Scholarly article on topic 'Sociolinguistic Structure of Artistic Language; with Emphasis on Nader and Simin – A Separation'

Sociolinguistic Structure of Artistic Language; with Emphasis on Nader and Simin – A Separation Academic research paper on "Media and communications"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Discourse Structure" / "Sociology of Language" / Sociolinguistics / "Discourse Analysis" / "Critical Discourse Analysis"}

Abstract of research paper on Media and communications, author of scientific article — Venus Qasemireza, Hamidreza Dowlatabadi

Abstract Art could be abstract, realistic, naturalistic, conceptual, and inspirational and the language of art is universal. Language and discourse are not reflections of reality, and the words do not show their meaning explicitly. Movies are one of the forms to express a kind of artistic language respecting social factors. It is approved that seeing is completed by understanding. Critical discourse analysis is a proper tool to disclose the underlying assumptions that are concealed in texts or speeches while studies the social interactions which take linguistic forms. Social structures have an influence on discourse patterns and relations in the form of power relations and ideological effects. In the present article critical discourse analysis attempted to describe relations between use of language and social problems focus on the film Nader and Simin- a Separation. What is interesting to notice about this study is that it is the first time to investigate sociolinguistic structure of artistic language in the field of critical discourse analysis in Iran. At last this study intended to examine if social distance has a positive impact on types of words in discursive and visual communication.

Academic research paper on topic "Sociolinguistic Structure of Artistic Language; with Emphasis on Nader and Simin – A Separation"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 98 (2014) 1428 - 1437

International Conference on Current Trends in ELT

Sociolinguistic Structure of Artistic Language; with Emphasis on Nader and Simin - a Separation

Venus Qasemirezaa *, Hamidreza Dowlatabadib

aEngkish Department of Science and Research University, Arak, Iran bArak university,English Department of Arak University, Sharyati, Arak, 38158, Iran

Abstract

Art could be abstract, realistic, naturalistic, conceptual, and inspirational and the language of art is universal. Language and discourse are not reflections of reality, and the words do not show their meaning explicitly. Movies are one of the forms to express a kind of artistic language respecting social factors. It is approved that seeing is completed by understanding. Critical discourse analysis is a proper tool to disclose the underlying assumptions that are concealed in texts or speeches while studies the social interactions which take linguistic forms. Social structures have an influence on discourse patterns and relations in the form of power relations and ideological effects. In the present article critical discourse analysis attempted to describe relations between use of language and social problems focus on the film Nader and Simin- a Separation. What is interesting to notice about this study is that it is the first time to investigate sociolinguistic structure of artistic language in the field of critical discourse analysis in Iran. At last this study intended to examine if social distance has a positive impact on types of words in discursive and visual communication.

© 2014 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd.Thisisanopenaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Urmia University, Iran.

Keywords: Discourse Structure; Sociology of Language; Sociolinguistics; Discourse Analysis; Critical Discourse Analysis

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +98-09122567076 E-mail address: qasemireza.venus@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Urmia University, Iran.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.562

1. Introduction

The appearance of discourse and text analysis dates back to 1970s. According to Holmes (2008), discourse analysis provides a tool for sociolinguists to identify the norms of talk among different social and cultural groups in different conversational and institutional contexts, and to describe the discursive resources people use in constructing different social identities in interaction. Among sociolinguists, the term 'discourse' is generally used to refer to stretches of spoken or written language which extend beyond an utterance or a sentence. Discourse is the very stuff of many interactions, especially in areas such as law, in teaching and in business meetings and also is examined as a social practice in critical discourse analysis (CDA). Discourse might have ideological effects therefore it can produce or reproduce unequal power relations between social classes or ethnic minorities (Wodak & Meyer, 2009).

"Conversation analysis is a method of analyzing much more than conversation. But conversation is regarded as basic. Meeting and transactional interactions are described in relation to the view of conversation as a jointly organized activity, with the significance of any utterance highly dependent on its position in a sequence" (Holmes, 2008, p. 398).

Lee, one of the major examiners into film's representations of public relations and management, claims prevalent culture offers a prism over which a matter can be noticed from the viewpoint of the wide-ranging public-at-large. He disputes that film as a dominant element of general arts, has the authority to portray and then impact the image of a specific subject, organization, occupation or effort. In Memory and Popular Film, Grainge enlightens how listeners retention can be predisposed and expanded through cultural structures of character as create in film and television. This notion is reinforced by Foucault, who discusses that film and television as procedures of general civilization can be so influential that they can indeed rearrange general retention. He explains folk are displayed not what they were, but what they must recall having been (Johnston, 2010).

Several studies (Bowen, 1982; Lonergan, 1984; Markham, 2001; Tomalin, 1986) show that films comprehend several important listening circumstances and exhibit paralinguistic aspects which contextualize the spoken speech so as to simplify comprehension.

2. Review of the literature

2.1. What is Critical Discourse Analysis?

CDA, as it is regularly shortened, has complements in 'critical' progresses in sociolinguistics, psychology and the social sciences, some by now dating back to the early 1970s (Birnbaum, 1971; Calhoun, 1995; Fay, 1987; Fox & Prilleltensky, 1997; Hymes, 1972; Ibañez & Iñiguez, 1997; Singh, 1996; Thomas, 1993; Turkel, 1996; Wodak, 1996). CDA is a reaction to foremost formal paradigm of the 1960s and 1970s which was habitually asocial or uncritical (Van Dijk, 1998).

"Critical discourse analysis is a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance and inequality are enacted, reproduced and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context" (Van Dijk, 1998, p. 1). With such rebellious study, critical discourse analysts take clear place, and hence want to recognize, depiction and finally to confront social inequality (Van Dijk, 1998).

Critical discourse analysis is not restricted to one school or field, but it is a multidisciplinary method meaning that sociology, psychology, or political science can be entailed in it. CDA is not limited to only verbal analysis of discourse such as grammar, style, and rhetoric, but it is also interested about semiotic dimensions such as pictures, films, gestures, and so forth.

Holmes (2008) discussed critical discourse analysis is an attitude which concentrates accurately on the directions which power and ideology are noticeable in interaction. CDA is certainly interested in examining how language is

used to create and affirm power relationships in society; the target is to disclose connection between language and power. A CDA approach aims to distinguish ways in which readers or listeners are directed through decisions of peculiar words and structures to obtain a distinct position in relation to the topic of argument. Analysts who approve a critical framework, for example, frequently use CA to focus on peculiar factors of an interaction which demonstrate how discourse creates and affirm power relationships, and props up an especial view of reality. CDA analysts try to exhibit the concealed points and mainly the taken-for granted notions that underlie much of our everyday discourse.

According to Van Dijk (1998) CDA should delight some qualification:

• The critical focus of CDA is social problems and political issues.

• Critical analysis of social problems is mainly multidisciplinary.

• The primary aim of CDA is not description of discourse structures, but it tries to describe discourse structures depend on features of social interaction and social structure.

• CDA emphasize the relation between discourse and society and how power, dominance and inequality are represented, reproduced and legitimated through text and talk by group members.

2.2. Directions in CDA

CDA approaches proposed by different scholars are different in their theoretical foundation. 2.2.1. Fairclough

One of the leading approaches in CDA is that of Fairclough whose model has been dominant to CDA over more than the past ten years. Fairclough, entitled his approach to language and discourse Critical Language Study (1989, p. 5). He is of the outlook that language is a complex part of community life. He endeavors to make an association between linguistically-oriented discourse analysis and political and social ideas in discourse in language and discourse (Fairclough, 1992). Fairclough is interested in power associations in discourse. His belief is that ideology is strictly interrelated to power and language. His purpose is to increase people's awareness about how language pays to authority of some people by others (Fairclogh, 1989).

Fairclough (1992) outlined a three side foundation for discourse analysis:

• The first side is involved in linguistic analysis of text.

• The second side is discourse-as-discursive-practice. It identifies how to do in distinct condition.

• And the third side concerns about the effect of social and cultural patterns on conversational matters.

Fairclough (1989) discusses that there are three steps of discourse:

• Firstly, 'social situations of production and interpretations'

• Secondly, the 'formation of production and interpretation'

• Thirdly, the 'text'

Fairclough (2001) claims discourse implies social situations of production and interpretation.

Social conditions classified to three steps comprising:

• Firstly, step of the social situation meaning the actual social domain where the discourse happens.

• Secondly, step of the social practice.

• And the thirdly, step of society (Fairclough, 2001).

Fairclough (2001) modifies three sides of critical discourse analysis:

• Description: it is interested in formal factors of texts.

• Interpretation: this side examines the relation between text and interaction.

• Explanation: "is concerned with relationship between interaction and social contexts with the social purpose of the processes of production and interpretation, and their social effects" (p.22).

All of these three steps are interested in analysis. Fairclough (2001) analysis developed beyond 'what ness' of text details regarding 'how' and 'why ness' which are interested in text interpretation and explanation.

2.2.2. Wodak

Discourse Sociolinguistics is one of the ways in CDA related with Wodak and her associates in Vienna. Wodak (1996) argues Discourse Sociolinguistics is not only devoted to the consideration of the text in context, but also conform both aspects equal significance. Like Fairclough, Wodak's method is linguistically oriented. Nevertheless what differentiates Wodak's attitude from others is her discourse-historical viewpoint in CDA. Analysts from dissimilar areas concentrate on differing categories in diverse political fields of action. Different areas impact the investigative way and interpretation of data which leads to 'discourse-historical approach' (Wodak, 2002).

Discourse historical approach surveys the theory of social critique which includes three sides:

• "Text or discourse immanent critique deal with any inconsistencies or paradoxes which exists in the text or discourse.

• On the contrary, the 'socio-diagnostic critique' goes beyond the text and discourse.

The analysts use its contextual and background knowledge to disclose the meaning of the text. Moreover, social theories including social and political events are involved in interpreting the discourse.

• Prognostic critique contributes to the transformation and improvement of communication for example, within pubic institutions by elaborating proposals and guidelines for reducing language barriers in hospital, schools, etc" (Wodak, 2001a, P.64).

The extract of discourse-historical approach can be separated in three parts:

• Firstly, performance of context and setting should be as correct as possible.

• Secondly, historical events should be considered while opposite the utterance.

• Thirdly, text should be interpreted linguistically as well (Wodak, 2001).

Wodak shortened the strategies of discourse-historic approach to CDA as follows (2001b):

• Social, political, historical and psychological facts about the context of the text should be assembled.

• Category of the text should be attested.

• Study questions should be precisely stated, since classes of linguistic analysis of texts depend on research questions.

• The context of chart can be drawn for particular texts.

2.2.3. Van Dijk

Van Dijk is a founder in discourse analysis of media texts and he initiates his works in 1980s. Actually, he is one of the greatest frequently cited and figured in critical studies of media discourse. A central question that Van Dijk's approach debates is: "how are societal structures related to discourse structures?" (BELL & Garrett, 1998, p.7) He assumes that societal structures and discourse structures are not associated precisely, but they are associated through persons and their minds. Critical discourse analysts aim to the fundamental point which is the overt consciousness of their character in society (Van Dik, 1998). "Continuing a tradition that rejects the possibility of a 'value-free' science, they argue that science, and especially scholarly discourse, are inherently part of, and influenced by social structure, and produced in social interaction" (Van Dik, 1998, p. 1).

As a result, there are three components in Van Dijk's approach including a triangle of:

• Social function,

• Cognitive structure, and

• Discursive expression and reproduction.

"In this approach, ideologies are the basic frameworks for organizing the social cognitions which shared by members of social groups, organizations or institutions" (Van Dik, 1995, p. 1). Van Dijk has a socio-cognitive belief toward ideology in the examination of language. He discusses that ideologies are both mental and social occurrences (Van Dijk, 1994). Van Dijk's attitude towards ideology is multidisciplinary. He considers that there is a linking among society, cognition and discourse.

Following passage help clarify constitutes of Van Dijks' plan:

• Social cognition: Discourse, communication and (other) pattern of action and interaction are checked by social cognition (Van Dijk, 1989). Social cognition is on the one hand in the attention of characters and on the other, apportioned and presumed by core members. Social cognition observes social action and interaction as well as it is the core of social and cultural arrangements of society. That is why social factor is implied in this side.

• Cognitive structure: Van Dijk considers that 'cognitive interface' is an essential aspect to link power and discourse apprehension, outlook and ideologies which are social depiction of social mind associate the singular and the social as well as the micro and macro levels of social structure (Van Dijk, 1993).

• Discourse: If the power owners can command their power through discourse and effect audiences through discourse, critical discourse analysis targets to comprehend what discursive strategies are used in discourses. Discursive appearance of dominance and power can be under analysis in both sides of creation and reaction.

2.3. Theoretical framework

"Since CDA is not a specific direction of research, so it does not have a unitary theoretical framework" (Van Dik, 1998, p. 2). In the interior the objects, there are numerous kinds of CDA, and these may be theoretically and analytically fairly dissimilar. Yet, given the common perspective and the general aims of CDA, we may also find complete conceptual and theoretical structures that are strictly related (Van Dik, 1998). "As suggested, most kinds of CDA will ask questions about the way specific discourse structures are deployed in the reproduction of social dominance, whether they are part of a conversation or a news report or other genres and contexts" (Van Dik, 1998, p. 3).

Van Dik classifies his structure into macro and micro strategies. Macro strategies are distributed into three factors comprising thematic structure, positive self-presentation and negative other presentation strategies. Macro level of analysis goes beyond micro level analysis of words, sentences and sentence construction. Micro strategy is another division of this structure including of eleven lines and forty sub lines.

The triangle principles perform as a link between macro and micro levels of analysis.

Discourse structures contain both microstructures such as lexical items and grammatical structures and macrostructures such as topics or themes expressed indirectly in the whole discourse (BELL & Garrett, 1998)

2.4. Power as a tool to control

For the application of associations between discourse and power some facts should be deliberated: Firstly, admission to specific usages of discourse such as politics or media can be supposed as a basis of power. Secondly, our movements are verified by our thoughts. Hence, directing thoughts of persons such as outlooks, acquaintance or beliefs allows us to regulate their engagements.

Thirdly, as text and conversation can impact person's thoughts, discourse is able to monitor person's movements indirectly (Van Dijk, 1998).

2.5. Media discourse

Van Dijk (1998) discussed the indisputable power of the media has motivated numerous critical studies in many disciplines, not least in the domain of mass communication itself. Media has a very manifest influence not only in communication itself but also stimulate numerous critical studies in much orderliness (Van Dijk, 1998). "One of the first studies in the new critical paradigm in linguistics and discourse studies, namely an early collection of work of Roger Fowler and his associates (Fowler, Hodge, Kress & Trew, 1979), also focused on the media" (Van Dijk, 1998, p. 16). According to Van Dijk (1998) admitting that in latest years there is rising impact of the British Cultural Studies paradigm, also in the USA (Hardt, 1992), this has so far directed to few comprehensive and practical studies of media discourse.

3. Research question

The research is going to examine if social distances have a positive impact on types of the words in discursive and visual communication.

4. Methodology

4.1. Data collection

In order to investigate socio linguistic structures of artistic language, in field of critical discourse analysis, the researchers chose an artistic-cultural work, which is "A Separation". The reason behind choosing this movie is that it was the second Iranian film to be nominated for an Oscar and the first to win and also becoming the first Iranian movie to clinch the honor.

4.2. Procedures

After researching many different bases it is adopted those strategies of Van Dijk's framework for analyzing ideologies are the best. The first reason leading the researcher to choose Van Dijk's is that he is a founder in media discourse. Fairclough(1995) states that Van Dijk's framework exceeds text analysis to discourse analysis and covers the way to connect textual analysis to sociocultural analysis. In addition, Van Dijk creates a distinction between his discourse analysis and customary discourse analysis. His framework involves systemic sketch of both syntactic and semantic characteristics of texts (Philo, 2007b).

The researchers manipulated the ideologies between many complicated speeches by using CDA framework. After watching the movie, all the apparent elements related to Van Dijk's framework were analyzed in his opinion of critical discourse analysis. Consequently, there is a very strong table from strategies which will be announced as an enormous project but for present study, three strategies from forty subfields of micro strategies are employed to analyze relations between use of language and social problems which is including:

• Meaning; Empathy:

It is use of expressions to show empathy with audiences. There is an apparent empathy with out- groups in disclaimers, since there is an empathy with in-groups as victims in second clause.

• Meaning; Polarization:

People are categorized to in-groups (US) and out-groups (THEM) and their social representations, attitudes and ideologies are considered. Polarization leads to 'good' and 'bad' sub-categories like friends on the one hand and enemies on the other hand.

• Rhetoric; Irony:

It is a suitable tool to represent accusation indirectly compared with the cases that manifest accusation directly which is less effective.

4.3. Data analysis

All the strategies of Van Dijk's framework are executed into this movie and the most of them were empathy, irony and polarization.

The research type of this study is descriptive. It is absolutely qualitative and there isn't any quantitative judgment then it is not expected to see its figures and tables.

What is important to mention is that the analysis is just on verbal structure of discourse and visual elements and sounds effect and other categories of film are not taken into account.

5. Results

In the present study three strategies was very prominent in the dialogues of this movie, which are irony, empathy and polarization. The irony was found seven, empathy, sixteen and polarization nine times in all parts of conversations of the film. The following is taken from dialogues considering positions and analyzing their relationship in different situations based on these three strategies:

• Irony

Nader: Where were you? Nader: You had no right to go!

Razieh were late and because of that Nader is very angry. Nader was not in the home when Razieh went out. She came back late. Nader emphasized her duties. Two first dialogues in irony denote that a kind of relationship between two persons which one of them is superior to another. Considering their positions and much angriness of Nader . So his words composed of irony. Hojat's sister: Thanks so much for that!

Hojat's sister thanked them (Nader-Simin) angrily in hospital. In spite of her social position to them (Nader-Simin) there is an irony in her words, since she gave right to herself. Simin: And how sad he was that I left!

Simin is talking with her daughter about her relationship with Nader, who is Termeh's father. Simin loves her family and expects Nader to ask of staying or leaving together not separately. Hojat: As if you believe in God! Nader: No, God is just for guys like you!

Hojat mocked Nader in court. He does believe riches people don't know God and religious and he thinks riches are ignorant to God as they have money and power so as believes he is right to talk by irony. Immediately Nader answers Hojat insultingly and defends himself. He claims why they consider them as irreligious. Every human being has his own God. Both of them express somehow irony and also polarization by using pronoun of 'you' which means categorization of us and them. Hojat: Are you not ashamed? You call yourself a man?!

Nader and Hojat are standing front of judge. Hojat named Nader an unprejudiced man. He gets angry so as was complainant, but now Nader shows up as a complainant too. Nader is abusing this excuse to get rid of punishment. This shows his inequality.

• Empathy

Nader: when I heard I got upset and went to the hospital.

When Nader heard Razieh's baby is dead, get shocked and because of that went hospital to visit her. Razieh: I was afraid he may wake up, get out of bed, and hurt himself

Razieh would go out, so took old man to bed and tied him up and locked the door. She did this not to let old man hurt himself. Clearly her mean was empathy but not reasonably. Simin's mother: Why didn't you call and tell us you had gotten into trouble?

Here Simin's mother is ready to help Nader as he is in temporarily prison. This is true relationship between human beings.

Razieh: On the Koran, your Honor, Let me talk, Honor, his nerves are shot, I swear to God it's his nerves, the Koran, every over day this month he has been in jail, All his creditors have been after him, and I've begged them to leave him alone, Sir, look, I beg you, your Honor, please, look, Look at this, please look.

Razieh is begging the judge not to sign anything against Hojat and hold him prisoner .This dialogue is kind of begging and empathizing for her husband.

Nader: Sir, can I ask as a favor that you let him go this one time?

Nader sees Razieh is begging, and then he asks the judge not to sign. Thought Nader was trying to get rid of this matter and led to satisfy him but he couldn't tolerate and shows his empathizing.

Razieh: Sir, I swear to God, I'm not lying, since he's lost his job he has developed depression, he can't help it, God is

my witness, your honor, please forgive him.

Judge to Razieh: Go tell him to find you a guarantor, quickly.

Again Razieh asks the judge not to write judgment for Hojat. By considering the situation and in spite of his position the judge changed his decision and gave them another chance. • Polarization

Nader: I don't want to get the school involved; it will be bad for my daughter.

Hojat: Damn you, you killed my son, and you're saying this is bad for your child? You think only your child is important?

Nader wanted court not to get involve her daughter in this problem. Here Hojat became angry quite right after Nader's will for her daughter. These two dialogues show somehow thoughts of two different classes of society to each other as us and them. Hojat: As if you believe in God! Nader: No, God is just for guys like you!

Hojat: For God's sake listen to us, he distorts everything, he hit my wife and my son died... What more do you want? Listen to us poor ones also...

Hojat begs the judge to sees all the aspects and judge by law. He acts as if judge believes in this proverb "might is right".

Hojat: Why are you saying that I hit my wife and kids like some kind of animal? I swear on this Koran that I am a human just like you!

Here Hojat is talking with teacher .He wanted teacher not to tell lie the judge, because he believes that teacher will support them. This dialogue denotes that a kind of quite polarization, since Hojat wants to illustrate that Nader, Simin & teacher see themselves as if they are superior to him.

Hojat: This is what upsets me, why do you think I'm going to court for money? You think I'm a bum and my child has died...

Hojat doesn't satisfy and is going to prove that he wants to get his baby's right from court and does believes that's not for money. Repeatedly this dialogue expresses polarization considering misunderstanding of Nader & Simin to him.

6. Discussion

This survey seeks to understand how people with different social classes or positions behave, communicate and distinguish the world around themselves and then whether this factor has a positive impression on application of types of words in discursive and visual communication. It also can be defined as the interaction between members of different groups, which differ from each other with respect to the social cognition, classes, ideas, mind, culture and knowledge shared by their members.

Regarding what was found in results based on the three strategies of Van Dijk's framework, the findings are labeled irony, empathy and polarization. Irony is a combination of the pragmatic and the semantic field, where the semantic space is a space "in between," involving both the spoken and the unspoken. It derived from beliefs, emotions, unconsciousness, and etc. Crucially it depends on the social recognition and cognitive structure. As was stated in review of the literature, based on Fairclough's (2001), discourse suggests social situations of production, interpretation and its classifications of social conditions and critical discourse analysis. In empathy there are many

signs of true empathizing which is actually true relationship between human beings that expressed empathy, like accepting others' situation, feelings, motives, and the power of understanding and imaginatively entering into another person's feelings, but some of them are not reasonable and the others hit the right notes. In conformity with Van Dijk (1998) to result, our movements are verified by our thoughts and as text and conversation can impact person's thoughts, discourse is able to monitor person's movements indirectly. In part of Polarization, social representations, attitudes and ideologies are examined into these dialogues. It comes from being unaware of social cognition, and also in consequence of their different social classes, come up dissimilar social language and social culture structures which lead to insulting their cultures and beliefs. In this part some dialogues indicate thoughts of two different classes of society which address each other us and them clearly and in the others somehow ideologies of two different classes of society were comprehended. As it was seen in consequence, societal structures are connected to discourse structures. Van Dijk (1994) claims that societal structures and discourse structures are not associated precisely but they are related through persons and their minds. He has a socio-cognitive belief toward ideology in the examination of language and as the result showed; there is a linking among society, cognition and discourse. He confirmed Social cognition observes social action and interaction as well as it is the core of social and cultural arrangements of society. As was perceived it is confirmed that lack of social cognition cause these problems or misunderstanding in communication, production and interpretation.

7. Conclusion

As was mentioned before, CDA is a proper tool to disclose the underlying assumptions that are hidden in text or speeches. So, the main concern of this analysis was to examine if social distance had a positive impact on types of words used in discursive and visual communication. As was stated, language is a very complex part of social life and the scholars in CDA have attempted to make a connection between discourse analysis and social ideas in discourse. Fairclough (1989) stated that social conditions of production and interpretation levels are among their three main levels of discourse which can be studied in various social situations and this factor was stated in another version as social function and discursive expression and production by Van Dijk (1994). Of course, Van Dijk claimed that there is a connection between society cognition and discourse. Thus, linking the literature with what we found in study, it became clear that different situations in which two different social classes show their different social language and social culture structures, may lead to so many misunderstandings, first in the family, then in different social situations such as court. We could come to the idea that social distance has actually a negative impact on the type of words used in discursive visual communication.

This finding can show different sociolinguistic issues on problems in Iranian society which need more and more critical studies in future and then as the main implication of this study, the researcher should say that such studies can help CDA scholars focus on the social realities dominant in Iranian society which actually can link the social studies of language and real life issues.

References

BELL, A., & Garrett, P. (Eds). (1998). Approaches to media discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge: polity press.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Media discourse. London: Edward Arnold.

Fairclough, N. ( 2001). Language and power (2nd ed). London and New York: longman.

Holmes, J. (2008). An introduction to sociolinguistics. UK: Person Education Limited.

Johnston, J. (2010). Girls on screen: How film and television depict women in public relations. Prism 7(4). Retrieved from http://www.prismjournal.org

Philo, G. (2007). News content studies, media group methods and discourse analysis: A comparison of approaches. In E. Devereux (Ed), Media studies (pp.101-103). London: Sage.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1989). Social cognition and discourse. In H. Giles &R.P. Robinson. Handbook of social psychology and language (pp. 163-183). Chichester: Wiley.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1993). Principles of critical discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 4(2), 249-283.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1994). Discourse structures and ideological structures. Papers presented at the international AILA Congress. Amesterdam.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1995b). Discourse analysis as ideology analysis. In Ch. Schaffener& A.L. Wenden(Eds.). Language and pace(pp.1-2). Dartmouth: Aldershot.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1998). Critical discourse analysis. Retrieved from: http://www.hum.uva.nl/teun/cds.htm. Wodak, Ruth (1996). Orders of discourse. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Wodak, R. (2001a). The discourse-historical approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (EDs), Methods oof critical discourse analysis (pp.63-94). London: Sage.

Wodak, R. (2001b). What CDA is about- a summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds),

Methods of critical discourse analysis (PP.1-13). London: Sage. Wodak, R. (2002). Aspects of critical discourse analysis. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Linguistik, 36, 5-31.

Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2009). Critical discourse analysis: History, agenda, theory, and methodology. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer, Methods oof critical discourse analysis. (2nd ed.)(pp.1-33). London: Sage.