Scholarly article on topic 'Role of Movement and Stillness Elements in Development of Iranian-islamic Cities in order to Make Optimal Satisfaction in Human (Case Study: Bazaar, Mosque, House)'

Role of Movement and Stillness Elements in Development of Iranian-islamic Cities in order to Make Optimal Satisfaction in Human (Case Study: Bazaar, Mosque, House) Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Masoumeh Ghanaati, Amir Reza Karimi Azeri, Fatemeh Ghanaati, S.Bagher Hosseini

Abstract According to Islamic beliefs, movement and stillness of Iranian architecture, also to its literal meaning, has a more complex meaning and understanding its space has a special place. The purpose of this research is to study the role of some movement and stillness elements in the development of Iranian-Islamic cities to make optimal satisfaction in human. The method of this study is descriptive-analytical. Hence, in this research, first, the concepts of movement and stillness and its components in Iranian-Islamic architecture have been expressed. Then, we introduce Iranian-Islamic mosques, houses and Bazaars (markets) as the prominent buildings of our paper. The finding result of the research shows that movement and stillness elements have an important influence on the satisfaction of the environment and realization of peace in human.

Academic research paper on topic "Role of Movement and Stillness Elements in Development of Iranian-islamic Cities in order to Make Optimal Satisfaction in Human (Case Study: Bazaar, Mosque, House)"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 201 (2015) 201 - 212

Asian Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies, AcE-Bs2015, 20-22 February 2015,

Tehran, Iran

Role of Movement and Stillness Elements in Development of Iranian-Islamic Cities in order to Make Optimal Satisfaction in Human (Case study: bazaar, mosque, house)

Masoumeh Ghanaatia*, Amir Reza Karimi Azerib, Fatemeh Ghanaatic, S.Bagher Hosseinid

aStudent ofMaster, Institute for Higher Education, Deylaman University, Lahijan, Iran bAssistant Professor, Architecture and Art Faculty, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran cDepartment of Computer Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Astaneh Ashrafiyeh Branch, Iran d Associate Professor, Architecture & urban study, University of science and technology, Iran

Abstract

According to Islamic beliefs, movement and stillness of Iranian architecture, also to its literal meaning, has a more complex meaning and understanding its space has a special place. The purpose of this research is to study the role of some movement and stillness elements in the development of Iranian-Islamic cities to make optimal satisfaction in human. The method of this study is descriptive-analytical. Hence, in this research, first, the concepts of movement and stillness and its components in Iranian-Islamic architecture have been expressed. Then, we introduce Iranian-Islamic mosques, houses and Bazaars (markets) as the prominent buildings of our paper. The finding result of the research shows that movement and stillness elements have an important influence on the satisfaction of the environment and realization of peace in human.

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Movement; stillness; Iranian-Islamic architecture; satisfaction

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +989113482191; fax: +983136251798. E-mail address: m.ghanaati@deylaman.ac.ir.

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.169

1. Introduction

Movement is a means to understand the space (Bemanian, 2011). In Islamic wisdom, Quran and thenprophetic words emphasize have been put on moving from appearance to the inward, or, in other words, from form to the meaning. Islam has condemned seeing the work by appearance and stopping there without any trend in the sense and knows it a sign of irrationality of the human. Islamic architecture with an emphasis on the centrality of God is an art that is based on the spiritual and religious view of Islam. Iranian Muslim artist deals with the form by understanding the meaning and value and creates his artwork concerning the aspects and components of movement and stillness, as well as an emphasis on aesthetic factors.

The purpose of this research is achieving the most important human factor that is satisfactions of the environment and realization of peace. Since Iranian-Islamic architecture was a kind of humanity one, it has special importance for the human being in the environment. Also, there are some humanity factors in the expansion of Islamic architecture such as lightness sense, limpid, freedom, delivered of press and bands that guide human to the satisfaction sense. In modern building, the attention to Iranian-Islamic architecture elements disregarded, so it is the main problem in this paper. In this research, we explain the role of movement and stillness elements in Iranian-Islamic architectural buildings to achieve calmness.The following main questions are raised in this research: What is the concept of movement and stillness and its components in the Iranian-Islamic architecture? Can representations of movement and stillness be seen in Iranian-Islamic buildings? What is the ultimate goal of movement in the Iranian-Islamic architecture?

2. Research method

We used the descriptive analytical method and also studying library resources and valid articles. In this direction, the concepts of movement and stillness and their components such as geometry, rhythm, fluidity and continuity of space, hierarchy, etc. were identified in the literature review. Since the buildings are as the foundation of Iranian-Islamic architectural cities, we examined the famous buildings of Iranian-Islamic cities such as mosques (as a place of worship and seek spiritual solace in humans), house (that is center of the family and relaxation) and Bazaar (as the pulse of the Iranian-Islamic cities and the way to connect to other buildings). Then, we studied the effects of movement and stillness component in the development of some of the Iranian-Islamic buildings as well as achieving satisfaction in human.

3. Literature review

Movement and stillness in Dehkhoda Dictionary are defined as follows: Movement means movement, move, contrary to the stillness, relaxation, and the rest. A physical body is meant to limit the use of an extension. Movement is moving an object from one place to another. Moving does not require a form, but it a property of a moving object (Dibaj & SoltanZadeh, 1998).

In the general movement is divided into two categories: physical movement and semantic movement (Fig. 1). Physical movement causes the apparent understanding of the architectural space. Semantic movement is a movement that would cause a change in the addressee (Bisadi, Mozaffar & Hosseini, 2012). This movement is intellectual, and the transformation that occurs therein refers to intellectual coordinates of the addressee instead of his geographic coordinates (Mahdavinejad & Nagahani, 2011).

Movement

Semantic Physical

F seltne and imagination

— Privacy

Displacement

— Lightness

Vertical

— Calmness

— Horizontal

— Passage of time

Eye movement

Vertical

— Horizontal

Rotational

Fig. 1. Principles and types of movement.

Source: Mahdavinejad & Nagahani, (2011)

Space in Iranian-Islamic architecture can be divided into the extroverted or introverted space, that, extroverted space inspired by the nature satisfies the naturalistic, materialistic, pluralistic and diversity seeking aspects of the human; and introverted space that is the theme to create the privacy and one's inner being that prepares self-help and self-awareness state of humans (Noghrehkar, 2008). Among the principles that are effective in introverting the architectural space and can be seen in traditional architecture is the issue of polarity of the space and any kind of concentrating order which are achieved with factors such as geometry, spatial and physical proportions, unity and integrity, special ranking and observation of hierarchy, symmetry and emphasize on center and centrality. In other words, in the extroverted spaces, the constituent elements of architectural space enhance the motivation to move and pass in human, while the introverted spaces pay attention to the human psyche and are looking for creation of a sense of ascension into heaven (Hashempour, 2011).

3.1. Explanation of component of movement and stillness in Iranian-Islamic architecture

In this section, we have introduced some elements of movement and stillness that cause the space to become introverted in Iranian-Islamic architecture.

Geometry: Geometry is created from repletion or movement of a component. In Iranian thinking, geometry has been accepted as an important factor to achieve a higher understanding of the order. Taking order into consideration and continuous compliance with the proportion, calls the Muslim architect for a pure, specific and accurate geometry. Geometry is an interface between the material and meaning and also the earth and the sky (Bavandian, 2004) (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Geometry, proportions and decorative elements for movements and guiding eyes, (a) the mosque of Sheikh Lotfollah; (b) Kennan Bazaar; (c) Ameri house in Kashan.

Rhythm: Rhythm is the simple and connected path that the eyes achieve the different arrangement of lines, forms or colors by following it (Rahimian, 2004:159). Rhythm in architecture is obtained with the placement of components together. Iranian architect has provided rhythm through different ways such as changes in the spaces like open or closed spaces, by repetition, variation in color and light, etc. (SattariRaouf & Azimi, 2010) (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Creation of rhythm through repetition, an important factor in movement, (a) Imam Mosque in Isfahan; (b) Tehran Bazaar; (c) Ameri house in Kashan.

Fluidity and Continuity of Space: In traditional Iranian architecture, discrete volumes are rarely seen. Continuity and movement in the organization of Iranian architectural spaces has caused that, on one hand, the sequential and intersecting spaces would be considered as each other's extension and on the other hand, they continue the space and do not meet discontinuity (Hashemi, 1995) (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Spatial fluidity and continuity, (a) the mosque of Sheikh Lotfollah; (b) Kennan Bazaar; (c) Tabatabaeis'.

Hierarchy: Difference of the elements that are placed next to each other makes a hierarchy that can be visual or spiritual (The symbolic value of an element). One of the most important physical manifestations of respect for the hierarchy of Iranian architecture has been strengthening of introversion as one of the prominent features of Iranian-Islamic architecture (Tabibian, charbgou, & Abdollahimehr, 2011) (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. Hierarchy, (a) the bedchamber of Masjedonnabi mosque of Qazvin; (b) Entrance of Caesarea in Isfahan Bazaar; (c) Brojerdis' house in Kashan.

Symmetry: The use of symmetry in Islamic architecture completes centralism and emphasis on axis. Symmetry always draws eyes toward the center or its axis (Navaei & Haji Ghasemi, Clay and imagination, 2011). Successive symmetries behind the pluralities manifest the unity and ultimately cause a balance and manifest the stillness in Iranian-Islamic buildings (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Making axis of symmetry, (a) the grand mosque of Isfahan; (b) Entrance of Mozaffarieh Carpet Bazaar in Tabriz; (c) Abbasian's house in Kashan.

Light: Light in space by creating dynamism and fluidity induces the sense of movement (SattariRaouf & Azimi, 2010). Light does not make space, but it transforms the space (Dibaj, 2005). The use of porous surfaces and creation of artistic highlighting in Iranian architecture creates a sense of lightness and suspense (SattariRaouf & Azimi, 2010) (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7. Light and geometry the factors of pause and physical and semantic movements, (a) the grand mosque of Naein; (b) CharSuq of Kennan Bazaar; (c) Brojerdi's house in Kashan.

3.2. Investigation of Iranian-Islamic architectural monuments

Iranian-Islamic architectural monuments are human-oriented, and their formation is based on human needs. Among the most important needs is to achieve peace. The Iranian architect, aside from creating a sense of satisfaction by the creation of symmetry, proportion, balance, etc., in designing buildings, subsequently, he offered good morals. The man who was in an integrated environment and consistent with his being would feel relaxed (Nayebi, Kateb, Mazaheri, & Birashk, 2007). In this section, we present a brief introduction for each of buildings of mosques, houses, and markets:

Mosque: Mosque architecture should make it easy to rise from the lowest level of existence to the highest levels (Mohammadianmansour, 2007). This rise and journey mean a transfer from position to another, from one name to another and from one expression to another (Shahpasandzadeh, 2013).

In the way of the regularity of mosque space, a hierarchy for progression toward perfection should be observed. This meeting is to increase desire and passion for collecting. It is to intensify the desire for connection and passion for the visit, "like a veil between the viewer and visible" (Beheshti, 1995). The ground of mosque is usually erratic and the central courtyard, as well as scenic elements of mosque, is quite regular; therefore, travel from outside the mosque (extroverted) to the inside (introverted) is also a journey from irregularity to regularity and from imperfection to perfection (Navaei, 1998).

Creating of a suitable space for solitude and contemplation has been always one of the tenets of Iranian architecture. In Islamic Sufism, "Solitude" and reaching the timeless truth, is considered reaching the eternal peace and sinking into the ocean of divine unity (SattariRaouf & Azimi, 2010). In Iranian mosques, movement along the direction of Qibla by enhancement of elements such as rhythm view, water and gardens, reaching the stillness of Gonbadkhaneh and then directing the glance to the top can mean a feeling of lightness due to a sacred presence for human ((Mahdavinejad & Nagahani, 2011).

House: In Islamic civilization, the adjective that houses were formed according to it is the stillness and tranquility: God has made your houses a place for your rest (Surah: Nahl, Verse 80 in Holy Quran). Housing is derived from the adjective "stillness" and for the purpose that houses to be truly the symbol and source of comfort, and the past architects have employed various measures (Bemanian, Gholami Rostam, & Rahmatpanah, 2010).

Generally, in the architecture of the Iranian houses, the essence of space is inner, and the inner life creates the basis of space. Space in the architecture of the Iranian houses is rich. It means that it has been organized directly for the addressees and those that use it. Components of Iranian house as architectural work are perfect by themselves, from yards to the rooms, vestibule, entrance, facades and every component of the complex are a balanced geometric and complete space. These components together make up a full and complete whole that talk about plurality unity (Rastjou, Fazeli, & Bemanian, 2013). In traditional houses, the way of entering the courtyard is through a secondary source and often one of the corners of the courtyard (Mohammadianmansour, 2007). To enter such houses we must pass three spaces, each of these segments is considered both a physical experience and the spiritual implications in the process of entering the house: vestibule, narrow corridor and the interior area of the yard (Ahmadi, 2012), that

are interpreted as pause, movement and second pause (Fig. 8). This process is not dissimilar to the hierarchy of Islamic Sufism that one reaches the Connection Place after passing different stages.

i Outside I | Entrance complex I I Inside 1

Fig. 8. The hierarchy of entrances in traditional houses of Iran.

Bazaar (Market): Market is mentioned as the backbone of the Iranian cities in the past. Islamic markets have been formed in the center of the Islamic cities (Pirnia, 2002). The market is a great place to show different dimensions of the hierarchy in the Irani an-Islamic cities. This element was considered as the most important communicational and public spaces in the city, and the largest traveling occurred therein. Many other public spaces of the city were also built next to the main path of the market or with a small distance from it (Tabibian, charbgou, & Abdollahimehr, 2011). Chaharsooghi in the market is considered as the joint connecting the paths, pause, stillness and selection of the way to move (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9. (a) As example of Chaharsooghi as the joint connecting the paths; (b) Chaharsooghi of Kennan Bazaar.

(Source: Authors, 2014)

4. The role of movement and stillness elements in Iranian-Islamic architectural buildings in order to achieve calmness

Iranian Muslim architect designed buildings and spaces away from a speculative view with knowledge and understanding of human emotions and moods and respecting the beliefs, customs and traditions, as well as protection and preservation of cultural, religious and moral values which all are among the important factors in direction to keep satisfaction in humans. That was why the man felt a sense of relief and peace of mind by being in buildings and spaces in harmony with his nature that certified absolute order. Since the layout of the designs were based on a complete understanding of the psychological needs and respect the ethos and origin of human's spirit, it would create an intimacy and affection between man and the building (Nayebi, 2002).

Human eyes that are the window of being, when seeing images homogenous with its inner nature, transferred it to the perception center of the brain, and brain that had received the message favourable with its nature with satisfaction and without any resistance, transferred that sense to other members and organs of the body. Naturally, in the wake of this feeling, positive energy was produced (Nayebi, Kateb, Mazaheri, & Birashk, 2007).

The most important part in the architecture of Iranian-Islamic monuments is how to enter the building that attracts the viewer and bring him to the building. In Iranian-Islamic architecture, the entrances are not direct, but, at first, an overview of the building and finally, a sense of spirituality through achievement of an atmosphere without perspective and attention to a single point were achieved. In fact, Iranian architects by division and sequence of

In Iranian-Islamic mosques, separation is performed by a forecourt and entrance, and thus, it causes connection to the inside (reaching the spiritual world and the sacred space) and separation from the outside (renouncing the material world). Transmission is done by semi-dark corridors that this direction and transmission occurs with stillness and a short pause, and while entering the darkness, we leave the physical world outside and get ready to enter the spiritual world. The connection occurs upon arrival at the Gonbadkhaneh. Here, the way of sequence of spaces and events and how they are linked reminds something more than an ordinary place to the mind and that is, in fact, the role of separation from the material world and connection to the eternal existence of the Almighty God and spiritual world (Bemanian & Alinasab, 2011) (Fig. 11).

Fig. 11. Hierarchy of entrance movement in Grand Mosque of Isfahan. In Table 2 we explained some of these elements in case samples of Iranian-Islamic houses: Table 2. Explanation of elements of movement and stillness in Iranian-Islamic houses.

Elements of _Samples of Iranian-Islamic Houses_

Movement and Bani Kazem in Kashan Rasoulian in Yazd Tabatabaei in Kashan Ale-Yasin in Kashan

Stillness in

Iranian-Islamic

Architecture

This sequence of movement and transmission can also be seen in the Iranian-Islamic houses: In passing the entrance draws the human towards itself. Beyond this entrance, there is a house. After that, there is a corridor or vestibule (Rastjou, Fazeli, & Bemanian, 2013). The vestibule is one of the key interstitial areas of the house that defines a semi-private area. In this space, the movement from outside to inside transfers to the stillness and stops the viewer for some moments and forces him to think and make decisions. The element of the vestibule is usually located at an angle to the yard and is linked to the yard with a corridor (SattariRaouf & Azimi, 2010). The corridor reaches the yard with significant mazes. Yard is the heart of the house (Rastjou, Fazeli, & Bemanian, 2013) and it is a private area, but to the direction of moving towards interior, relatively it is more semi-private and ends with the interior of the house by some porches. In this continuous spatial scrolling, the Iranian artist does not connect even the yard directly to the room and the element of porch with various spatial qualities is the agent to link these spaces (SattariRaouf & Azimi, 2010) (Fig. 12). Therefore, this trend of movement is similar in all Iranian-Islamic mosques, houses, and bazaars.

Entrance

Fig. 12. Hierarchy of entrance movement in house of Mortaz in Yazd. In Table 3 we explained some of these elements in case samples of Iranian-Islamic bazaars:

Table 3. Explanation of elements of movement and stillness in Iranian-Islamic Bazaars.

5. Conclusion

Muslim artists have manifested the Islamic tradition through artworks and have led humans to semantic movement through physical movement and pointed out the truth beyond the symbolic appearance. Often, the path of an objective is more important than the objective itself and hence, in Iranian architecture construction of a building is not the objective of the architect, but the more important objective is the way of organizing the paths and moving through them. Traditional spaces centralizing the order make it possible to move in nature and unseen dimensions of the human and prepare the ground for creating the solitude and inner presence of a man to bring consciousness state for a human.

The elements such as geometry, rhythm, spatial fluidity and continuity, hierarchy, etc. which are derived from Islamic values in Iranian architecture arrange the movement and stillness. The concept of movement in Islamic architecture is a movement that is interpreted as semantic movement and is traveling from the material to the meaning and ultimately ends with peace and stillness. The result of research is listed in Table 4.

It is suggested that the other research study about the interrelationships between satisfaction and movement and stillness elements and measure the effectiveness rate of these on achieving the most important human factor that is satisfactions of the environment and realization of peace.

Table 4. Conclusion.

Islamic values and Principles

Principles derived from Islamic values in architecture

Appearance of principles and indicators in Bazaar, House and Mosque

Objective

Movement and Stillness

Geometry (Geometric Order)

Rhythm or melody in time

Spatial Fluidity and Continuity

Hierarchy Symmetry

The geometric arrangement of horizontal and vertical surfaces;

Equality and repetition of patterns that is a source of unity in diversity

Repetition of an element with one size or different sizes Rhythm of doors, windows, arches, etc.

Buildings in connected and integrated volumes Continuity of open and closed spaces and creation of an integrated whole

Functional or spatial hierarchy Visual or spiritual hierarchy

It completes centralism and emphasizes on axis. The space gives balance

Symmetry in the combination of spaces, volumes, shapes, surfaces and...

Sense of lightness and suspense together with dynamism and fluidity

Opening and closing the space

Arranging the

Concepts of

Movement and

Stillness

Moving from Material to

Meaning

Achieving Stillness and Peace

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