for example restriction in emissions for cars, the average emission per car is lowering and is expected to further decline. This will imply the amount of CO2-emissions will grow 50% instead of the projected 80% by the year 2044 (figure 10, 2044 national policy). Adding the measures calculated in the previous steps, this would imply the transport related CO2-emissions of Breda would level the amount of 1990 (figure 10, 2044 extra measures city of Breda).

The analysis showed the transport related CO2-emissions will further rise between 2010 and 2044. Considering the municipal goals to become a climate-neutral city in that year, next to national measures, additional local measures are needed to reduce the emissions and meet the goals set.

4. Conclusions

4.1. Policy recommendations

The analysis was a means in achieving a sustainable mobility system for the city of Breda. It gave insight in the current and expected state considering CO2-emissions and the effect of possible policy measures. It therefore had two functions: it gave insight in the effect of mobility measures on sustainability goals of the city and it gave insight in the importance of cross-sectoral and cross-organisational cooperation in order to achieve these goals. So what can we conclude from this analysis for general sustainable mobility policy? Several policy recommendations have been formulated:

• Both short term and long term measures are needed. As cycling and public transport often are mentioned as the main solutions towards a sustainable urban transport system, a majority of trips are still made by cars. In order to reduce car use with 1%, this would imply a multitude of cycling trips to be made. This explains the relatively low outcome of CO2-reduction when increasing bicycle or public transport use with 25%. Contradicting these figures, measures such as implementation of electric cars and bio-fuels for freight transport will have a larger effect on the reduction of CO2-emissions.The figures are the result of model calculations, including primary effects on the short term. On the longer term though, people will change behaviour that will further enhance modal shift effects. On the one hand the modal shift towards bike and public transport can further increase as infrastructural and behavioural policy measures are taken to encourage use of these modes of transport and/or discourage unwanted car use. On the other hand will technical improvements such as electrification of cars and the use of bio-fuels

have a 'one-time' effect: once electrified the effect will be accomplished, although people still will drive and mobility and accessibility problems will not be solved. Therefore both long term and short-term measures are needed in policy.

• Integrated municipal policy approach strengthens results. The measures proposed have further effects than reducing CO2-emissions and therefore need to be analyzed within a bigger perspective, including social, environmental and economic aspects such as livability (pollution, noise), accessibility (parking, traffic jam) and attractivity (safety, social cohesion) of the city. Electrical cars will not solve accessibility problems for example.

• Intergovernmental and public-private cooperation are needed. The municipality of Breda will not be able to implement all measures due to legal, technical of financial restrictions. Therefore cooperation with private stakeholders is needed in order to get measures implemented) such as mobility management or electric vehicles cars). In the end, sustainable mobility is starting with people rethinking their mobility needs and habits. Next to this, cooperation between municipal sectors (such as infrastructure planning, urban renewal and economy) and between municipalities themselves is needed in order to create a regional sustainable mobility infrastructure. The Provincial government provides public transport and certain legal measures need to be taken on national or even international level.

4.2. Policy implementation

After this study, the municipality of Breda started implementing measures to achieve sustainable mobility. A large effort is being put on enhancing bicycle use in and around the municipality. The municipality has adopted a methodology focusing on specific user-needs and lifestyles. This 'bottom-up' approach is part of its philosophy to focus on demand instead of supplying infrastructure.

The municipality of Breda has also set up 'Climate Tables' in which the government, local industries and other stakeholders are working together on creating a climate neutral city. These tables function as platform for agreements and action plans.

The study also led to the creation of a sustainable urban mobility plan (SUMP) for the city of Breda. This plan was part of a process which included action plans such as a municipal public transport plan, an action plan for cycling and an environmental action plan. By doing so, the municipality is applying a 'town-down'-policy approach that will facilitate a 'bottom-up'-action plan approach, supported by the Climate Tables.

The sustainable mobility plan is based on three main 'tracks' also used in the Dutch infrastructural design approach 'Duurzaam Veilig' (translated as sustainable traffic safety): 'Environment': measures on urban & Infrastructural development, 'Vehicle:' measures enhancing vehicle efficiency and 'User': measures creating a modal shift towards sustainable mobility behaviour.

The municipality does not have a similar role in implementing measures on all three tracks. Urban and infrastructural measures belong primary to the municipality such as implementation of urban development plans. Vehicle efficiency-related measures primary belongs to manufacturers. Policy measures are largely connected to national laws and partly local policy. Influencing user behaviour is part of municipal policy plans, but also need to be promoted by private parties and awareness campaigns.

This case study give input for the 'Mobiliteitsaanpak Breda (MAB) - translated as 'Mobility Approach Breda' -which was included in the Municipal Strategic Development Plan 2030. This plan is a master plan, functioning as a framework for the development of the city until 2030, integrating urban and infrastructural development, mobility management, economic development and social development. The main contribution is the shift from development outwards of the city towards development within the city. The Development Plan therefore aims at the 'Avoid' and 'Reduce' strategy, limiting the need to travel. Next to this, the plan strongly emphasizes public transport and bicycle accessibility within the majority of the city, aiming at the 'Shift'-strategy.

5. Final thoughts

The case study described in this article was a pilot-study on creating sustainable mobility. By using data, instruments and a traffic model we were able to analyze the mobility system of an average Dutch city such as Breda is in the Netherlands. It gave insight in the performance of the mobility system, considering the CO2-emissions. In doing so, we made a translation from the 'mobility' domain to the 'sustainability' domain.

This study was a starting point in further policy development and measures. It gave political awareness and created budgets for implementation of policy and measures: on a policy level connections have been made between urban development, environmental policy and mobility actions plans such as cycling and public transport plans.

Creating a sustainable mobility system - and therefore a sustainable city - though is more than analysis: in the end policy needs to be economical feasible in order to encourage private stakeholders to implement measures. It also needs to adapt to user preferences in order to gain success. In times of limited budgets and growing needs for a sustainable city, experimental measures on a small scale, focusing on users' needs and connecting to multiple goals such as livability, accessibility and sustainability are expected to be successful. Sustainability often starts small and will - in case of success - eventually have a large impact on people's lives and the city itself.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all persons involved inside the Municipality of Breda and Goudappel Coffeng for their cooperation on the case study and this article.

References

Banister, D. (2008) The Sustainable Mobility Paradigm. Transport Policy, vol.. 15, pp. 73-80.

Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2011) Onderzoek Verplaatsingsgedrag in Nederland. Den Haag, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. SEC (2011) Impact Assessment - Accompanying document to the White Paper on Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area — Towards a

competitive and resource efficient transport system. Brussels, European Commission. Goudappel Coffeng (2011) Klimaatbeleid voorMobiliteit: Analysefase: situatie, kansen en ambities, Tussenrapportage. Deventer, Goudappel Coffeng.

Goudappel Coffeng (2012) Klimaatbeleid voor Mobiliteit, Actieplan. Deventer, Goudappel Coffeng.