Scholarly article on topic 'Planning of Sustainable Tourism Development'

Planning of Sustainable Tourism Development Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Katerina Angelevska-Najdeska, Gabriela Rakicevik

Abstract In striving to prevent disorderly tourism development, in order to successfully overcome the daily changes that occur in turbulent surrounding, planning of sustainable tourism development occurs as the only way to do it successfully. So, sustainable development refers to the use without exploitation of natural, cultural and all other tourist resources from the current generation, it means to preserve them for future use by future generations. Since the development of tourism in a certain area largely dependent on natural and anthropogenic attractiveness which are located in the surrounding, the practicing of sustainable development gets more and more important. In case these resources to be destroyed or degraded, the attractiveness of the destination is reduced as well, but also leads into question for development of tourism in this region, because potential tourists are interested in visiting attractive and clean destinations which offer services with high quality. However, the environment that has no attributes of a quality environment is not only unattractive to tourists, but in that environment do not feel comfortable and domestic population. Planning of sustainable tourism development actually concerns planning of preserve the environment, and it encompasses a variety of research and analysis before making a decision on any determination of the direction of development. All these activities are done in order not to allow intensive exploitation of resources in some specific areas, without care about the preservation of resources.

Academic research paper on topic "Planning of Sustainable Tourism Development"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 44 (2012) 210 - 220 —

Conference Title

Planning of sustainable tourism development

Katerina Angelevska-Najdeskaa*, Gabriela Rakicevikb

aFaculty of tourism and hospitality-Ohrid, Kej Marsal Tito 95, Ohrid, R.Macedonia bFaculty of tourism and hospitality-Ohrid, Kej Marsal Tito 95, Ohrid, R.Macedonia

Abstract

In striving to prevent disorderly tourism development, in order to successfully overcome the daily changes that occur in turbulent surrounding, planning of sustainable tourism development occurs as the only way to do it successfully.

So, sustainable development refers to the use without exploitation of natural, cultural and all other tourist resources from the current generation, it means to preserve them for future use by future generations.

Since the development of tourism in a certain area largely dependent on natural and anthropogenic attractiveness which are located in the surrounding, the practicing of sustainable development gets more and more important. In case these resources to be destroyed or degraded, the attractiveness of the destination is reduced as well, but also leads into question for development of tourism in this region, because potential tourists are interested in visiting attractive and clean destinations which offer services with high quality. However, the environment that has no attributes of a quality environment is not only unattractive to tourists, but in that environment do not feel comfortable and domestic population.

Planning of sustainable tourism development actually concerns planning of preserve the environment, and it encompasses a variety of research and analysis before making a decision on any determination of the direction of development.

All these activities are done in order not to allow intensive exploitation of resources in some specific areas, without care about the preservation of resources.

© 20122 Published by Elsevier IB .V. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the Facuity of Tourism and Hospitality

sustainable development, sustainable tourism, planning, attractiveness, destination

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +389 71 365 500; fax: +389 46 262 147. E-mail address: k_angel_naj@yahoo.co.uk

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of the Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.022

1. Introduction

The concept of sustainable tourism development involves balanced economic, social and cultural development without endangering the environment, which enables the development of the same or higher level. Sustainable development is a process that allows development to be achieved without degradation or depletion of those resources on which it is based. That, generally speaking, can be accomplished or resource management so that they can renewal the extent and used, or with greater representation and use of resources in which the regeneration period is short. This approach, resources can be used in future to the same extent as the current generation. (UNEP, 1994)

The concept of sustainable development is based on four basic principles, namely:

■ The principle of environmental sustainability, which provides development to be compatible with the maintenance of vital ecological processes, biological diversity and biological resources,

■ Principle of social sustainability, providing development be compatible by traditional values of a community, while adding strengthening of their identity,

■ The principle of sustainability, provides cultural development to be compatible with the cultural values of human community, which also has an impact on the strengthening of their identity,

■ The principle of sustainability--economic development to provide a cost effective and resource to be managed in a way they can use and future generations.

The concept of sustainable tourism development involves more dimensions showing the relationship of economic, social and cultural development and its compliance with the needs and constraints of the environment.

2. Sustainable development planning

Planning for sustainable tourism development actually refers to environmental preservation planning and as such includes a variety of research activities and analysis prior to the decision for determining the direction of the development. All these activities are undertaken in order to prevent from the intensive use of resources in some specific areas, without previous care for the preservation of the resources.

According to Hall, sustainable development as well as the previously used term 'conservation' obviously attempts to review the conflicting value positions in terms of the environment. The author describes sustainable development as an 'essentially disputed concept'b. Sustainable development (and its sequel sustainable tourism) could be understood differently from everyone, and is easily accepted by any group.c According to some authors, this concept is seen as the development and intensification of tourism, while others understand this concept as an alternative tourism and counteract to the development of mass tourism.

b Hall, C. (1998): Historical antecedents on sustainable development: New labels on old bottles?, In Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective (C.M. Hall and A.A. Law, eds), Longman

c Romeril, M. (1994): Alternative tourism: the real tourism alternative? In Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Vol. 6, (C. Cooper and A. Lockwood, eds) Wiley

Soft strategies for sustainable development, in terms of planning and management, are applied in modified environments such as urban centres where the absence of intact natural environment makes the environmental protection an irrelevant factor regarding that highly developed tourism activities do not necessarily cause stress in the social and natural environment. The same applies to the mass degraded or modified rural areas, where the development of tourist activity may cause a significant improvement of the status quo in terms of environmental protection.

Large hotels and theme parks belong to those kinds of tourist activities where soft strategies of sustainable tourism development could be applied, emphasizing the development component considering that they are under the platform for tourism support.

This approach is in strong contrast to the strategies of sustainable tourism for which Hunter believes that are applicable for relatively intact natural and cultural environment where even a small increase in tourist activity can result in unacceptable social and cultural damage to the natural environment. Accordingly, the precautionary principle or the idea that any action should be avoided if the consequences are unknown highlights the sustained component of sustainable development and which is compatible with the basic platform of adaptation and caution. In some extreme cases, it would mean forbidding all of the tourist activities in some areas. In areas where development of tourism is allowed some alternative options, such as the small scale ecotourism, is usually preferred.d

The indicators of sustainable tourism are variables that could be measured and monitored for detecting the changing status of a particular phenomenon, and represent tools for gathering new information through which existing information can be filtered. This new body of compressed necessary information facilitates the identification of trends and threats and allows for undertaking the appropriate actions.

According to WTO (1996)e, the indicators measure the information and through which decisions makers could reduce the chances of making the wrong decisions. Although in theory it sounds elegant, the strategy for sustainable tourism based upon the indicators is complicated due to the selection process, the measurement, monitoring and evaluation of the set of relevant variables.

Planning and sustainable development can be analyzed from two aspects, namely:f

• in terms of the local community

• in terms of the concept of the quality of tourism

The local community must be involved in the planning process and the development of tourism, especially when it comes to the development of those segments of the tourist community which will bring benefits for the community. Such planning approach should be applied locally.

d Hunter, C. (1997): Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm, Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 850-67

e WTO (1996): What Tourism Managers need to Know: A Practical Guide to the Development and Use of Indicators of Sustainable Tourism

f Magas, D. (2003): Management tourist organizations and destinations, University of Rijeka, Faculty of tourist and hotel management-Opatija, Opatija

The concept of quality in tourism means successful development of the marketing aspect, but also benefits the local population and the environment.

The high quality tourism does not necessarily involve expensive tourism, but a good attitude towards the value of money, keeping the tourist resources and the respect for the local environment which is the responsibility of both the public and the private sector. This concept must be involved in the planning, development and management of tourism.

The planning process of sustainable tourism development, and thus the process of making travel plans, goes through several steps. According to Inskeep these steps are: preparation, setting goals, examination of all elements, analysis and synthesis, formulation of plans and policies, formulation of recommendations and other implementation and monitoring application.®

The first step in the planning process is the careful preparation which is a guide through the entire planning process, and hence relates to the guidelines formulation, selection of team for conducting research, as well as formation of committees for controlling and organizing activities during the preparation of the study.

The next step concerns the determination of objectives for tourist development. Bearing in mind the fact that the successfulness of the goals' setting depends on the final results and effects of tourist development, one must know that approaching to this activity should be take really seriously. During the goal setting the specific areas that are of special significance for the development of tourism should be taken into consideration, while and on the other hand the need for cooperation with the government or the local community should not be neglected in order to avoid the divergence of the set goals with the goals at national or local level.

One of the most important moments of this research is the tourist activities and attractions. It is necessary to categorize these attractions by type, and to rate them depending on their availability, prospect for marketing trends development, or creation of a brand destination alongside the other factors. These activities are undertaken in order to attract as many potential tourists.

Then, the need for carrying out qualitative and quantitative analysis and synthesis is perceived. The synthesis includes combination and integration of various components of a particular analysis, for clear understanding of the situation.

The formulation of policies for tourist development and the preparation of the structural plan itself are the next steps in the planning process. The most suitable approach in the formulation of plans and policies is the preparation of alternative scenarios for development and the evaluation of their ability for achieving the objectives. Determining the optimal economic benefit, encouraging positive and minimizing negative environmental impact and socio-cultural environment, competition with other tourist destinations describes this approach. Based on the adopted estimates for the offered alternatives the best policy is selected.

g Inskeep, E. (1994): Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable Development Approach, Van Nostrand Reinhold

After the analysis, synthesis and element's evaluation, conclusions and recommendations may be adopted. For most of the recommendations, prior analysis of the alternatives and determination of the best one is highly recommended.

Implementation and monitoring of implementation is the final step in the planning process.

In the decision making process it is important to pay attention to the practical applicability of the plans. During the application period it is necessary to supervise the development of tourism in order to determine the achievement of goals and recommendations. With surveillance (monitoring) all of the problems that will arise during the implementation of the plan could be easily identified, and some adequate measures for resolving of the problems can be undertake, before it becomes even more serious.

In addition a SWOT analysis is given. In the process of analysis, analytics and planning as priorities in the field of tourism arose:

1. Improving the quality of the existing and construction of new infrastructure;

2. Institutional strengthening and human resource development;

3. Branding the city of Ohrid as a tourist destination;

4. Defining tourist offers and products and proper promotion and presentation.

Table 1. SWOT analysis

A. Strengths: What should be done for keeping the strengths: Priorities:

• Ohrid is part of the • Maintenance of the status of Ohrid

world's natural and cultural heritage under - the city of UNESCO

the patronage of UNESCO, • preservation, promotion and

• The Ohrid Lake utilization of natural-geographical

• The proximity to the Prespa Lake conditions and their incorporation

in the development of tourism

• Favorable geographical position of border- • Preserving and promoting cultural

zone, Euro region,

and historical landmarks and their

• Rich and diverse natural resources, use in tourism development,

• Spatial and biological • Development of tourism

diversity, rich biodiversity infrastructure and tourist offer

• abundance of endemic flora and fauna, • Utilization of human resources in • Improving the quality of the

• Favorable climate (large number of sunny d the field of tourism, and their existing and construction of

ays, wind, clean air) training and professionalism in the new infrastructure

tourism businesses

• Favorable altitude

• Environmental clean Environment • Organized approach in promoting

tourism through tourist authorities,

• Rich forests, institutions and associations

• National park Galicica • Develop different types of tourism,

• A large number of (lake, environmental, hunting,

objects of cultural significance, sacred (rel recreation, rural, health care ..)

igious facilities), cultural and • Improve the quality of existing and

historical monuments building new infrastructure

• Cultural, sports and religious events, • retention and promotion of interest

• Vital, vibrant, preserved rural areas with tra in tourist visits from the countries

ditional lifestyle

Traditionally hospitable spirit of the local population,

Rich traditional crafts,

Rich traditional dishes with environmental ly clean products

Existing facilities: hotels,

private accommodations, catering supply,

Human resources and highly educated staff,

The existence of the

tourist associations, organized approach, School of Tourism

Existing incentives for positive change in tourism,

The existence of conditions for different types of tourism, (lake, environmental,

hunting, recreation, rural, health ...)

Existing traffic, energy and utility infrastru cture,

Existence of the Ohrid airport Sports fields

Proximity to tourist markets, Greece, Alba nia, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Bulgaria ...

Increased interest in tourist visits from the countries of south eastern Europe,

Formed sector for LED and Tourism

Preparation of a

strategy for sustainable development

of southeastern Europe

Increasing the capacity of the sector for LED and Tourism

Prepare and implement a strategy for sustainable development

B. Weaknesses What should be done for transforming

the weaknesses into strengths:

• Undefined capacity for absorption, • Defining the capacity for

durability and quality of tourist facilities absorption, durability and quality of

and services, tourist facilities and services

• Lack of proper travel categorization (carrying capacity analyses),

• Lack of real data for tourist facilities • Standardization and categorization

of tourist facilities

• unevenly developed tourist infrastructure in • Establishing a model for

all parts of the municipality

monitoring the authentic actualities

• failing to implement the law on tourism, in tourism

hospitality and temporary stay of the guests • Development of tourism

• Lack of a functional national and local infrastructure in all parts of the

structures for tourism municipality

• Absence of Ministry of Tourism • law enforcement, tourism,

• Lack of national strategy for sustainable hospitality and temporary stay of

development of tourism the guests

Unorganized, segmented and uncoordinated marketing

Lack of organization and coordination of the tourism sector

Slow implementation of development plans and programs in tourism

Insufficient staff profiled for tourist operations,

Lack of investment in personnel development in tourism

Lack of tourist information points and signalization

Untapped Ohrid airport

Low quality infrastructural linkage to the neighboring countries from the region

Small powers of local government

Discontinuity in the cooperation between SMEs, local government, national and foreign institutions, agencies and companies

uncoordinated exchange of information between public, business and civil sector

Discrepancy in building interventions and measures of LS with the start of tourist

Lack of public, business and civil society about the importance of the authenticity of the cultural and natural heritage,

Perception

Lack of favorable credit lines to stimulate private tourist sector

Lack of media support for the positive examples, ideas and initiatives for tourism development

Lack of developed information system Lack of environmental protection underutilized natural resources

Establishing a functioning national and local structures for tourism

Establishment of the Ministry of Tourism

Adoption of an effective national strategy for sustainable tourism development

Organized and coordinated marketing strategy

Organization and coordination of the tourism sector

Consistent quality and implementation of development plans and programs in tourism

profiling and professionalization of tourism personnel

Organized presentation of tourist information (points and signalization)

Improvement of transport and communication links and using the airport

Increased cooperation between SMEs, local government, national and foreign institutions, agencies and companies

Increasing the powers of local government,

Coordinated exchange of information between public, business and civil sector

Favorable credit lines to stimulate the private tourism sector

Media Support for the positive examples, ideas and initiatives for tourism development,

Information Management System tourism

Protecting the natural environment and natural resources

Institutional strengthening and human resource development

C. Opportunities

• Branding the city of Ohrid • Branding the city of Ohrid • Branding the city of Ohrid as

• Definition and selection of tourist product • Definition and selection of tourist pr a tourist destination;

• Establish a oduct

database and mapping of tourism economy • Establish a

• Categorization of small scale database and mapping of tourism ec • Defining tourist offers and

tourist facilities onomy products and proper

• Categorization of small scale promotion and presentation

Training for tourism workers,

media space to promote Ohrid

reforms in local government

Initiatives and measures within the competence of local government to encourage the development of tourism

Positive measures of local government (tax and others)

Guarantee and Credit Revolving Fund to raise the quality of tourism

Establishment of interregional cooperation in tourism

joint fairs and promotions,

candidate status for entry in the EU,

Involvement in programs for development of the European Union

public funds,

international institutions, agencies and donors,

Fund for renovation of village facilities Development of tourism in rural areas, Increased interest in alternative tourism Developing winter tourism, Hydro airport - hydro jets Establishment of a sports aero club

tourist facilities

Trainings for tourism workers,

media activities to support and develop tourism

Utilization of reforms in local government and usage of their benefits for tourism development,

Establishment of interregional cooperation in tourism

Guarantees and Credit Revolving F unds to raise the quality of tourism

Active and dynamic promotion and presentation to the foreign tourist market

Using the candidate status of the Republic of Macedonia, to attract investment and use of European funds

Fund for renovation of village facilit

Development of tourism in rural are

Increased interest in alternative touri sm

Developing winter tourism, Hydro airport - hydro jets Establishment of a sports aero club

D. Threats:

Legislation,

Poorly managed decentralization

Administrative barriers

Poorly organized and ineffective public administration

Unfavorable credit policy

Grey economy (unregistered and untaxed activities)

Corruption

General economic performance Visa regime with EU members High prices of aero transport Pollution of the environment

Consistent enforcement

of legislation,

Reducing the gray

economy, corruption and the poor

economic condition,

Liberalization of visa

regime with EU member states,

Maintenance of clean environment.

3. Sustainable tourism monitoring

Implementing the sustainable development and sustainable tourism promotes numerous challenges that make it impossible to determine whether a particular destination or product is definitely sustainable. Therefore tourist managers should ask themselves why such scarce resources should be subject of a sustainability strategy. Bramwell and Lane point out that active monitoring of sustainability is preferred compared to the inactivity which increases the likelihood of unsustainable results in the life cycle of the destination.h

It is very important to make an analysis from a historical perspective as well. The formal monitoring of sustainable tourism that emerged in the early 90s of last century, dealt with some problems and complications in relation to assessment of the current levels of relevant knowledge about sustainability. So, it is necessary to reveal the problems and to try to identify appropriate solutions and strategies for their resolving, against the passive monitoring of the situations. Also, the need for increasing the interests should be highlighted which would estimate the increased demand for products of the alternative and conventional tourism that support the principle of sustainability.

It is true that the indicator is actually a marker of the condition and it is not always definite assessment and as such should be more appreciated. There are still existing trends that are moving towards unsustainable situation, thus managers should make appropriate decisions besides the speculative nature of the values of these critical thresholds of certain indicators. At the end, it should be pointed out that the minimalist model of sustainable tourism could simplify the parameters of its application and thus will become attractive for destinations and companies, that otherwise would not encourage the implementation of the comprehensive model.

4. Determining directions of sustainable development

The guidelines of sustainable development for tourism in Macedonia should determine the directing and the control of the development of tourism, to determine the developmental pace, which would also aim at successful avoidance or decrease of the negative impacts of tourist development on the environment.

Given that sustainable tourist development should enable the needs of all parties involved in the process, meaning those who consume the services, i.e. the tourists, and those who create the demand and certainly the domestic population, then it is clear that the activities for guideline setting should include all these factors. Therefore the second part of the research refers to the determination of the aspirations of the receptive population aimed at sustainable development of their tourist destination.

Finally, the conclusions drawn from results of the undertaken analysis should be implemented in the planning processes for tourist development and should be included when drafting the development strategy, as a coordinated framework within which tourism will develop in the future. Namely, from the results of this part of the research, it may be concluded that there is a need of:

h Bramwell, B., Lane. B. (1993): Sustainable tourism: an evolving global approach, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1, 1-5

■ Undertaking measures and activities for protection of certain areas in Macedonia where protection is needed

■ Undertaking activities for encouraging local population for greater involvement in planning activities for tourism development

■ Creating conditions that will ensure greater realization rate of plans for tourism development

■ Improving the organization of tourist activities

■ Funding projects that would enable better exploitation of tourist opportunities

■ engaging human resources with relevant and appropriate professional education in tourist activities

■ Undertaking activities for improving spatial destinations and maintenance of high level of hygiene

■ Undertaking measures for reducing and correction of negative phenomena for the tourist destination development

■ Undertaking measures for stimulating positive phenomena for tourist destination development

■ Well organized and effective marketing

All these activities should be undertaken in order to direct the development of tourism towards achieving sustainability, meaning that the principles that ensure the environmental, social, cultural and economic sustainability must be respected, because the concept of sustainable tourist development implies economic, social and cultural development without endangering the environment. With this approach tourist resources could be protected and used in the future by the upcoming as well as the present generations.

Finally, the prospects for developing the sustainable tourism development in the Republic of Macedonia are existent, if we take into consideration the existing opportunities for valorisation of resources, that are not included in the tourist offer of the Republic of Macedonia, and if we successfully manage them.

5. Conclusion

In order strategic objectives for sustainable development of Macedonia as a tourist destination to be feasible, we should respect certain principles. They should be based on the importance of sustainable tourism destination, profitability-which refers to the increasing use of the index of accommodation and the index of the attendance of certain objects or attractiveness. Also needed is a clear determination of priority investments, which will enable the correct allocation, selection and guidance investments, and running target marketing that actually means that different target groups or target the tourism market should be taken by various marketing activities.

Sustainable development can only work successfully when four of its constituent elements, economic, social, cultural and environmental components have approximately equal importance and strength and conditioning and interconnection without the domination of any part of these elements. Sustainable tourism development mainly depends on the ability of the environment to ensure a stable and lasting basis for development.

Finally, the prospects for developing the sustainable tourism development in the Republic of Macedonia are existent, if we take into consideration the existing opportunities for valorisation of

resources, that are not included in the tourist offer of the Republic of Macedonia, and if we successfully manage them.

References

Bramwell, B., Lane. B. (1993): Sustainable tourism: an evolving global approach, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1, 1-5

Hall, C. (1998): Historical antecedents on sustainable development: new labels on old bottles?, In Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective (C.M. Hall and A.A. Law, eds), Longman

Hunter, C. (1997): Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm, Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 850-67

Inskeep, E. (1994): Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable Development Approach, Van Nostrand Reinhold

Magas, D. (2003): Management tourist organizations and destinations, University of Rieka, Faculty of tourist and hotel management-Opatija, Opatija

Romeril, M. (1994): Alternative tourism: the real tourism alternative? In Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Vol. 6, (C. Cooper and A. Lockwood, eds) Wiley

WTO (1996): What Tourism Managers need to Know: A Practical Guide to the Development and Use of Indicators of Sustainable Tourism