Scholarly article on topic 'Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection in Ksours (Case of Algeria)'

Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection in Ksours (Case of Algeria) Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
Energy Procedia
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Renewable energy" / "Stratigies for environmental protection" / Ksours / "Sustainable development"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Ziani Abdelwahab

Abstract Talking about the concept of “environment” means treating a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary theme which revives a simultaneous consideration of multiple data social, economic, natural. To date, the protection of the environment as a whole becomes a challenge for many countries, policies for the preservation, education and scientific research strategies are aimed at the environment and sustainable development. It remains an idea of its young problem, still current. It is development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In the field of architecture and urban planning, environmental protection is an important place. With the growth experienced by this area, several environmental procedures have been invented to improve the quality of construction and use of buildings, a view mainly environmental but without neglecting the economic and social aspects. The environmental protection has long existed, it is found in the experiences of ancient cities such as Ksours. This legacy is an inspiration and an asset for the sustainable development of our cities today. According to Hassan Fathy only in the tradition, we respect and we continue the work of previous generation that new generation can really move and solve the problem. The materials used the distribution of space, protection of natural resources such as water and palm trees, recycling, are the strategies of the company of Ksours to live in a healthy and comfortable space. The objectives of this paper are: To highlight the history of environmental policy in architecture and urbanism in the world, in this case Ksours. Renewable energy and strategies of the preservation of the environment in the Ksours Sustainable development in Ksours: a notion that has long existed. Establish strategies to protect the environment.

Academic research paper on topic "Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection in Ksours (Case of Algeria)"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

SciVerse ScienceDirect

Energy Procedía 18 (2012) 666 - 671

Renewable energy, sustainable development and environmental protection in Ksours (case of Algeria)

Ziani Abdelwahab

Post graduate, Architecture department,Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Bechar,Po Box 417 Srteet Kenadsa,

Bechar 08000,Algeria.

Abstract

Talking about the concept of "environment" means treating a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary theme which revives a simultaneous consideration of multiple data social, economic, natural.... To date, the protection of the environment as a whole becomes a challenge for many countries, policies for the preservation, education and scientific research strategies are aimed at the environment and sustainable development. It remains an idea of its young problem, still current. It is development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In the field of architecture and urban planning, environmental protection is an important place.

With the growth experienced by this area, several environmental procedures have been invented to improve the quality of construction and use of buildings, a view mainly environmental but without neglecting the economic and social aspects. The environmental protection has long existed, it is found in the experiences of ancient cities such as Ksours. This legacy is an inspiration and an asset for the sustainable development of our cities today. According to Hassan Fathy "only in the tradition, we respect and we continue the work of previous generation that new generation can really move and solve the problem. ». The materials used the distribution of space, protection of natural resources such as water and palm trees, recycling, are the strategies of the company of Ksours to live in a healthy and comfortable space. The objectives of this paper are:

.To highlight the history of environmental policy in architecture and urbanism in the world, in this case Ksours. . Renewable energy and strategies of the preservation of the environment in the Ksours .Sustainable development in Ksours: a notion that has long existed. . Establish strategies to protect the environment.

© 20122 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of The TerraGreen Society. keywords: Renewable energy, Stratigies for environmental protection, Ksours, Sustainable development

* Corresponding author. Tel.:+213770543801 E-mail address:ziani.abdelwahab@gmail.com.

1876-6102 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of The TerraGreen Society. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2012.05.081

1. Introduction

The memory of each company is listed on its space when it moves. It will be revealed through the habitat and its organization, the demarcation of territories, the architectural vocabulary, and the cultural and spiritual dimensions. The legacy of the ancestors is a challenge in urban management and development. Awareness of society towards this heritage and the need for its conservation are of great importance today. For people to discover the treasures his country, several projects and conferences are organized on a global scale. The concept of heritage is generic, it is the product of the transmission of knowledge in all areas of daily life, and it is the illustrious footsteps of periods left a legacy from one generation to another. But the legacy of today assumes a central role in sustainable development peremptorily, renewable energy, tourism, science ... etc. Another plus side to side economic heritage considered a factor that can create social ties and strengthening cultural identity in this case Ksours.

2. Renewable energy and protecting the environment: today concerns

Global consumption of energy continues to increase. Especially since many countries in the world are growing rapidly, as the countries of Asia and Europe. Countries today therefore need more energy for their buildings, industries, transport, etc... The conventional energy sources such as nuclear energy or fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) are finite. These energies are polluting because they emit CO2 into the air and contribute to the greenhouse effect. This air pollution is at the origin of climate change. Today's society is looking for renewable energy, clean and safe. The use of renewable energy, reduce energy consumption and improve efficiency technologies. Renewable energy appears as the only alternative to existing energy, acceptable environmentally, socially and economically. Urban planning and architecture, environment and energy become the major concern for designers. Research buildings that meet environmental and economic are under the spotlight. The search for workable basis for building a resource conscious and therefore energy efficient through the study of what is known as building indigenous or traditional vernacular such as Black house, Scotland, the cave dwellings in China and in the Ksours North Africa[1]. These primitive forms of construction also teach us the beginnings of domestic equipment. Comfort conditions of the first houses are low energy, however, to relate to each climatic situation, the comfort level achieved and the average life span. With the industrial revolution, new techniques were invented. The abandonment of old traditions, often considered obsolete, has led to innovative visions. Today, with the concepts of sustainable architecture and urban development, current trends and seeking the improvement of buildings are as diverse as solar architecture, urban ecology, the environmental quality, the atmosphere architectural and urban ... etc [2].

3. The Ksours of Algeria : a great opulence sustainable

The term "Ksar", comes from Arabic (Kassar), which has designated in the early days of Islam, a fortified building located in an oasis. It was used later to refer to these fortified cities in the Sahara of North Africa. The Ksours are a component of Algerian heritage that is the subject of numerous cultural events and national and international conferences. The Ksar is the mode of implementation chipboard, specific to the population of the Sahara. The installation of Ksours depends on the availability of water

resources, a condition that ensures palm cultivation. The palm trees function as microclimates that are essential to human settlement.

Fig. 1. (a) Ksar of Moghel ; (b) Ksar of Bni Abbes

4. Renewable energy and environmental strategies in Ksours

4.1 Logic of implementatation

The architecture of Ksours better meets the needs and the physical environment itself, built with the most extreme simplicity and economy. It is an architecture that was made by anonymous builders, by and for the builders, for the benefit of members of the community in translating into practice the egalitarian ideal. The Ksours are implemented according to different factors. The Ksar is always next to a hydraulic path for the economy of water and provide an oasis for food and wood [3]. The Ksours are surrounded by walls for protection. The part of the habitat is upstream allowing water to serve domestic needs first before reaching the area of agriculture. As the Arab-Muslim cities, the Ksours tissues are marked by very compact, the densification was enhanced by the climatic factor. The architecture of Ksours offers the best example of integration in an arid environment for cold climates.

4.2 Renewable energy in ksours

The concept "renewable" means all the sources of energy other than fossil fuels and nuclear fission whose consumption does not limit its future use [4]. It is therefore considered a renewable energy if it is produced at a rate greater than or equal to its consumption. Among renewable energy sources include solar, wind, water power of rivers and tides, geothermal and biomass. In the Ksours, the use of renewable energy from nature to provide healthy spaces and amenities such as good location spaces, building materials, natural ventilation.... etc. The main streets are oriented from northeast to southwest to take advantage of the shade, sunlight and moist winds.

Natural ventilation is one of the strategies adopted in Ksours especially in homes. This strategy reduces the temperature and provides thermal comfort in the interior of the house. Although the windows are small, the house of Ksar is well adopted in semi arid and hot climate. West Eddar has a more temperate microclimate that the external environment and acts as a buffer between the indoors and the external

environment especially in hot weather. Studies have shown that the size of projections acts directly on the importance of erosion due to wind action especially for small dimensions (5-20 cm). That is why in Ksours, the houses are in a dense network that promotes the mutual protection of walls and the need for projections in the walls is minimized, for homes rampart walls exposed to wind effects are built in large and / or all stone hard material.

Fig. 2.Plan of home.

4.3 Building materials of Ksours

Building materials used in Ksours are local materials that have durability like: Toub, clay, stone and palm. These materials have thermal and physical characteristics suitable for regions in Ksours and they are very strong, durable, provides acoustical and thermal comfort for residents and do not require too much maintenance. The palm is the main wealth of Ksours, it is both a source of sustenance and consolidation of materials sensitive areas of the construction land. The manufacturers use: the trunk, djerid and khornaf those are conducive to the climate and architecture ksours.

Fig. 3. (a) Stone and clay; (b) Palm, (c) toub

5. Sustainable development in Ksours

The concept of sustainable development is introduced by the report "Our Future for All", better known as the "Brundtland Report". This report on the concept of sustainable development through the famous definition: development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is able to ensure economic efficiency, social equity and respect for the environment. Although this concept is a very young idea, the concept of sustainability was embodied in the old settlements in this case, the ksours Algeria. In ksours, there are all targets of sustainable development, respect for the environment, equity and social cohesion and economic efficiency. The respect for the environment and the sustainability are realized through the compatibility with the environment, integration with the site, the rational exploitation of natural resources (Palm trees, water) and locals building materials. The traditional system of irrigation water ensures an equal sharing between the different communities using the foggara and seguias[5]. The architecture represents an integration of ksours incomparable with the site. The use of building materials available locally like stone, Toub, clay and palm those are considered ecological building materials. Renewable energy is revealed in the Ksours, the natural ventilation, natural lighting and shadows in the streets are the strategies adopted in different areas.

6. Towards a strategy for environmental protection

Environmental protection and energy management is everyone's business. The energy conservation, clean air and water, risk prevention, waste reduction, preservation of natural species ...etc, are among the effective strategies for the real eco-cities.

.Today, the climate changes initiated in the twentieth century are becoming increasingly sensitive. Faced with the dangers they represent, the public and policymakers are becoming aware of the need to protect the natural environment. Addressing urban planning and architecture as an approach that respects the environment is a response to issues raised at international summits. The rise of architecture 'solar' and 'bioclimatic' allows both the theory and implementation of this reflection in the normal production of the built environment. This term is intended primarily to improve the comfort that a built environment can lead to so 'natural', that is to say by minimizing the use of non-renewable energy, the adverse effects on the environment and the costs of investment and operation.

.Among strategies adopted today, the use of renewable energy to protect the environment because renewable energy sources have the advantage of being available in unlimited quantities. Their operation is a means of meeting energy needs while preserving the environment. The main forms of renewable energy like solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, hydro, other forms of energy are developed in this site. .Today, the principle of environmental responsibility is part of a more comprehensive approach taking into account sustainable development issues. The government must therefore take more responsibility: environmental responsibility, social responsibility and economic responsibility. This is not only to preserve and enhance the environment but also contribute to the improvement of working conditions and economic development. It is also to convince employees of the State and communities, and beyond, all users, the need to adopt different behavior in everyday life.

7. Conclusion

As a factor in human development, architectural and cultural heritage can provide new opportunities for creative activities, site management, tourism ...etc, and especially to create synergies between these activities. The awareness of cultural heritage is a key issue, and guides as a strategy to be followed in different levels of intervention.

Faced with the dangers that affect the architectural heritage, and the extent of neglect and callousness towards heritage in urban management, the primary objective seems to be to store, archive and preserve the traces (written, graphic, photographic, constructed, etc.) to ensure the survival of this endangered heritage. It is important now that the practice of architecture, the architectural research, the teaching of architecture and publications on architecture, consider that heritage in its richness and diversity to offer new visions and directions to eradicate the problems of cities today.

References

[1] Roberto Gonzalo, Karl J. Haberman.Achitecture et efficacité énergétique.Boston:Birkhauser; 2004.

[2] Dominique Gauzin.Architecture écologique.Paris: LEMONOTEUR; 2001.

[3] Djilali Sari. Le M'zab.Algerie: Editions ANEP;2003

[4] Robert Dautay. Quelles énérgies pour demain.Paris: Odile Jacob; 2004.

[5] A.Moro,B.Kalaora. le désert: le vivant et le sacré. Paris: Harmattan; 2005.