Scholarly article on topic 'Information Quality and Supply Chain Performance: The Mediating Role of Information Sharing'

Information Quality and Supply Chain Performance: The Mediating Role of Information Sharing Academic research paper on "Computer and information sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
Keywords
{"Information Quality" / "Information Sharing" / "Supply Chain Performance" / "Supply Chain Management"}

Abstract of research paper on Computer and information sciences, author of scientific article — C. Marinagi, P. Trivellas, P. Reklitis

Abstract This paper outlines the critical role of information sharing in the link between information quality and Supply Chain performance. Supply chain partners coordinate their processes through information sharing, in order to facilitate supplier-customer interactions. Since proprietary and confidential information is usually communicated along the supply chain, the preservation of the quality of the exchanged information is a crucial issue. A research framework is developed in which information sharing acts as the mediator between information quality and supply chain performance. The empirical findings from a survey of 61 manufacturing firms in Greece confirmed the mediating role of information sharing. The main implication of the findings for managers is that information sharing among partners along the supply chain facilitates higher overall performance, as a result of enforced Supply Chain Management practices elevating information reliability and quality.

Academic research paper on topic "Information Quality and Supply Chain Performance: The Mediating Role of Information Sharing"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 175 (2015) 473 - 479

International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, IC-SIM 2014, September 1-4, 2014,

Madrid, Spain

Information Quality and Supply Chain Performance: The Mediating

Role of Information Sharing

C. Marinagia*, P. Trivellasb, P. Reklitisc

a,b,cDepartment of Logistics Management, Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, 1st km of Old National Road Thiva-Elefsis,

GR32200, Thiva, Greece

Abstract

This paper outlines the critical role of information sharing in the link between information quality and Supply Chain performance. Supply chain partners coordinate their processes through information sharing, in order to facilitate supplier-customer interactions. Since proprietary and confidential information is usually communicated along the supply chain, the preservation of the quality of the exchanged information is a crucial issue. A research framework is developed in which information sharing acts as the mediator between information quality and supply chain performance. The empirical findings from a survey of 61 manufacturing firms in Greece confirmed the mediating role of information sharing. The main implication of the findings for managers is that information sharing among partners along the supply chain facilitates higher overall performance, as a result of enforced Supply Chain Management practices elevating information reliability and quality. © 2015 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of I-DAS- Institute for the Dissemination of Arts and Science. Keywords : Information Quality; Information Sharing; Supply Chain Performance; Supply Chain Management

1. Introduction

Increase in global competition has forced organizations to understand that they have to better manage their supply chains in order to survive. Supply Chain Management (SCM) offers to organizations the means to link technology with people in an attempt to align the technology with the capabilities of each organization and among its trading partners enabling rabid responding to customers needs (Antoniadis & Ananikas, 2004; Serdaris et al., 2014; Shaik &

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +30-22620-22569; fax: +30-22620-89605. E-mail address: marinagi@teihal.gr

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of I-DAS- Institute for the Dissemination of Arts and Science. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1225

Abdul-Kader, 2013; Marinagi & Akrivos, 2011; Sakas et al, 2014). SCM practices are activities that enable effective management of the supply chain as a whole. Li et al. (2005) identified six dimensions of SCM practices, namely strategic supplier partnership, customer relationship, information sharing, information quality, internal lean practices and postponement. A study conducted by Li et al. (2006), indicated that higher levels of SCM practices can lead to enhanced competitive advantage and improved organizational performance. Other researchers (Tan, Kannan & Handheld, 1998; Kutsikos & Sakas, 2014), suggest that supply chain practices are related to supply and materials management issues, operations, information technology and sharing, and customer service. Kim (2006) has examined the linkages among SCM practices, competition capability, the level of supply chain integration and firm performance. His research reveals that supply chain integration may be more crucial in early stages. When supply chain integration has been completed, a company can focus on SCM practice and competition capability.

Recent views of SCM include a digital dimension (Rai, Patnayakuni, & Patnayakuni 2006), which means that the integration of business processes is implemented through Information Technology (IT) on the Internet platform (Marinagi, Trivellas & Sakas, 2014). The main difference between the digitally enabled SCM and the traditional SCM is that "supply chain partners are integrated via information flows rather than ownwership" (Dong, Xu, & Zhu, 2009). Internet is being used as one of the main networking platform in the internal and external supply chain through free, open source software (Mourtzis, 2011; Nasiopoulos et al., 2011a; Nasiopoulos et al., 2011b). Therefore, information systems for SCM are now implemented using recent advances on IT (Olson, 2012; Nasiopoulos, Sakas, Vlachos, 2014), such as Internet Web services, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), and software-as-a-service (SaaS) development platforms.

The significant role and impact of information sharing in supply chains has been extensively studied (Lee, So, & Tang, 2000; Zhao, 2002; Zhao, Xie, & Leung, 2002; Fiala, 2005; Li et al., 2005; Fawcett et al., 2007; Ajay & Maharaj, 2010; Yang & Maxwell, 2011; Khurana, Mishra, & Singh, 2011; Lotfi et al., 2013). Information sharing can be implemented using modern IT techniques to enable the coordination of processes among trading partners, facilitating supplier-customer interactions and minimizing transaction cost. Efficient and user friendly IT applications may improve information sharing (Yang & Maxwell, 2011). However, the cost and complexity of technological solutions are among the main barriers that discourage extended information sharing within supply chains (Fawcett et al., 2007). While information is gathered, disseminated, and shared throughout the supply chain using Intranets and Extranets, information quality should also be reserved. Naumann (2001) has noted the significant role of information quality in a new digital era through the axiom: "Information quality is the response time of the Web age".

In this paper, we explore the critical role of information sharing in the link between information quality and supply chain performance. We present the methodology and findings of a field research that was conducted in 2013, in 61 manufacturing firms at the region of Central Greece. A structured questionnaire was built by adapting existing scales in the Supply Chain Management literature measuring information quality, information sharing, and supply chain performance. The results confirm that the relationship between information quality and supply chain performance is mediated by information sharing.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the theoretical background. Section 3 presents the methodology of the field research that was conducted and the data analysis and the results that were revealed. Section 4 discusses the research results and finally, section 5 concludes the paper.

2. Theoretical Background

Information Quality (IQ) is a multidimensional concept, which has been analyzed by many researchers in an attempt to identify and classify its dimensions. Some of these dimensions include believability, interpretability, reputation, value-added, completeness, objectivity, reliability, security, timeliness, price, verifiability, accuracy, availability, latency and response time (Naumann & Rolker, 2000). The up-to-date Information Quality Guidelines provided by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO, 2014) define Quality as an "encompassing term comprising objectivity, utility, and integrity". Objectivity involves two elements: presentation, and substance. The presentation element focuses on ensuring accurate, clear, complete, and unbiased presentation of information, while the substance element focuses on ensuring accurate, reliable, and unbiased information. Utility refers to the

usefulness of information, while integrity refers to the security of information.

Information Sharing (IS) means the distribution of critical and proprietary information to supply chain partners (Li et al., 2005). The main types of information that can be shared within a supply chain include inventory, demand, or order information. Information sharing has also been categorized into three cases (Zhao, Xie, & Leung, 2002): No information sharing, where no information is shared between the retailer and supplier, demand information sharing, where retailers share forecasted net demand with suppliers, and order information sharing, where retailers share future demand forecasts, present and future order plans with suppliers.

During the previous decade, many companies were reluctant to share information (Zhao, Xie, & Leung, 2002). Unfortunately, a great number of them still find difficulty in sharing information, even though they have actively invested in technologies that support information gathering, manipulation, and sharing (Lotfi et al., 2013). According Fawcett et al. (2007) "The bridges to world-class information sharing are never built and neither the structure nor the culture needed to share information is established". The main barriers that organizations encounter in upgrading information sharing capabilities include information privacy, incentive issues, reliability, cost and complexity of technology, timeless, accuracy and effective utilization of information (Zhao, Xie, & Leung, 2002; Khurana, Mishra, & Singh, 2011; Fawcett et al., 2007). It is not surprising that these barriers correspond to the main information quality dimensions.

Performance measurements are useful diagnostic tools for better decision-making and a key requirement of successful continuous innovation (Soosay & Chapman, 2006). Researchers have proposed various frameworks for supply chain performance, in order to qualify the efficiency and the effectiveness of the supply chain, where different dimensions of supply chain performance are considered (Lin, Huang & Li, 2002; Lin & Li, 2010; Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Sillanpaa & Kess, 2011). The SCOR model (Supply Chain Council, 2014) is a world standard for supply chain management, which provides - among others - standard metrics to measure supply chain performance.

2.1. Information Quality and Information Sharing

A study conducted by Klischewski and Scholl (2008) demonstrate how IQ serves as a necessary capstone and common ground in IS and interoperation projects.

The need to check the relationship between information quality and information sharing leads to first hypothesis:

Hypothesis 1: A positive relationship between IQ and IS exists.

2.2. Information Quality and Supply Chain performance

Zailani and Rajagopal (2006), verified that when IQ is maintained, then better SCP is attained. Zhou et al. (2014), show that firms need to align supply chain practice with the level of their information quality in order to achieve enhanced overall business performance. The selected supply chain practices under investigtation were sourcing practice and delivery practice.

Therefore, it is important to determine whether a verifiable relationship exists between information quality and Supply Chain performance. The need to examine this relationship leads to our second hypothesis:

Hypothesis 2: A positive relationship between IQ and SCP exists.

2.3. Information Sharing and Supply Chain Performance

Several researchers have implied or empirically established the link between IS and SCP. Lotfi et al. (2013) have investigated and summarized the benefits of IS on SCP. For example, Zhao (2002) and Lee, So, & Tang (2000), give evidence of the positive impact of IS on inventory reduction and cost reduction. Fawcett et al. (2007) have investigated two dimensions of IS - connectivity and willingness - which were both found to influence SCP. The study presented in (Ajay & Maharaj, 2010) reveals that IS has a great impact on the overall cost of running a successful supply chain, and improves the holistic management of supply chain activities. Rashed, Azeem, & Halim (2010) have explored the combined effect of information and knowledge sharing on supplier's operational performance. In particular, they have showed that information sharing is a prerequisite for knowledge sharing and

the close supplier-buyer relationship is a vital factor for escalating the supplier's operational performance. Along this reasoning, the following hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 3: A positive relationship between IS and SCP exists.

2.4. The mediating effect of IS on the IQ-SC performance relationship

Ahmad and Zailani (2007) investigated the role of IQ in SC, considering the IS between buyer and supplier. IQ proves to play an important role in SC, particularly in the buyer-supplier relationship. Moreover, the IS between buyer and supplier, will result on a big impact to the partnership in term of the business performance. Therefore, the following hypothesis is put forward:

Hypothesis 4: The relationship between IQ and SC performance is mediated by IS.

3. Methodology

3.1. Questionnaire design

The field research was based on a structured questionnaire. It was built by adapting existing scales in SCM literature measuring IS, IQ & SC performance (Li et al, 2005).

Consequently, all instruments rest on a solid foundation of academic research in the field. The answers to the aforementioned constructs were specified in a seven-point Likert scale.

3.2. Sampling

The field research was conducted in 2013, using a structured questionnaire in order to test the hypotheses, in a cross-sectional sample of firms at the region of Central Greece. Our sample aims at manufacturing industries and the firms have been selected from ICAP database (The Greek Financial Directory). The final sample consisted of 200 manufacturing SMEs with 10 to 250 employees.

The questionnaire was tested twice before it was released, by ten logistics managers from different companies and by academics for in depth discussions. They confirmed the cognitive relevance of the questionnaire to the Supply Chain of manufacturing firms. The resulting questionnaires were distributed to logistics managers or top executives since they are the ultimate decision makers and key informants to answer with a wider view of their business internal and external environment. From the initial sample of 200 enterprises, 61 firms responded achieving a response rate of 30.5 %, which is considered to be satisfactory for this type of empirical research.

4. Results

4.1. Principal Component Analysis

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with normalized varimax rotation was performed for the IS, IQ and SCP scales. The unidimensionality of all scales was verified, since one factor was extracted, accounting for approximately 64%, 81% and 66% of the total variance for IS, IQ and SCP constructs respectively.

Preceding PCA, the Bartlett sphericity testing on the degree of correlation between the variables (p<0.001) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index verified the appropriateness of the sample. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was calculated to test internal reliability of each scale, as recommended by Flynn et al. (1990), ranging approximately from 0.87 to 0.94. Thus, all sub-scales exhibited well over the minimum acceptable reliability level of 0.7. Table 1 presents descriptive statistics, number of items and reliability analysis indices of all scales.

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics and Reliability Analysis.

Cronbach's alpha

5.07 5.28

0.988 1.057

0.876 0.941

0.822 0.835

SCP_5.47_1.007_0.868_5_0.763

a The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) indicator was calculated to assess sample size adequacy. The minimum acceptable level is 0.5. Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant at p<0.001 for all scales. Valid

N=220.

4.2. Mediated Regression Analyses

Table 2 reports the results of mediated regression analyses. Four control variables were included in the analyses namely respondent's gender, age, firm's size (number of employees), and firm's year of establishment. No serious problems of multi-collinearity exist between the independent variables as Variance Inflation Factors (VIF) is far below the 3 points limit recommended in Social Sciences literature.

Findings provide support for H1, as IQ has a significant positive relationship with IS (stand. b= 0.6861, p<0.001), explaining the 57.4% of the total variance. The direct effect of IQ on SCP, without IS, is significant, since the 29.1% of the total variance is explained (model 1). So, IQ was proved to have positive statistically significant direct impact on IS in support of hypothesis H2. The direct effect of IQ on IS is exhibited in model 2.

Following the procedures suggested by Baron and Kenny (1986), the role of IS in the equation is then analyzed by regressing both IQ and IS on SCP (model 3). Compared to model 1, the incremental change in adjusted R-square is significant and large (36.1%, p<0.001). This implies that IS has a strong direct effect on SCP (std. beta=0.405, p<0.01). Model 3 shows also that IQ has not a significant effect on SCP. Therefore, the effect of IQ on SCP is nonexistent due to the mediation effect, compared with its direct effect described in model 1. In particular, the association of IQ with SCP is fully mediated by IS, because they are no longer significant when the effect of IS is included at the last model. Thus, hypothesis H3 is also supported clarifying the association among IQ, IS and SCP.

Regarding control variables, firm's size proved to be significant when SCP is the dependent variable.

Table 2. Results of Mediated Regression Analyses.

Dependent Variables SCP " IS" SCP "

(model 1) (model 2) (model 3)

IQ 0.381** 0.686*** 0.106

IS - - 0.405**

Control Variables

Gender 0.059 0.163 -0.010

Age -0.083 0.067 -0.111

Firm's size (employees) 0.306* 0.048 0.295*

Firm's year of establishment -0.022 0.033 -0.046

Adjusted Rsquare 0.291*** 0.574*** 0.361***

" Standardized beta, Significant at * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001

5. Conclusions

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of information sharing between information quality and supply chain performance. We have conducted a field research in 2013, in a cross-sectional sample of firms at the region of Central Greece. The field research was based on a structured questionnaire which was built on the basis of several criteria used in previous empirical studies. The results provide empirical evidence that information sharing has a mediating impact between information quality and supply chain performance.

For the future, our conceptual framework may also be replicated in other regions of Greece, in order to compare our findings with these of the current research. In addition, the role of the two dimensions of information sharing -connectivity and willingness - can be separately explored. An interesting investigation for the future is the role of knowledge management on the link between information quality and supply chain performance.

References

Ahmad, B.N., & Zailani, S. (2007). The Effect of Information Quality on Buyer-Supplier Relationships: A Conceptual Framework. 7th Global Conference on Business & Ecomomics Oct. 3-4, Rome, Italy.

Antoniadis I. Ananikas L. (2004), Managerial ownership as determinant for the creation and expansion of networks and chains in the Greek Food

Industry. in Dynamics in Chains and Networks, eds H.J. Bremmers, S.W.F. Omta & J.H. Trienekens, Ede, the Netherlands, 325-332. Ajay, A., & Maharaj, M. (2010). Effects of Information Sharing within Supply Chains. SACLA (pp. 35-42). Pretoria: University of Pretoria. Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and

statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. Dong, S., Xu, S.X., and Zhu, K.X. (2009). Information Technology in Supply Chains: The Value of IT-Enabled Resources Under Competition.

Information Technology in Supply Chains Information Systems Research. 20(1), 18-32. Fawcett, S. E., Osterhaus, P., Magnan, G.M., Brau, J.C., & McCarter, M.W. (2007). Information sharing and supply chain performance: the role

of connectivity and willingness. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 12(5), 358-368. Fiala P. (2005). Information sharing in supply chains. Omega, 33, 419-423. DOI= 10.1016/j.omega.2004.07.006

Flynn, B.B., Sakakibara, S., Schroede, R., Bates, K., & Flynn, J. (1990). Empirical research methods in operations management. Journal of

Operational Management, 9(2), 250-284. Khurana, M., Mishra, P., & Singh, A., (2011). Barriers to information sharing in supply chain of manufacturing industries. International Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 1, 9-29.

Kim, S.W. (2006). Effects of supply chain management practices, integration and competition capability on performance. Supply Chain

Management: An International Journal, 11(3), 241-248. DOI= http://dx.doi.org10.1108/13598540610662149 Klischewski, R. & Scholl, H.J. (2008). Information quality as capstone in negotiating e-government integration, interoperation and information

sharing. Electronic Government, an International Journal, 5(2), 203-225. Kutsikos, K., & Sakas, D. (2014). A Framework for Enabling Service Configuration Decisions: the Case of IT Outsourcing Providers, 2nd

International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing. Prague, Czech Republic. Lee, H.L., So, K.C., & Tang, C.S. (2000). The value of information sharing in a two-level supply chain, Management Science, 626-643. Li, S., Ragu-Nathan, B., Ragu-Nathan, T., & Subba Rao, S. (2006). The impact of supply chain management practices on competitive advantage

and organizational performance. Omega. 34(2), 107-124. DOI= http://dx.doi.org10.1016/j.omega.2004.08.002 Li, S., Subba Rao, S., Ragu-Nathan, T.S., & Ragu-Nathan, B. (2005). Development and validation of a measurement instrument for studying supply chain management practices. Journal of Operations Management. 23(6), 618-641. DOI= http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/jjom.2005.01.002 Lin F-, Huang S- & Lin S- (2002). Effects of information sharing on supply chain performance in electronic commerce. IEEE Transactions on

Engineering Management, 49(3), 258-268. Lin L- & Li T- (2010). An integrated framework for supply chain performance measurement using six-sigma metrics. Software Quality Journal, 18(3), 387-406.

Lotfi, Z., Mukhtar, M., Sahran, S., & Zadeh, A.T. (2013). Information Sharing in Supply Chain Management. 4th International Conference on

Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Procedia Technology, 11, 298-304. DOI= 10.1016/j.protcy.2013.12.194 Marinagi, C., Trivellas, P., & Sakas, D. (2014). The impact of Information Technology on the development of Supply Chain Competitive

Advantage. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 147, 586-591. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.161 Marinagi, C.C., & Akrivos, C.K. (2011). Strategic Alignment of ERP, CRM and e-business: A value creation. Advances on Information

Processing and Management (AIPM), 1, 347-350. Mourtzis, D. (2011). Internet based collaboration in the manufacturing supply chain, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology,

4(3), 296-304. DOI: 10.1016/j.cirpj.2011.06.005 Nasiopoulos K. Dimitrios, Damianos P. Sakas, D.S.Vlachos (2014). Analysis of Strategic Leadership Models in Information Technology.

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 268-275) Nasiopoulos K. Dimitrios, Sakas Damianos, Masselos Konstantinos, "Free Software - Open Source Software. A Powerful Tool for Developing

Creativity in the Hands of the Student", Advances on Information Processing and Management, 1 (1) (2011), pp. 78-81 Nasiopoulos K. Dimitrios, Sakas Damianos, Masselos Konstantinos, "Open Source Web Applications. How it Spread through the Internet and

their Contribution to Education", Advances on Information Processing and Management, 1 (1) (2011), pp. 82-84 Naumann, F. (2001). From Databases to Information Systems - Information Quality Makes the Difference. In Proceedings oof the 6th

International Conference on Information Quality, (pp 244-260). MIT Sloan School of Management Naumann, F., & Rolker, C. (2000). Assessment Methods for Information Quality Criteria. In Proceedings of the International Conference on

Information Quality. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Quality. (pp 148—162), Boston, USA. Olson, L.D. (2012). Supply Chain Information Technology. In: S. Nahmias Ed. The Supply and Operations Management Collection. New York: Business Expert Press.

Rai, A., Patnayakuni, R. & Patnayakuni, N. (2006). Firm performance impacts of digitally enabled supply chain integration capabilities. MIS

Quart. 30(2), 225-246.

Rashed, C.A.A., Azeem, A., Halim, Z. (2010). Effect of Information and Knowledge Sharing on Supply Chain Performance: A Survey Based

Approach. Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management, 3 (2), 61-77. Sakas, D., Vlachos, D., & Nasiopoulos, D. (2014). Modelling strategic management for the development of competitive advantage, based on

technology. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 16(3),187 - 209. Serdaris P., Antoniadis I,. Tomlekova N. (2014) Supply Chain Management: A View of the Distribution Channel, Bulgarian Journal oof

Agricultural Science, 20 (2), 480-486. Shaik, M.N., & Abdul-Kader W. (2013). Interorganizational Information Systems Adoption in Supply Chains: A Context Specific Framework.

International Journal of Information Systems and Supply Chain Management, 6(1), 24-40. Sillanpää, I., & Kess, P. (2011). Supply Chain Performance Measurement Framework for Manufacturing Industries - A Theoretical Approach. In Proceedings of the 12th Management International Conference (pp 801-823) Portoroz, Slovenia, 23-26 November 2011,.

Soosay, C.A., and Chapman, R.L. (2006). An empirical examination of performance measurement for managing continuous innovation in logistics. Knowledge and process management, 13(3), 192-205.

Supply Chain Council (2014). Supply chain operations reference model 8.0. Retrieved from http://www.supply-chain.org

Tan KC, Kannan V, & Handheld RB. 1998. Supply chain management: supplier performance and firm performance. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management. 34(3), 2-9.

USPTO (2014). Information Quality Guidelines. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (UPSTO), Department of Commerce http://www.uspto.gov/products/catalog/infoqualityguide.jsp

Yang, T.-M., Maxwell, T.A. (2011). Information-sharing in public organizations: A literature review of interpersonal, intra-organizational and interorganizationalsuccess factors, Government Information Quarterly, 28, 164-175.

Zailani, S., & Rajagopal, P. (2006). The effects of Information Quality on Supply Chain Performance: New Evidence from Malaysia. In Latif Al-Hakim (Ed.), Information Quality Management: Theory and Applications, Chapter XII (pp. 275- 29 ) IGI Global, ISBN:1599040247.

Zhao, X., Xie, J., & Leung, J. (2002). The impact of forecasting model selection on the value of information sharing in a supply chain. European Journal of Operational Research, 321-344.

Zhao, Y. (2002). The Impact of Information Sharing on Supply Chain Performance. Ph.D. Thesis, Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Zhou, H., Shou, Y., Zhai, X., Li, L., Wood, C., & Wu, X. (2014) Supply chain practice and information quality: A supply chain strategy study, International Journal of Production Economics, 147, C, 624-633.