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Procedía

Social and Behavioral Sciences

ELSEVIER Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 (2013) 860 - 864

4th International Conference on New Horizons in Education

Development of motivation scale for teachers

Elif Akdemira*, Ali Arslana

"Bülent Ecevit University, Eregli Education Faculty 67300, "Zonguldak", Turkey

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to develop a motivation scale for teachers. The scale is developed based on Herzberg's two factor motivation theory. Initially constructed motivation scale has 51 items and was administered to 150 teachers. The explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the factors in the motivation scale. Four factors are identified as a result of the analysis. Four factors explained 60.9 percent of the total variance. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficients varied between 0.811 and 0.904. The results indicated a reliable and valid motivation scale that can be used to measure teachers' motivation in Turkish.

©2013 TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeer-reviewunderresponsibilityofTheAssociationofScience,EducationandTechnology-TASET, SakaryaUniversitesi, Turkey.

Keywords: motivation scale, teachers, factor analysis

1. INTRODUCTION

Motivation is defined internal state that initiates, directs and sustains our behaviors (Woolfolk, 2001). Motivation divided into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. While intrinsic motivated people participate the activities for its own sake; extrinsic motivated people participate the activities to get rewards (Moreno, 2010).

Theories that explain how human motivate are behaviorism, cognitivism and humanism (Arends & Kilcher, 2009). Behaviorists contend reinforced behaviors maintain, unreinforced behaviors extinct. That is, behavior is controlled by an external situmulus. If people receive an reward because of their behavior, they demonstrate same behavior more eagerly (Senemoglu, 2001). Cognignivists explain motivaiton as a struggle of understanding and exploring world. People are motivated to reach equilibrium when they live cognitively disequilibrium (Eggen &Kauchak, 2004). According to humanists, source of motivation is satisfying the needs. Humans interacts their environment in order to satisfy their needs and, needs control human behaviors. Maslow proposed hierarcy of needs. Sequence of needs that must be satisfied (Santrock, 2011):

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 372 323 38 70; fax: +90 372 323 86 93. E-mail address: akdemirelif@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya Universitesi, Turkey. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.098

* Physiological. Hunger, thirst, sleep.

* Safety. Ensuring survival, such as protection from war and crime

* Love and belongingness. Security, affection, and attention from others

* Esteem. Feeling good about oneself

* Self-actualization. Realization of one's potential (highest and the most elusive need). Self-actualizing people are accepted by self and others, spontaneous, democratic, creative, humoristic, and

independent, that is, psychological healthy (Slavin, 2006).

Another humanistic motivation theory is Herzberg's two factor theory. First factor is motivator (satisfying) that intrinsic to job is achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and growth or advancement. Other factor is hygiene (dissatisfying) that extrinsic to job is company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status, and security. This study based on Herzberg's two factor theory (Herzberg, 2003).

The aim of this study is to develop scale of motivation for teachers. So, it can be used to measure motivation level of teachers.

2. METHOD

2.1. Writing items of scale

Initially, a pool of item was assembled from a variety of resources including a thesis, articles, and scales. Items was written according to Herzberg's motivation theories. Trial form of scale consisted of a total of51 items. Teachers markedAny (1), little (2), moderate (3), very (4), completely (5).

2.2. Pilot Study

Scale was applied to 150 teachers from different branches attending in Zonguldak province in 2011-2012 academic year for validity and reliability study.

2.3. Analysis of Data

Factor analysis was conducted in order to reveal the construct validity of the scale. Eigenvalue is greater than 1 is considered to be significant factors. Items which don't load any factor and items loaded to multiple factor was extracted from scale.

3. FINDINGS

Exploratory factor analyses was conducted for construct validity of scale. Kaiser Meyer Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, Bartlett sphericity test and determinant value of correlation matris was applied for appropriateness of data for factor analysis. KMO value of the data was 0.866 whereas the value of Barlett's sphericity test was significant. Seeing that the KMO value was higher than 0.60 and Barlett's sphericity test yielded a significant result, it was concluded that it would be appropriate to conduct a factor analysis (Buyukozturk, £akmak, Akgun, Karadeniz & Demirel, 2008).

Kolmagorow-Simirnow test was used for normality of data. According to analysis it was observed distribution of data wasn't normal. So, principal axis factoring method was applied as a factor analysis method. Common variance values of items were between 0.437 and 0.710.

Factors of scale, explained variance by each factor, internal constituency, factor loadings and corrected item total correlations of items obtainde from factor analysis were presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Factor Analysis

Communication Progress in Profession Institution Expectation

Factor Item-total Factor Item-total Factor Item-total Factor Item-total

Loading corr Loading corr. Loading corr. Loading corr.

10 0.744 0.760

6 0.708 0.711

5 0.684 0.670

7 0.634 0.603

11 0.628 0.608

8 0.625 0.594

2 0.592 0.616

14 0.615 0.620

18 0.724 0.687

20 0.460 0.504

21 0.795 0.719

24 0.513 0.540

29 0.569 0.598

30 0.534 0.608

32 0.477 0.564

33 0.615 0.662

35 0.690 0.674

36 0.674 0.693

37 0.727 0.703

43 0.717 0.746

44 0.751 0.785

45 0.712 0.747

46 0.620 0.658

48 0.723 0.753

49 0.672 0.664

50 0.656 0.654

Explained variance 36.732 7.358 10.138 6.684

Cronbach Alpha 0.873 0.811 0.870 0.904

When examined Table 1, itis seen the scale consists of 4 factors that eigenvalue of it is greater than 1. First factor was named as a communication. This factor has 7 items. Factor loadings were between 0.592 and 0.744 ; corrected item-total correlations were between 0.594 and 0.711. it explained 36.732 % of total variance. Cronbach internal constituency coefficient was calculated as a 0.873. Second factor of scale was named as a progress in profession. This factor has 4 items. Factor loadings were between 0.460 and 0.794; corrected itemtotal correlations were between 0.504 ile 0.719. It explained 7.358 % of total variance. Cronbach internal constituency coefficient was calculated as a 0.811. Thirth factor of scale was named as a instution. This factor has 8 items. Factor loadings were between 0.477 and 0.727; corrected item-total correlations were between 0.540 ile 0.703. It explained 10.138 % of total variance. Cronbach internal constituency coefficient was calculated as a 0.870. Fourth factor of scale was named as a expectations. This factor has 7 items. Factor loadings were between 0.620 and 0.751; corrected item-total correlations were between 0.654 ile 0.785. It explained 6.684 % of total variance. Cronbach internal consistency coefficient was calculated as a 0.904. All factors explained 60,9 % of total variance. Explained variance between 40% and 60% is sufficient for multi factorial designs (Çokluk, Çekercioglu ve Buyukôztûrk, 2010).

4. CONCLUSION

Scale of motivation for teachers developed by researchers can be used to identify sources and level of teachers' motivation. Because motivated teachers can be successful in their profession. So, necessary precaution can be taken.

Scale constitutes 4 four factors. Each factor explain important parts of total variance. Also, factor loadings and corrected item-total correlations items is very high. Factors' internal constituency coefficient least 0.811. According to these data, it can be interpreted the scale (Appendix A) measure validly and reliably motivations of teachers. Also, scale can be tried in different samples.

References

Arends, R. I., Kilcher, A. (2010). Teaching for Student Learning; Becoming an Accomplished Teacher. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Buyukozturk, §., Qakmak, E.K., Akgun, O.E., Karadeniz, §. & Demirel, F. (2008). Bilimsel arajtirma yontemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Qokluk, O., §ekercioglu, G. ve Buyukozturk, §. (2010). Sosyal bilimler ifin pok degijkenli istatistik. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.Eggen P., &

Kauchak D. (2004) Educational Psychology - Windows on Classrooms. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Herzberg, F. (2003). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review, January.

Moreno, R. (2010). Educational Psychology. USA: John Wiley & Sons

Santrock,J.W. (2011). Educational Psychology.NY: McGrawHill.

Senemoglu, N. (2001). Gelijim, Ogrenme ve Ogretim. Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi

Slavin, R. (2006). Educational psychology: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Woolfolk, A. (2001). Educational psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Appendix A. Motivation Scale

How does Items motive in below? Mark, pis. « « ^

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2 Active interaction between collègues

5 Valueing collègues reciprocally

6 Situmalting cooperation in instution

7 Relations between parents-teacher

8 Relations between student-teacher

10 Positive relations among collègues.

11 Espousal of profession

14 Opportunity of carrier

--.S s

18 Oppotunityofprogressinprofession w .2

"20 Salary | ^

__îh ^

21 Advancement

24 Security is instution

29 Not to be monoton g

30 Health care presented by instution 5

32 Participating to decisions in instution

33 Sufficient equipment

35 Too workloads

36 Appropriateness of work hours ??????

37 Sufficient of orientation system

43 Appreciation of the work from administers

44 Positive critics

45 Social activities presented by instution

46 Participating administration

48 Being fair of administer

49 Interest and help for special issues.

50 Using initiative