Scholarly article on topic 'Development of Continuing Motivation via Distance Learning Model in Unrest Southernmost Provinces, Thailand'

Development of Continuing Motivation via Distance Learning Model in Unrest Southernmost Provinces, Thailand Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Keywords
{"Continuing Motivation" / "Distance learning" / "Unrest Southernmost Provinces;"}

Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — Monton Pholboon, Wuttisak Pochanukul, Juta Tammachart, Kittisak Na Badalung

Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces of Thailand. The research objectives consist of; (1) to synthesize continuing motivation pattern of distance learning model in unrest area and (2) to verify continuing motivation pattern of distance learning model in unrest area. Focus group discussion in distance classroom was performed for data collecting. Concept synthesizing involved document and examining format quality by experts. Quantitative research was used for data analysis; induction conclusion and quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation. The results of the study revealed (1) continuing motivation of distance learning model consists of 4 elements under learning environment context; before action review, project operation, assistance, and learning outcome which divided into 2 periods – Pre-project engaging and On-project engaging period and (2) the assessment of continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces was statically significant with the mean value of 4.44 and standard deviation at 0.66.

Academic research paper on topic "Development of Continuing Motivation via Distance Learning Model in Unrest Southernmost Provinces, Thailand"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 (2015) 2616 - 2621

INTE 2014

Development of continuing motivation via distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces, Thailand

Monton Pholboona*, Wuttisak Pochanukula, Juta Tammacharta, Kittisak Na Badalunga

aFaculty of Education, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani 94000 Thailand

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces of Thailand. The research objectives consist of; (1) to synthesize continuing motivation pattern of distance learning model in unrest area and (2) to verify continuing motivation pattern of distance learning model in unrest area. Focus group discussion in distance classroom was performed for data collecting. Concept synthesizing involved document and examining format quality by experts. Quantitative research was used for data analysis; induction conclusion and quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation.

The results of the study revealed (1) continuing motivation of distance learning model consists of 4 elements under learning environment context; before action review, project operation, assistance, and learning outcome which divided into 2 periods - Pre-project engaging and On-project engaging period and (2) the assessment of continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces was statically significant with the mean value of 4.44 and standard deviation at 0.66.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

Keywords: Continuing Motivation, Distance learning, Unrest Southernmost Provinces;

1. Introduction

Human being has learning and developing ability, this continuous learning process establishes learning capacity which could turn to such a great outcome by individual knowledge awareness, proper context, and self-directed learning.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +66869670600. E-mail address:leemonton@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.941

Teaching context is support self-directed learning along with keeping level of continuing motivation of learners. Maehr (1976), stated that the motivation is very important in all kind of education. In addition, he called an unceasingly "eager to know" behavior as "Continuing Motivation". Continuing motivation encourages learner to see the need of gaining their knowledge in order to survive in society and to be capable of thriving in the world of constant change.

Continuing motivation in human development must be considered. Brockett and Hiemstra (1991) mentioned about components that effected continuing motivation of self-directed learning that it is consist of personal responsibility, self-direction learner, self-directed learning, and social context. Self- direct learning is the process that each learner can engage in what he/she really subjects in. Once the learner becomes self-direct learner, he/she could function and be responsible in his/her learning achievement. The relationship between learner and learning process reflects the wellness of continuing motivation. Also, it is a vital factor in designing the learning process in order to develop learner's effective learning ability.

2. The purpose of study

The main purpose of study is to develop continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces, Thailand. The minor purposes are (1) to examine related factor in establishing continuing motivation of distance learning model from opinion of student in unrest southernmost provinces, Thailand and (2) to synthesize continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces, Thailand

3. The scope of study

The researchers started from examining related factor in establishing continuing motivation of distance learning model from students' opinion in unrest southernmost provinces which covered 4 keystones; the reasons to engage in the project, the expectation toward the project, learning achievement factor, and unceasingly distance learning factor. The outcome would be synthesizes with self-directed learning concept and continuing motivation concept.

Continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces had included nine standard quality checks; analysis of context and minor detail, model and minor detail designing, model procedure plotting, pre-project planning, on-project, assistance, project outcome, motivation on project, and appropriateness model in general.

4. Research Methodology

The study was the combination of quantitative and qualitative research. It was consisted of 2 steps; the study of related factors of continuing motivation in distance learning and the synthesis of continuing motivation in distance learning. The processes are;

4.1. The study of related factors of continuing motivation in distance learning model

The sample was selected from grade 12 students in 5 distances classroom, 9 students from each classroom, be the total of 45 students to focus on group discussion, analyze contents, and create inductive conclusion.

4.2. The synthesis of continuing motivation in distance learning model

The outcome of focus group discussion would be synthesized along with self-directed learning concept and continuing motivation characteristic. The evaluation was done by experts and used standardize development contained a 5-item rate scale questionnaire (4.51-5.00 Exemplary, 3.51-4.50 Mature, 2.51-3.50 Competent, 1.512.50 Developing, 1.00-1.50 Basic).

5. Research findings

The study on related factors of continuing motivation in distance learning model to students' opinions were founded 4 results: the student's encouraging to attend project is students' need of higher education entrance exam; the student expectation towards program is the variety of exam samples that the students can use for practicing before attending higher education entrance exam; the most important factor that indicates the achievement of distance learning is learner's factor; program classification, determination, diligence, patience, attempt, and participation; and the factor that encourages unceasingly distances learning the most is facility; fully equipped facilities and well learning environment in a classroom.

The synthesis of continuing motivation in distance learning in unrest southernmost provinces were founded from the discussion that; continuing motivation is a tendency that learner will retrospect to continue working on his/her interest which has never been in same context before, this happened from inner self interest without any external influence. Self-directed Learning is process that the learner has to decide what he/she needs to learn, aims for an achievement, selects learning method, and evaluate progress with/without assistance. The determination of self-directed learning component used the PRO Model of Brockett and Hiemstra (1991) was consisted of 4 components; personal responsibility, self-direction learner, self-directed learning, and social context

Continuing motivation was designed as: INPUT-learner has the goal of educational achievement, acknowledge his/her own ability, self-controlled and motivated, eager to know, be responsible and pay attention, be determined and patient. Teacher has to be friendly, knows how to contribute and extend idea, how to carry out proper contents, and how to find out creative way to introduce students the classroom activities to engage in sustained motivation of their own; public relations should be well arranged; reach the target learner, classified learner according to their program, preparing text, teaching note and distribute before hand, teacher assistant should standby to serve in distance classroom; factors in society (school and household) should be tarried and supportive; Internet system, equipment, and tools should be efficient and useful. PROCESS-Public Relations should be done before starting project to encourage student to participate. The need and achievement have to be indicated, the activities should be used to urge the students to consider their own target and make an agreement with teacher on learning premise; activity schedule is prepared and distributed, including pre-test to recognize the presence of student condition, in order to establish activity participation; Classroom motivation can be arranged to create good learning atmosphere among students by applying praise and reward in group and on-line activities; Content summary must be compiled after every single class and interconnection between distance schools should be set up to collaborate in term of learning network. OUTPUT-leaning achievement is number of students enters in higher education institute as they demanded.

Continuing motivation in distance learning model is divided into 4 sections; (1) Pre-preparation: Before action review consists of 4 components; Management: Project owner has to engage in good public relations, program classification, text preparation and distribution, classroom schedule planning, and teacher assistance arrangement; Leaning Resources: Communication system and method have to be directed and widespread to learner either at school or home. Equipment and facilities have to be well organized and effective; Teacher: He/she has to be friendly, knows how to contribute and extend idea, how to carry out proper contents, and how to find out creative way to introduce students the classroom activities to engage in sustained motivation of their own; Learner: Learner has set the goal of educational achievement, acknowledge his/her own ability, self-controlled and motivated, eager to know, be responsible and pay attention, be determined and patient including prepared himself/herself to be skillful in internet and distance learning. (2) Procedure could be divided into 3 stages; establishing awareness could be done by Public Relations to encourage student to participate. The need and achievement have to be indicated, the activities should be used to urge the students to consider their own target and make an agreement with teacher on learning premise; instructional planning could be arranged by notifying activity schedules, distributing text and related content, evaluating student's presence of condition, establishing activity participation, summarizing, and winning the exam; learning assessment is a must in considering of knowledge, attitude, and learning satisfaction. (3) Assistance is set for offering help to learner to achieve highest capacity and quality through internet network; Retrospective teaching tool is to note all teaching activities and plan for the absentee to review the missing lesson. Revision teaching tool is to summarize important part of teaching activities for the student to revise after class. Assistance and inquiry service is set to be a channel of communication for learner to get any necessary aid.

Learning Network is set to intercommunicate between distance learning school in exchanging of knowledge and activities. And (4) Learning Outcome is the result the learner would acquire from project such as Ordinary National Educational Test score and university entrance exam result.

Continuing motivation of Distance Learning System Model in Unrest Southernmost Provinces could be summarized as chart shown in Figure 1

Fig. 1. Continuing Motivation of Distance Learning System Model

The report of continuing motivation appropriateness (see Table 1) that was approved by experts was found that it was quite fully appropriate (mature). The minor detail of context analysis, the assistance, are filed in exemplary level (creatively appropriateness) etc.

6. Finding Conclusion

Development of continuing motivation of distance learning model in unrest southernmost provinces consists of (1) Before action review (2) Project Operation (3) Assistance, and (4) Outcome. Before action review is pre-learning process in term of learner, teacher, management, and resources in accordance with Keller's concept (1999 cited in Balaban-Sali, 2008) which giving significance not less than other processes. It is the process of learner's information analysis to identify learner characteristic; Learner skill, attitude, background, motivation, and related factor. These can lead to distinct learning achievement and outcome. Project operation is the management of learning process as prescribed plan according to course description by using proper learning activities analyzed since before action review stage. Project operation creates learner's positive inquiring attitude. Apart from individual continuingmotivation, the relationship between lesson and learner is also very important because it establishes positive attitude toward value of education and promotes the character of "eager to know" which results in continuing motivation at last (Malone, 1981 cited in Kinzie, 1990). Assistance is the supportive process to create

Table 1. The report of continuing motivation appropriateness

outcome

Descriptions X S.D. level

1. Analysis of context and minor detail 4.80 0.45 Exemplary

2. Model and minor detail designing 4.60 0.55 Exemplary

3. Model procedure plotting 4.40 0.55 Mature

4. Pre-project planning 4.00 0.71 Mature

5. On-Project 4.40 0.55 Mature

6. Assistance 4.60 0.55 Exemplary

7. Project outcome 4.20 1.30 Mature

8. Motivation on project 4.20 0.84 Mature

9. Appropriateness model in general 4.80 0.45 Exemplary

Summary 4.44 0.66 Mature

effective learning. Assistance system in distance learning is very important due to distance learning is non-face to face system which reflected less two-way communication. Learner cannot get advice service on real-time; absentee would be difficult to follow up past lesson and could be the cause of retirement. Outcome is the model pointed on learner's creative ability, learner's value toward education, subject to achieve the learner's objective, self selective method which Brockett and Hiemstra (1991) stated about this characteristic as self-directed learning which encourages learner to gain the educational awareness and be responsible to his/her decision towards education. The learner would have characteristic "eager to know" which this model is a supportive tool to establish this character.

7. Recommendations

The findings indicated that the development of continuing motivation of distance learning system model in unrest southernmost provinces could be applied in 2 stages; Pre-project (before action review) and on-project (project operation) as shown in Figure 2:

Pre-project

Acknowledge information

On-project

Pre-class activities □ In-class activities H Post class activities

■ ■

- PR, encourage participation

- Notify objectives

- Text and content

Introduction - Lesson revision video

- Estoblish relationhip - Knowledge

- Revise former competition

lesson/knowledge - Inquiry

■ - Learning network

Teaching

- Remarkable content

- Teaching techniques

- Instructional media

and tool

- Classroom activities

Conclusion

- Knowledge summary

- Applying

- Exam winning tip

Fig. 2. Application guideline of continuing motivation of distance learning system model for educational development in unrest southernmost provinces

8. References

Balaban-Sali, J. (2008). Designing motivational learning systems in distance education. The Turkish Online Journal oof Distance Education, 9 (3)

Article 13.

Boonumpai, T. (1997). The development of distance tutorial system via electronic mail for Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. Thesis Ph.D, Chulalongkorn university.

Bosch, H. (2004). ICT: driving force behind competency-based distance learning. Paper presented at the Open Universities. National models for a European model; International conference by the Italian Chamber of Deputies, Rome.

Brocket, R. G. and Hiemstra, R. (1991 ). Self-Direction in Adult Learning. New York: Routledge.

Bruenger, S. (2009). School-wide goal environment and continuing motivation in music. [online].Available

from:http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5 &hid=107 &sid=b4e2bab 5-31f5-439c-9d77194fc7485bbe%40sessionmgr 15&bdata =JnN pdGU9ZWhv c3QtbGl2Z Q%3d%3d#db=ehh&AN=38120554 [2010, February 11]

Burghstahler, S. (2003). Design and implementation of web-enabled teaching tools. Hershey : IGI Publishing.

Chansri, C. (2000). A Study of Classroom Motivational Strategies oofEnglish Language Teachers at the Lower Secondary Education Level in Schools under the Department of General Education, Bangkok Metropolis. Thesis M.Ed., Chulalongkorn University.

Donlevy, J. (2000). Online learning in virtual high school. International Journal of Instructional Media, 30 (2), 117-122.

Falowo, R. O. (2007). Factors impeding implementation of web-based distance learning. Association for the Advancement oof Computing In Education Journal, 15(3), 315-338. Chesapeake : VA.

Kanasawat, J. (2003). Effects of using learning contract in e-Learning system upon achievement motivation and learning achievement oof undergraduate students with different levels ofprior knowledge in foundations oof computer for education subject. Thesis M.Ed., Chulalongkorn university.

Keller, J.M. (2006). What is motivational design?. [online]. Available from:

http://arcsmodel.com/pdf/Motivational%20Design%20Rev%20060620.pdf [2010, February 11]

Kinzie, M. B. (1990). Requirements and Benefits of Effective Interactive Instruction: Learner Control, Self-Regulation, and Continuing Motivation. Educational Technology Research & Development, 35(1), pp. 5-21

Koohang, A. & Durante, A. (2003). Learners'Perceptions toward the Web-based Distance Learning Activities/Assignments Portion of an Undergraduate Hybrid Instructional Model. Journal Information Technology Education, 2, pp.106-113

Maehr, M.L. (1976). Continuing Motivation: An Analysis of a seldom Considered Educational Outcome, Review of Educational Research, 46, pp. 443-462.

Mazza, R. (2004). Using information visualisation to facilitate instructors in web-based distance learning. Université della Svizzera italiana.

Picciano, A.G. (2001). Distance Learning: Making Connections Across Virtual Space and Time. New York : Simon & Schuster Prentice-Hall.

Rao, S., (2006). Distance education and the role of IT in India. The Electronic Library, 24 (3), pp. 225-236.

Reiser R.A. & Demsey J.V. (2002). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. New Jersey : Merrill Prentice Hall.

Sangwong, S. (1999). A development of the program for developing continuing motivation for mathayom suksa one students. Thesis M.Ed., Chulalongkorn university.

Srisa-arn, W. (1986). Distance education. Nonthaburi : Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University.

Wong, L. F., & Trinidad, S. G. (2004). Using Web-based distance learning to reduce cultural distance. The Journal of Interactive Distance Online Learning, 3(1), pp. 1-13