Scholarly article on topic 'The Impact of Self-efficacy Perception on Reading Comprehension on Academic Achievement'

The Impact of Self-efficacy Perception on Reading Comprehension on Academic Achievement Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Kadir Yoğurtçu

Abstract Reading comprehension requires the conscious and cognitive efforts of individual. In this regard, an individual should set up concern on what they read and previous information they have according to reading purposes. As a result of this cognitive effort one can restructure the intellectual development. As well there are interesting approaches improved by combining of the high-level cognitive functions such as interpretation and synthesis with social interactions in the aspect of reading comprehension. The self-efficacy beliefs scale developed by Bandura was adapted to the pedagogy field and accepted as an important variable affecting academic achievement in scientific research. According to the findings, there is positive significant correlation between high achievement and self- efficacy beliefs. In this sense, this study aims to define what variables affect self efficacy beliefs on reading comprehension and in what extent this perception affects academic achievement in language learning process, and to understand what factors are responsible for increasing the individuals’ quality of life. This study examines the impact of self-efficacy belief on reading comprehension on academic achievement in the case of preparatory class students of High School of Foreign Languages of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University registered in 2011-2012 academic year. In preparatory class, along with main education languages such as Kyrgyz and Turkish, students also learn English, Russian and Chinese as a foreign language. The population with 1485 students was sampled 556 students. Findings are based on answers to survey questions of 556 students obtained through random sampling. In this study factors affecting self-efficacy perception on reading comprehension and foreign language success rate was analyzed by using multivariate statistical techniques.

Academic research paper on topic "The Impact of Self-efficacy Perception on Reading Comprehension on Academic Achievement"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 70 (2013) 375 - 386

Akdeniz Language Studies Conference 2012

The impact of self-efficacy perception on reading comprehension on academic achievement

Kadir Yogurt^u

High School of Foreign Languages, Mira prospect, Bishkek 720044, Kyrgyzstan

Abstract

Reading comprehension requires the conscious and cognitive efforts of individual. In this regard, an individual should set up concern on what they read and previous information they have according to reading purposes. As a result of this cognitive effort one can restructure the intellectual development. As well there are interesting approaches improved by combining of the high-level cognitive functions such as interpretation and synthesis with social interactions in the aspect of reading comprehension. The self-efficacy beliefs scale developed by Bandura was adapted to the pedagogy field and accepted as an important variable affecting academic achievement in scientific research. According to the findings, there is positive significant correlation between high achievement and self-efficacy beliefs. In this sense, this study aims to define what variables affect self efficacy beliefs on reading comprehension and in what extent this perception affects academic achievement in language learning process, and to understand what factors are responsible for increasing the individuals' quality of life. This study examines the impact of self-efficacy belief on reading comprehension on academic achievement in the case of preparatory class students of High School of Foreign Languages of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University registered in 2011-2012 academic year. In preparatory class, along with main education languages such as Kyrgyz and Turkish, students also learn English, Russian and Chinese as a foreign language. The population with 1485 students was sampled 556 students. Findings are based on answers to survey questions of 556 students obtained through random sampling. In this study factors affecting self-efficacy perception on reading comprehension and foreign language success rate was analyzed by using multivariate statistical techniques.

© 22012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of ALSC 2012

Keywords: Reading comprehension; self-efficacy belief

* Kadir Yogurtcu, Tel.:+996-312-541941 E-mail address: kadiryogurtcu@hotmail.com

1877-0428 © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of ALSC 2012 doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.075

1. Introduction

The reading activity is an effort to a conscious knowledge that has been perpetuated by humanity. In other words, it is an activity which is often carried out parallel to the learning process to understand the core of a reading passage. The dynamics of the continuous thought systems are the reasons for the main driving force of an ongoing knowledge effort. While the society are constantly increasing their demands for the knowledge together with the cultural progress and development expectations, the individuals are thinking not to be back in this race to fulfill their responsibilities. In the final analysis, within the effects of these developments there are being held an effective works which access to information in order to improve the quality of life. The well-organized and assimilated knowledge - is the main subject to note, through which people make decisions, produce things or make use of it. In this context, the knowledge is the visual / spatial, cognitive and emotional and psychomotor interaction results that internalize, if it is necessary, use them effectively and all those are assessed as an available effective manner.

In this context, it is worth to pay attention to the phenomenon created by the individual together with the methods such as knowledge, education, research, observation, and experience. The most common and effective technique used in obtaining knowledge is the reading comprehension. Reading is one of the most basic activities in obtaining information as well as the most basic means in the human brain. If we consider the reading as text linguistics, then it is defined as an activity that has a significant structure. Thus, the reading comprehension is "a meaningful way of understanding the structure itself by adding a specific analysis by yourself, as a result to create a meaning through the transmitted statement" (Akbayir, 2003:92). We will mention the complex mental process, such as storing the information obtained in the process of reading; reworking the information while it is necessary and associating with new data. For this reason, the reading comprehension includes interaction, perception, experience, thinking, learning, association, affect, and configuration processes of individual that are considered to be a complex process involving multi-faceted (Kent, 2002:22). Sever (Sever, 1995) examines the three step processes such as cognitive, affective, and kinesthetic dimension as well as interaction, perception and learning processes of reading comprehension and added his views to the published works by Bloom (1979:48). According to Akbayir (2003) the reading comprehension takes place in three basic stages like perception, memorization, and rebuilding. The person should exceed these basic processes in a competent manner in order to have a high performance in reading comprehension. Thus, the meaning of the text is known as a result of these efforts. Therefore, the effectiveness of reading skills/comprehension is considered to be an important in the context of person's skill especially in his basic education, especially in the context of basic education. In this context, the main goals of learning reading-writing skills and understanding the texts are to recognize the words, understand, enrich the vocabulary, interpret the reading, evaluate the reading, develop a critical perspective, transfer the reading text into a part of life, develop thinking skills through reading, read texts or events critically, see the social problems with the help of the intellectual structure and gain the ability to see and solve them. (Sever, 1995). The educational process is considered to be an important factor of acquiring all these skills. For this reason, the reading comprehension is a benefit gained from students' reading action and it is put in the forefront of personal development

2. Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension means an interpreting of a literal text in the context of linguistic text. Therefore, the main purpose is to express a particular text system. Regardless its structure, case or a location, its main goal is to discover the meaning between the combination of words and phrases and to put out the monitoring system; to associate the systems with each other, find the meaning of a word and make a sense (Akbayir, 2003:92). Those who perform this activity use all the methods and techniques in analyzing the philology. In this context, "the reader" should comprehend the reading passage. It means, the process of reading comprehension provides a link between thinking, textual content, and the reader's level of readiness, expectations and objectives of a reading. According to Block (Block, 2004), the main

goal of reading is to construct and structure the intellectual development (Ep9a?an & Demirel, 2011:123). From the theoretical studies on reading comprehension, the person should focus on building intellectual development (Kingston, 1961). The idea suggested by Gray (1960) and Robinson (1966), i.e the effective reading is an important part of reading skills was also supported by Rystrom (1970), McCullougt (1968), Cleland (1966), Stauffer (1969), Holmes, (1954;1962;1965) and Singer (1965) and they explained the nature of reading comprehension as well. Spache (1963) and Smith (1960) together with Carver (1971) reevaluated the open reading comprehension skills and implicit cognitive activities and underlined that reading comprehension efficiency related to the information processing. On the other hand, Goodman (1970), Venezky and Calfee (1970), Ruddell (1969) and Brown (1970) highlighted psycholinguistics in combination of psychological and linguistic of a reading comprehension. Harker (1971) classified existing scientific theories into five basic criteria and attracts our attention to the articulation, differentiation, prediction, creativity and flexibility. From these studies, we can analyze that the effectiveness of the reading comprehension process is quite complex, also it is interactive and dynamic including individual differences in cognitive functions exhibited by the context. Lately, it was investigated that there was an emphasis on reading comprehension proficiency especially in related field studies of the second language education (SLE) (Paribakht&Westche, 1993; Cain, Oakhill & Bryant, 2003; Cain, Lemmon & Oakhill, 2004; Kim,2009; Koda,2010; Chen,2011). In this context, it would be appropriate to define the process in order to describe the topic of conversation accurately and completely.

None of these processes can explain what a reading comprehension is; however, it requires a fluency of reading provides an accurate understanding. Indeed, according to Grabe and Stoller (Grabe & Stoller, 2002), the processes that provides the reading comprehension should be objective, effective, interactive, strategic, flexible, assessable, quick, prehensile, linguistic processes (Ep9a9an & Demirel, 2011:123). To Vygotsky (1986) who has a great contribution to theories of learning, the social and cultural environment is important factors in personal development. High-level psychological processes occur as result of biological individual, cultural transport means, cultural, social and physical environment in which live in them. Again, according to Vygotsky, social interactions and interactive learning of learner play an important role in reading comprehension as well as in all learning. The social interaction is needed while turning into students' low reading skill to the high reading skill relatively in reading comprehension. This is because the students learn well through social interaction with their teachers or peers. Thinking skills such as synthesis, evaluation related to students' reading comprehension in high level is being developed through school' interaction means. Thanks to the cooperative learning environments, students can easily understand more complex texts and give clear answers to questions with no difficulties (Epgagan & Demirel, 2011:123). These definitions are considered to be key factors determining the capacity of reading comprehension of personal differences and the social environment.

2.1. Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement

The concept "Self-Efficacy" is regarded as an important variable in learning processes in many scientific researches. In this sense, the research on the role of reading comprehension self-efficacy capacity may be predicted as a contributive one in these related fields and it is an effective factor for academic achievements both in Second Language Education (SLE) and Foreign Language Education (FLE). Because, the students, who understand the reading texts and interpret the meaning, are developing their reading comprehension and self-confidence, in other words, they are developing their reading comprehension self-efficacy (Ep9a9an & Demirel, 2011:123). Self-Efficacy conception of Bandura (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1993, 1995, 1997) is based on social cognitive learning theory framework is basically refers to the capacity of coping with the persons problem. According to Bandura (1977, 1986, 1993, 1995, 1997), "Self-Efficacy belief' - is belief that organize people to demonstrate a particular performance and realize it successfully. Bandura (1977, 1986, 1995) stated that people with strong efficacy belief never run away from a new faced events or experiences that they have to struggle over them and they are quite stable to complete the action successfully. The person' capacity has four main

sources: 1. Mastery Experience: the persons' success or failure of their activities directly as a result of information obtained. 2. Vicarious experience: self-similar success or failure done by other people. 3. Social persuasion: preached, advice, social approval mechanism about person's judgment. 4. Emotional arousal: the person's expectation about being successful or unsuccessful about a certain task. The concept of Self-Efficacy belief is evaluated in three different axes. First, the student's own Self-Efficacy beliefs in organizing self-learning activities and completing academic tasks; secondly, teachers' belief in their own competencies to ensure their students' motivation and learning; third, the common beliefs of the school to achieve significant success in academic processes (Epçaçan & Demirel, 2011:124). According to these definitions, the people with high self-efficacy belief are expected to be successful in education. Again, in parallel with this idea, new reading strategies would be offered to students to maximize productivity on behalf of education, develop training strategy and reading comprehension self-efficacy belief capacity in their academic achievements.

3. Method

3.1. Purpose/goal of the Research

The primary goal of this study is to investigate the contribution of reading comprehension efficacy belief to the Foreign Language Academic Achievement and to bring up suggestions for increasing academic achievements. This research was developed by Epçaçan and Demirel (2011) and "The Scale of Belief Self-Efficirncy Reading Comprehension" (SSERC) scale including 27 items and three subscales is being tested to 20-22 years old students studying in Preparation Classes of University.

3.2. Main Pupil of the Research and Examples

The questionnaires were surveyed to the students of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University in order to achieve the purpose of the research. The questionnaire was prepared meticulously using the information obtained from literatures and experiences. It is thought that through survey questions the researchers would get positive results. The main people of the research are the students enrolled in academic year 2011-2012 in Preparatory Class of Foreign Languages of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University (total 1485 students). In this context, 556 students were surveyed, among them, 67,2% percent Kyrgyz students, 26,9% Turkish students and 6,0% students with other nationalities. The results obtained with individual efforts are statistically reliable as there always be doubts about questioning all main people, although it is possible to represent the sample mass as a whole main people. There is no doubt, if the questionnaire is formulated to the group of people in great numbers, then the result would be more reliable.

While evaluating the survey results there were used the descriptive statistics obtained from the frequency distribution tables, as well as significant differences in Likert-scale questions i.e. "One-Sample T-Test" and Independent-Samples T-Test according to their success criteria. Moreover, the relation between the efficacy perception and the values of academic success were analyzed through Pearson Correlation Analysis.

3.3. Validity and Reliability of the Survey Used in this Research

The survey questions were prepared meticulously both as a research on similar studies related to the topic and as information obtained by searching the literature and are prepared using observations of the two countries. Therefore, it is thought that survey questions used in this study will be sufficient and valid in order to achieve the targeted outcomes, to support the hypothesis of the research. Regarding the reliability of responses to a questionnaire, the reliability of the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient was investigated which is used in calculating the internal consistency of the research in the social sciences and the internal consistency of the Likert scale. Opinions and attitudes to 27 questions in likert scale were estimated as 0.955 coefficient in Cronbach Alfa. In general, the coefficients between 0,80 and 1.00 (0,80 < a <1,00) are considered to be as highly reliable. The coefficient in this state indicates that "highly

reliable' survey was used and internal consistency was provided. Except the calculation of reliability through Cronbach Alpha coefficient, the calculation of correlation coefficients were calculated and it is been suggested to exclude the low-correlated question from the analysis in order to increase the internal consistency of the questionnaire. After the analysis of correlation coefficients generally calculated by Cronbach Alfa coefficient was less than 0,955. In other words, there was no change in terms of reliability of the questionnaire although some of them were removed, any question should be extracted. ANOVA with Tukey's Test for Nonadditivity is investigated whether the additivity assumption of survey results is ensured or not, Hotelling's T-squared Test is investigated whether the Likert scale survey response formulate homogenous groups or not (Pallant, 2011: 294). Similar to these, each of the three tests were calculated for the survey data and less than 0.000 significance levels (fcaicui=27,423 p=0,000, tcaLcui =38,288 p=0,000, Hotelling's T2=14,543, p=,000) the null hypothesis was rejected; the questions were perceived by all participant equally as the responses were different from each other and the reliability of the survey were also supported by another way.

3.4. General Characteristics of Participants (Demographic Aspect)

The survey formulated to over 556 students, among them 67,2% Kyrgyz students, 26,9% Turkish students and 6,0% students with other nationalities. The ratio between the genders is: female students' ratio was higher (52,7%) than boys' ratio (47,3%). Looking at their age data, it is clear that most of the participants rates are (63,5%) under the 20. The following results were obtained for the question of socio-cultural characteristics of the students about the environment they live and grew up. According to these results, the majority of students live in dorms and they are from low-income families (41,4% family's monthly income is less than 200 dollars, 28,7% family's monthly income is between 200-425 dollars). 41,1% families' life in village as the place of long-term rate, 30,4% family's live in metropolitan. Here, we can understand that most of the students come from rural areas. The ratio of those who has more than 3 siblings is 49,4%. Here, it is seen that the students' families is crowd. According to the analysis of parents' educational level, 35,1% mothers and 40,7% fathers have a Bachelor degree. According to these data, it can be said that participants' families are received high education. The questions related to reading habits of the students were examined and as a result the ratio of the students who read one book per month is 30,4%, and the ratio of students who read books per month is 31,3%. Answers questions on the reading habits of the students asked to read a book that examined the proportion of students per month in the ratio of those two books that were read. The proportion of students who did not read enough books except from the textbooks is 57,6%. 71,2% families' don't have a competent library in their homes, 86,2% students state that they have enough books in their institutions, however, it is clear that 79,2% students do not read books much although their parents encourage to read much and they don't use the reading materials offered by the institution.

3.5. The Perception on Reading Comprehension Efficacy

The students were asked about the perceptions on Reading comprehension efficacy such as Written and Visual meaning, Self-regulation in Reading, High Self-Esteem in Reading Comprehension and other subdimensions in general that are relevant to their understanding competencies. Answers to these questions were between 1 and 5 points, for instance, 1: I am not sure, I don't agree, 5: I am sure, I agree. Among these 5 likert scale survey the point 3 took place in the middle, i.e. "indecisive". The averages of students' responses were calculated and 3-"indecisive" option was examined by the test "T". Calculated averages of the answers given by students and unstable option "3 average" or differences in the single-s^ple "t" test was investigated. The obtained results are shown in Table 1. The average of responses for all the questions was statistically different from item 3 in the significance level P = 0,000. For this reason, if the average is higher than 3, then the participation is supported, if the average is less than 3, then the participation is not supported. According to the results of the analysis, all the comments on students reading comprehension efficacy beliefs should be supported. Among these the following items' average

was close to the point 5: "I can ask questions after reading", "I can explain and summarize after reading", "I can define the parts that I didn't understand from the text", "I can make accurate predictions about the texts I read", "I can determine main and supporting ideas of texts", "I can complete to read the whole book" and relatively these items should be supported. The following items' average was close to the point 3 "indecisive" and relatively they are supported poorly: "I am one of the best in the classroom in terms of reading comprehension", "I can complete the reading although the text is boring", "I use my reading time wisely/efficiently", "I can make up my mind during the reading" (Table 1).

3.6. Reading Comprehension Efficacy Average based on Success Criteria.

According to the regulations applied to preparatory program education in university the students less than 67 grade point average are considered to be unsuccessful ones. Those students' who participated in survey, grade point average of success is 78,68. In general, such grade point average is considered to be good. Students whose average is less than 67 is coded as "0", students whose average is higher than 67 is coded as "1" in order to determine the reading comprehension efficacy between successful and unsuccessful students and as a result two categories were created. Accordingly, the success rates of surveyed successful students' was 83,66% (420/502 = 0,8366).

Categorical responses that are evaluated as 5 point were investigated by Independent Samples T-Test whether they are successful or not. The obtained results are shown in Table 2.

The significant levels less than P = 0,09 which obtain meaningful expressions were examined; as a result, in items 13 "I am one of the best in the classroom in terms of reading comprehension" and in 27 "I don't get bored while I am reading" it was clear that there was the least participation of unsuccessful students.

Table 1. Reading Comprehension Self- Efficacy Perceptions (One-Sample T-test, test value= 3)

No Items N Mean Std. Sig. _ Dev.

1. I can define the parts that I didn't understand from the text.

2. I can complete to read the whole book.

3. I understand any text.

4. I can grasp the main topic of the reading text in text related images.

5. I get high marks on reading comprehension.

6. I can read without the guidance of my teachers.

7. I can determine main and supporting ideas of texts.

8. I can explain and summarize after reading.

9. I can make up my mind during the reading.

10. I can complete the reading although the text is boring.

11. I can ask questions after reading.

12. I can make accurate predictions about the texts I read.

544 4,31 1,017 ,000

545 4,20 ,980 ,000

544 4,11 ,974 ,000

547 4,16 ,991 ,000

548 3,99 1,017 ,000

540 4,02 1,090 ,000

547 4,23 ,887 ,000

546 4,33 ,871 ,000

541 4,14 ,912 ,000

548 3,78 1,179 ,000

544 4,40 ,848 ,000

546 4,23 ,938 ,000

13. I am one of the best in the classroom in terms of 546 3,60 1,293 ,000

reading comprehension.

14. I know what author thinks when I am reading. 549 4,09 1,008 ,000

15. I easily catch the information about one topic. 549 4,08 ,939 ,000

16. I have long-term memory of what I read. 548 3,96 1,004 ,000

17. I use my reading time wisely/efficiently. 547 3,83 1,064 ,000

18. I can define my thoughts clearly and concisely after reading. 550 4,16 ,932 ,000

19. I can summarize the text I read. 549 4,18 ,903 ,000

20. I can evaluate the text I read. 550 4,17 ,924 ,000

21. I can review the reading text clearly. 546 4,09 1,010 ,000

22. I can take notes while I am reading. 548 4,07 1,068 ,000

23. I can grasp the meaning of text-related images, table or graphics. 549 4,10 1,006 ,000

24. I can easily understand the narrative texts. 545 4,16 1,000 ,000

25. I can have a secondary thoughts related to the reading text. 545 4,16 ,925 ,000

26. I feel good while I am reading. 547 4,03 1,115 ,000

27. I don't get bored while I am reading. 548 3,89 1,133 ,000

Here we can see that the unsuccessful students have less effective reading strategies compared to the successful students, and relatively they have a low self-esteem in terms of reading comprehension efficacy. On the other hand, it is analyzed that even those successful students commented on 3rd option in 13th line. Here, both successful and unsuccessful students have low self-esteem, and we can conclude that the school has no social interactions and sufficient activities in order to improve their reading skills. As this phenomenon is related to students' education and social conditions, it is necessary to take into consideration social environment such as students' family education level, living place, nationality, etc. in order to evaluate the academic achievements of a student. According to the success criteria, the average scores obtained by the scale, except 13 and 27, 79% of the successful students commented with high averages (from 4,49 to 4,04), while the unsuccessful students in 1st line "I can define the parts that I didn't understand from the text" and in 11th line "I can ask questions after reading" commented with low averages (3,92-3,07). As a result, the successful students were quite adequate and effective in last 3 factors identified in sub-dimensions of the scale (Written and Visual Meaning, Reading Self-regulation, Reading Comprehension Efficacy). (Table 2).

3.7. Language Skills Qualifications

In the II chapter of the research which is used as a data collection tool, the students who participated in the research section were asked to self-estimate their all skills (listening-reading-speaking-dialog and writing) by the B1 Level Language Portfolio of European Union. Beside this analysis, the average score of students' reading comprehension efficacy is analyzed and it is estimated as 111, 34. The highest value from the scale is 27x5 = 135. As a result, the general average was high according to these categories: 85 <low, 86-110 medium and 110 <higher. According to low, medium and high categories as the mean score of students efficacy, student have shown two categories in order to determine the differences between the views of students' skill in foreign language learning: students whose average is below 85 is coded as "0",

students whose average is higher than 86 is coded "1". Whether there are significant differences or not in perceptions of self-efficacy scores and language skills were proven with the help of Independent-Samples T-Test. The obtained averages and all expressions describing levels of language skills at the level of B1 were examined and according to the self-efficacy scores that are less than 0,005 level the significant relations were obtained.

Accordingly, the students whose efficacy scores are high expressed themselves that they are both adequate and competent in all four basic skills of in the range of higher value 4, 38 to 4, 01. The students whose efficacy scores are low expressed themselves that they are adequate only in listening comprehension in the range of 3,00-3,55, however, they are not inadequate in other skills in the range of lower averages 2,50 to 2,96. Here, it is possible to say that reading comprehension efficacy plays an important role in foreign language skills.

Table 2. The Average of Reading Comprehension Efficacy according to the Success Criterion.

Number Items Means Std. Deviation Sig.

Successful Unsuccessful Successful Unsuccessful (2-tailed)

1. C1 4,37 4,07 ,939 1,243 ,020

2. C2 4,25 3,83 ,941 1,320 ,012

3. C3 4,19 3,59 ,877 1,357 ,001

4. C4 4,26 3,71 ,911 1,309 ,001

5. C5 4,08 3,51 ,919 1,520 ,003

6. C6 4,12 3,44 1,024 1,461 ,000

7. C7 4,32 3,69 ,781 1,280 ,000

8. C8 4,40 3,92 ,804 1,228 ,002

9. C9 4,24 3,65 ,810 1,281 ,000

10. C10 3,81 3,45 1,168 1,381 ,020

11. C11 4,49 4,06 ,772 1,162 ,004

12. C12 4,32 3,77 ,869 1,321 ,001

13. C13 3,69 3,07 1,269 1,534 ,002

14. C14 4,18 3,62 ,912 1,487 ,003

15. C15 4,16 3,83 ,904 1,108 ,019

16. C16 4,04 3,54 ,968 1,181 ,001

17. C17 3,87 3,63 ,996 1,301 ,079

18. C18 4,24 3,70 ,865 1,258 ,001

19. C19 4,24 3,80 ,814 1,238 ,005

20. C20 4,26 3,68 ,832 1,307 ,000

21. C21 4,16 3,68 ,946 1,408 ,008

22. C22 4,17 3,46 ,987 1,413 ,000

23. C23 4,16 3,69 ,979 1,116 ,001

24. C24 4,24 3,79 ,958 1,253 ,005

25. C25 4,25 3,61 ,827 1,325 ,000

26. C26 4,10 3,70 1,045 1,448 ,031

27. C27 3,97 3,41 1,074 1,367 ,002

3.8. The Perception of Reading Comprehension Efficacy and Academic Achievements

In general, in the opinion of poll, self-efficacy is a factor affecting to academic achievements of successful students that were listed in questionnaires with high grade averages. In this regard, Pearson Correlation Analysis investigated how and in which way the efficacy level influence on academic achievements and both variables were compared. The results show that p = 0.000 significance level and 99% confidence interval (p <0,001 level, 2-tailed), the positive correlation (r=+, 487) between efficacy scores and foreign language grade was shown (Table 3). On the other hand, the average scores obtained from analyzes of foreign language skills and self-efficacy scores were compared, as a result, there was found positive and high level correlation between two variables (r = +, 724) (Table 4). The correlation between reading comprehension efficacy and academic achievements in foreign language learning of students who took part in this research were positive, while students' efficacy increase, their skills in learning of foreign language develop and receive academic achievements.

Table 3. The Correlations Reading Comprehension Efficacy and Grade Averages.

Foreign Language Grade Averages Reading Comprehension Efficacy

Foreign Language Grade Averages Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 1 502 ,487** ,000 436

Reading Comprehension Efficacy Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N ,487** ,000 436 1 483

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. The Correlations Reading Comprehension Efficacy and Foreign Language Skills Correlations

Reading Comprehension Efficacy Foreign Language Skills

Reading Comprehension Efficacy Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 1 483 ,724** ,000 399

Foreign Language Skills Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N ,724** ,000 399 1 443

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

4. Conclusion and Recommendations

The result of research shows that the readiness of a student's self-efficacy is an important factor that affects his academic success. In this study, students' self-efficacy is analyzed in success of studying foreign language. As a result, the self-efficacy is established on a high level of proficiency between a reading comprehension and knowing a foreign language. The students who are successful especially in learning a foreign language demonstrate a high level of comprehension; parallel to this research, these theoretical explanations were examined by Bandura (Bandura, 1977; 1986; 1995).

According to the findings of scientific researches of a reading comprehension, the people who have a self-efficacy in them develop different reading strategies gaining richer cognitive interactions, experiences, in addition to these, they are able to access an effective, interactive, strategic, quick, prehensile capacity of the reading comprehension. In this regard, we shouldn't forget to mention about Vygotsky (Vygotsky, 1986) vertical movement of a student. Now, students can reach from lower level relatively to the high level of reading skill. It means, this development is an important factor in education to increase the level of readiness in a desirable way. In this context, the capacity of self-efficacy play an important role in case of planning a foreign language teaching plans that contributes to the development of the students' comprehension. It means, the student who is self-taught can also develop his reading comprehension in case of self-regulation. Moreover, the student will have a self-confidence regarding to the reading comprehension.

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