Scholarly article on topic 'The Relationship Between the Desired Disciplinary Behavior and Family Functioning Locus of Control and Self Esteem among High School Students in Cities of Tehran province'

The Relationship Between the Desired Disciplinary Behavior and Family Functioning Locus of Control and Self Esteem among High School Students in Cities of Tehran province Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Family communication patterns" / "Conversation orientation" / "Conformity orientation & Quality of life"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Mina Zarnaghash

Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the considering of the Family communication patterns and their dimensions effect on quality of life. The research sample include of 100 students, who have been selected randomly of Shiraz Payam-e-Noor University. The measurement tools were family Patterns Revised Questionnaire (Koerner & Fitzpatrick, 2002) and quality of life scale (Felengon, 1978). Cronbach,s Alpha was calculated to determine the reliability of the questionnaires. Data was analyzed by dependent t-test and Pearson correlation. Result of dependent- samples T-test shows that Family communication patterns and their dimensions has a significant influence on the quality of life (p<0.001).

Academic research paper on topic "The Relationship Between the Desired Disciplinary Behavior and Family Functioning Locus of Control and Self Esteem among High School Students in Cities of Tehran province"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

SciVerse ScienceDirect PfOCSCl ¡0

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 2463 - 2467

WCPCG-2011

The Relationship Between the Desired Disciplinary Behavior and Family Functioning Locus of Control and self esteem among high school students in cities of Tehran province

Mina Zarnaghash a *

c M.A in Psychology Department Rahhbar educational technology research group Faculty member, Shiraz,IRAN

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the considering of the Family communication patterns and their dimensions effect on quality of life. The research sample include of 100 students, who have been selected randomly of Shiraz Payam-e-Noor University. The measurement tools were family Patterns Revised Questionnaire (Koerner & Fitzpatrick, 2002 ) and quality of life scale ( Felengon , 1978). Cronbachs Alpha was calculated to determine the reliability of the questionnaires. Data was analyzed by dependent t-test and Pearson correlation. Result of dependent- samples T-test shows that Family communication patterns and their dimensions has a significant influence on the quality of life (p<0.001).

© 2011Published by ElsevierLtd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance.

Keywords: Family communication patterns, Conversation orientation, Conformity orientation& Quality of life

1. Introduction

Increasing modifications and complexities in our societies and increasing mechanization of our lives has made it nearly impossible to see an individual who is virtually and consciously enjoying his/her life in peace. How may we live in a better way? What is the mystery behind prosperity and happiness? Man has long been seeking an answer to these questions. Sociologists and behaviorists are striving to find the answer and to come to the desirable end. Prosperity, positive thinking, job satisfaction, and finally, a prosperous society all include some of these desirable ends which can be reached within the frameworks of positive psychology. Literally, positive psychology refers to the scientific study of typical advantages and perfections (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). The purpose of positive psychology is the realization of a shift in psychology from merely dealing with the recovery of damages towards optimizing the quality of life (Snyder and Lopez, 2002). Family is one of the most effective parameters for the quality of life (Fitzpatrick and Ritchie, 1994; McLeod & Chaffee, 1972; cited in Kooroshnia, 2006). Family is defined as a legislating system whose members are frequently redefining the nature of their relationships based on a communicative pattern. The conceptualization of the work primarily done by McLeod and Chaffee (1972; cited in Kooroshnia, 2006), has revealed two fundamental aspects of "conversation orientation" and "conformity orientation" in the family communication patterns. Quality of life is one of the most fundamental concepts in positive psychology. Due to the significant and inclusive scope of Quality of Life in Positive Psychology, the factors affecting this concept have been widely explored. Among social factors, the role of family and the way the members communicate with each other seems crucial to the Quality of life. Considering the significance of quality of life and

ELSEVIER

* Mina zarnaghash. Tel.: 00989171191012; fax: 00987117302619. E-mail address : mina.zarnaghash@yahoo .com.

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology,

Counselling and Guidance.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.481

Mine Zamaghash/Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 2462- 2467

the factors affecting it, researchers have tried to identify the family communication patterns, as factors affecting quality of life (Koerner & Fitzpatrick, 2004), and they have identified two fundamental dimensions of conversation orientation and conformity orientation.

The most basic aspect of family communications is the situation of conversation and dialogue. By conversation situation, we mean the extent to which the families provide the opportunity for all family members to be motivated to involve freely and voluntarily in interactions and discussions on a wide range of topics. In families with plenty opportunities for conversation, family members will freely, frequently and spontaneously interact with each other.

Another key aspect of family communications is the situation of conformity. Conformity situation refers to the extent the family communications focus on the similarity of attitudes, values and beliefs. Highly-conformed families focus on the similarity of beliefs and attitudes in their interactions. Their interactions are oriented towards conformity, avoiding conflicts, and interdependency of the family members (Fitzpatrick & Ritchie, 1994).

Combination of these two aspects forms four Family Communications Schemas, called "Family Communication Patterns" (Koerner & Fitzpatrick, 1997, 2002). Every pattern describes a certain type of families. These four types of patterns or families result from the combination of high or low conditions on the continuums of conversation aspect and conformity aspect and they include: Consensual Families, Pluralist Families, Protective Families, and Laissez-Faire families.

In their studies on the relation between Family Communications Patterns and Family Social Protection, as the best indicator of emotional issues in the adolescents and the youth, Koerner & Maki (2004; cited in Kooroshnia 2006) concluded that the conformity orientation and family social protection are negatively correlated, and the negative correlation between the conformity orientation and social protection is more observable, when there is little conversation. On the other hand, low levels of social protection are related to higher levels of anxiety and stress. Scientists agree that the concept of quality of life always consists of these four aspects: Physical, psychological, social and medical health.

For the first aspect of quality of life, i.e. physicals health, observations reveal that health status of individual is widely influenced by social stimuli (House et al, 1994; cited in Wickrama et al, 2001, cited in Kooroshnia 2006).

Considering the second aspect of quality of life, i.e. psychological health, Brooks (1997) believes that children in families with a high level of conversation feel that their parents do understand them and care about them. As a result, they will be self-esteemed. A high frequency of conversation will result in loving one another, minding the emotion and affection of others, being responsible, being skillful in solving the problems, and finally the improvement of independence.

The studies of Lonbech (2004) on the third aspect of the quality of life, i.e. social relationships, reveal that the goals and expectations of mothers indicate the social behaviors of children. Moreover, the parent-child relationships are strong indicators for social relationships and sensitivities of the children. There are evidences that underline the role of early life experiences in social growth in the future (Moos, 1983; Rutter, 1980; cited in Taylor, 1998, cited in Kooroshnia 2006).

About the fourth aspect of quality of life, i.e. medical aspect, Camborne (1998) and Stark, Humphrey, Crook & Lopez (1990; cited in Camborne, 1998) have concluded in their studies that the families with anxious and sick children consider their living environment weaker as compared to the control group.

Mirrn Zamaghcgh/ Procedía - S oc íal andBehavioralSciences 30 (2011)2463- 2467

2. Methodology

This study is a correlation-based one and the statistical population includes the students of Shiraz Payam-e-Noor University, i.e. 100 students, who have been selected randomly and studied as the experimental group.

Instrumentation:

Family Patterns Revised Questionnaire (conversation orientation and conformity orientation) (Koerner & Fitzpatrick, 2002) has been utilized in this study. This questionnaire includes 26 propositions on the communication situation of the family and the respondents state their agreement and disagreement with the proposition. Each proposition consists of 5 options where the option of "strongly agree" gains score 4 and "strongly disagree" gains score 0. The studies on the reliability of this instrument reveals the Cronbach's alpha to be 0.89 for the conversation orientation, and 0.79 for conformity orientation, and the reliability coefficient in a test-retest method is 0.99.

Short-scale evaluation of quality of life is Felengon (1978, cited in Zarnaghash, 2009). It includes 6 questions that evaluate the quality of 6 aspects among different aspects of life. These include: family life, friendly relationships, daily experiences, self-satisfaction, life, and living environment. Every item includes a 7-option Likert scale ranging from "very good" to "very bad". Score 7 is given to "very good" and score 1 to "very bad". Felengon (1978; cited in Zarnaghash: 2009). The Alpha coefficient obtained in this scale is 0.81.

The data of this study were analyzed by SPSS. In this regard, first the descriptive indicators for the variables were extracted, and finally the questions were tested.

Findings:

Mean and standard deviation (SD) obtained in this study can be observed in table 1 and Correlation Matrix of variables is presented in table 2.

Table 1. Mean and standard deviation for variables

Variables Mean SD

Quality of Life 30.26 7.36

Conversation Orientation 36.73 11.22

Conformity Orientation 18.01 9.59

Communication Patterns 54.74 13.30

Table 2. Correlation Matrix of Variables

Variables 1 2 3 4

1) Quality of Life 1

2) Conversation Orientation * 0.27 1

3) Conformity Orientation ** -0.40 -0.19 1

_4) Communication Patterns_-0.15_** 0.71_** 0.56_1

** P<0.001

* P<0.05

A dependent t-test is used to investigate the role of conversation orientation on quality of life, the results of which are presented in table 3.

Table 3. The results of dependent t-test for studying the role of conversation orientation in the quality of life

Mina Zarrrnghash/Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 2463 - 2467

Variables N Mean SD df t P< Conversation Orientation 100 36.73 11.21 qq ... 0 „„„. _Quality of Life_100_3021_6.37_99_

Considering this table, it can be concluded that conversation orientation has a significant influence on the quality of life (p<0.001).

A dependent t-test was used to investigate the role of conformity in the quality of life, the results of which are presented in table 4.

Table 4. The results of dependent t-test for studying the role of conformity orientation in the quality of life

Variables N Mean SD df t P<

Conformity Orientation 100 18.73 9.58 „„ „ „,

„ ,AA cm qq -9.06 0.0001

_Quality of Life_100_30.21_6.37_

Referring to this table, it can be concluded that the conformity orientation has a significant role in the quality of life (p<0.001).

The results of the study on the role of family communication patterns in a dependent t-test method are presented in table 5.

Table 5. The results of dependent t-test for studying the role of family communication patterns on the quality of life

Variables N Mean SD df t P<

Family Communication Patterns 100 54.74 13.30 „„ . - „

1-4. fTf inn inoc cm 99 15.69 0.0001 _Quality of Life_100_30.26_6.37_

Referring to this table, it can be concluded that the family communication patterns have a significant relation with the quality of life, as p<0.0001.

3. Conclusion and Discussion

Married life is one of the most universal human foundations and it consists of two individuals with different abilities and potentials as well as needs and interests. Disturbed relationships of the spouses endanger the health of family members and as a result the health of the community. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the role of family communication patterns in the quality of life.

The results of this study reveal that family communication patterns have positive significant effects on the quality of life. A review of the analyses reveals the role of family trainings and breeding on the quality of life. Rutter (1988; cited in Taylor, 1998) states that desirable family relationships are related to the high self-esteem and positive communications with friends at adolescence. The study of child-breeding styles also reveals that the parents who utilize strict patterns will breed children who have problems in their relationships with peers and aggressive behaviors (Crokenberg, Jackson, Langrook, 1996; cited in Easer et al, 2005). The results of the studies on the role of different aspects of family communication patterns (conversation orientation and conformity orientation) show the significant role of these two aspects in the quality of life. Laria, Stuart, Frye, Lyidiard & Ballenger (1994) also state that anxious and stressful women perceive their living environment more negatively than the control group. On the other hand, these studies have previously revealed that conversation orientation indicates the anxiety negatively and conformity orientation indicates it positively (All cited in Rahimi, 2007).

MimzZamaghash / Procedia- Sоcial andBeluivioralSciences 30 (2011)2463- 2467

On the relation between the conformity and psychological health, as an aspect of quality of life, the studies verify that those parents who use strict patterns will have children with more communication problems with their peers, aggressive behaviors, low educational level, higher anxiety and depression and lower self-esteem (Curtner-Smith, Bennett & O'Rear, 1995).

References

-Eiser, C., Eiser, J.R., Mayhew, A.G. & Gibson, A.T. (2005). Poregtisa the premature infant: Balancing vulnerability and quality of life, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 11, 1169-1177.

-Fitzpatrick, M.A. & Ritchie, L.D. (1994). Communication schemata within the family: Multiple perspectives on family interaction, Human Communication Research, 20 , 275-301.

-Fitzpatrick, M.A. (2004). The family communication patters/ theory: Observations on its development and application,The Journal of Family Communication, 4 , 167-179.

-Koerner, AF, Fitzpatrick MA. (2002). Ugderothgdiga family communication pattern/ and family functioning: The roles of conversation orientation and conformity orientation communication year book; 28: 32.

-Koerner, AF, Fitzpatrick MA.( 2002). You never leave you family in a fight : the impact of family of origin on conflict behavior in Romanic relationships. Communication Studies, 53: 234-51.

-Koerner. F & Maki, L. (2004). Family communication pattern/ and social support in families of origin and adult children/ subsequent intimate relationship/, Paper presented at the International Association for Relationship Research Conference, Madison, WI, July, 22-25.

-Kooroshnia, M. (2006) The Study of the role of the Aspect/ of Family Communication Pattern/ in the Level of Children/ Psychological Adjustment, MA Thesis of Shiraz University.

-Rahimi M. jowkar B.( 2008J. Study of the effect of family communication pattern/ on happiness in a group of high school student/ in Shiraz. Iranian J Psychiatry and clinical psychology; 13(4): 376-84.

-Seligman MEP.( 2002)..Positive psychology , positive prevention , and positive therapy. In: Snyder CR, Lopez CJ(editors). Handbook of positive psychology. 3nded. New York : Oxford; 256-284 .

-Zarnaghash, M. (2009) The Study of mediatory role of Marital relationship for Family Need/ and Spiritual Wellbeing, MA Thesis of Shiraz University.