Scholarly article on topic 'Masturbation: Prevention& Treatment'

Masturbation: Prevention& Treatment Academic research paper on "Sociology"

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{Masturbation / Prevention / Treatment / "Sexual Desires" / "Sex Education"}

Abstract of research paper on Sociology, author of scientific article — A. Shekarey, M. Sedaghat Rostami, Kh. Mazdai, A. Mohammadi

Abstract Sex education is one of the essential parts of the duties of trainer, educational psychologists and education and curriculum planners and paying little attention to sex education may cause great damages to the structure of the society. The conducted studies showed that Iranian men and women, 92 and 62 percent respectively, have masturbated during their life and no sexual activity is as controversial but common as masturbation. This study attempts to investigate the most important and the commonest sexual threat, masturbation, to teenagers and the youth, especially among the university students and to provide some information about physical, mental, spiritual, moral and ethical damages of masturbating. Furthermore, in this study, some psychological and educational innovations are provided through which through which the teenagers can reduce and control their sexual desires. According to the results of the study which was conducted through a descriptive method, sex education as a comprehensive, scientific and supplementary program which is provided by sex therapists can be as an appropriate and practical solution to decrease negative effects and mental, sexual and social damages of masturbation. This kind of education should be conducted in such a way that the trainee is inclined and directed towards healthy sexual behaviours and actions. We hope that the models and ideas presented in this article can be helpful for the teenagers, parents and education and curriculum planners in creating a constant sexual health in the academic environment and society.

Academic research paper on topic "Masturbation: Prevention& Treatment"

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Procedia

Social and Behavioral Sciences

ELSEVIER Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 1641 - 1646

WCPCG-2011

Masturbation: Prevention& Treatment

A.Shekarey a* ,M.Sedaghat Rostamib , Kh.Mazdaic , A.Mohammadi

a Assistant Professor,Department of Education, University of Kashan,Iran b Department of English Language and literature, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran c lecturer,payamnoor University,Iran d educational organization of sharbabk,Iran

Abstract

Sex education is one of the essential parts of the duties of trainer, educational psychologists and education and curriculum planners and paying little attention to sex education may cause great damages to the structure of the society. The conducted studies showed that Iranian men and women, 92 and 62 percent respectively, have masturbated during their life and no sexual activity is as controversial but common as masturbation. This study attempts to investigate the most important and the commonest sexual threat, masturbation, to teenagers and the youth, especially among the university students and to provide some information about physical, mental, spiritual, moral and ethical damages of masturbating. Furthermore, in this study, some psychological and educational innovations are provided through which through which the teenagers can reduce and control their sexual desires. According to the results of the study which was conducted through a descriptive method, sex education as a comprehensive, scientific and supplementary program which is provided by sex therapists can be as an appropriate and practical solution to decrease negative effects and mental, sexual and social damages of masturbation. This kind of education should be conducted in such a way that the trainee is inclined and directed towards healthy sexual behaviours and actions. We hope that the models and ideas presented in this article can be helpful for the teenagers, parents and education and curriculum planners in creating a constant sexual health in the academic environment and society.

© 2011 PublishedbyElsevierLtd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance.

Keywords: Masturbation, Prevention, Treatment, Sexual Desires, Sex Education.

* Abass Shekarey . Tel.: +989131623275 ; fax:+9803615912777. E-mail address: Aghlimen16@yahoo.com.

1 Introduction

Educational institutions should teach the students, as a member of the society, how to learn. In the modern World, there is no place for traditional institutions, because of the increasing needs of the students, technical and technological developments and e-learning. In the domain of sex education, new learning models and programme planning are needed and the students should be informed about the sexual behaviours and their

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 2nd World Conference on Psychology,

Counselling and Guidance.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.318

A. Shekarey etal. SProcedia - Social <md Behavioral Sciences 40(2011) 1641 - 1646

impacts on their bodies and spirits. Sexual behaviours, in general, incorporate the actions and behaviours which is common among the teenagers to satisfy their sexual desires and these sexual behaviours may cause some problems for the teenagers and their parents (Khosropoor,1974).Masturbation as a prevalent sexual behaviour is the subject of this study. Studies conducted by the anthropologists, psychologists and psychotherapists showed that ways of satisfying sexual desires(sexuality) and the concept of sex had different forms in different cultures. The act of kissing is, for example, one of the usual ways of sexual behaviours in most cultures.However,in case of masturbation, there are different views on it. In some societies, masturbating is totally rejected during the bachelorhood and almost it is considered an unpleasant act in most human societies.

The studies conducted by KSEYIN showed that masturbation is common among all men and three quarter (3/4) of women. Also according to KSEYIN ,Iranian men and women ,92 and 62 percent respectively have masturbated during a period of their life ,because masturbation is the most common way of satisfying sexual desires before marriage(Bnjandi,1991).Despite all legendry stories made by the psychologists concerning the consequences of masturbation such as mental and spiritual damages as well as lack of potency, scientific researches didn't prove the above-mentioned big claims. However, masturbation is considered a psychological threat and damage when it becomes a habit and human being has no will power or control over it. Therefore, in this case, the person is suffering from an emotional problem and disorder, not because he is involved in a sexual behaviour but because something forced him to masturbate and he has no control over his unusual sexual behaviours. Generally speaking, to masturbate on a whim would cause a pain, because human being's sexual organs might be sexually damaged. Imagination is also involved in the act of masturbating, that is the person picture any one he loves in his mind and mentally has a sexual intercourse with his opposite sex .As it is mentioned by Sharafi(2000),masturbation is the most common sexual behaviour among the Iranian teenagers. He also believed that the parents,teachers,educators and education authorities should be aware of the negative effects of masturbation, so that the students can benefit from their awareness.Sharafi categorizes 19 factors as the causes of masturbating which are as follows:

1. Curiosity 2.Unfamiliarity with sexual issues 3.Seclusion 4.family problems 5.suspicious and unfriendly friendship 6.lasting diseases 7.Sense of inferiority 8.Imitation 9.premature puberty 10.cultural factors 11.Skin sensitivities 12.Stress and anxiety 13.Babyhood problem such as feeding,type of games and so on.14.Unsuitable clothes 15.Corporal punishment 16.Parasite infections 17.Voyearing 18.Unsuitable classroom benches and 19.Lack of affection

When human being reach puberty, his sex hormones increase and his secondary sexual characteristics appear. He become more curious about sexual activities and mostly satisfies his sexual desires through masturbation, even though they are physically capable of having sex with the opposite sex. This prevention and abstention from having sex may cause some physical tensions among the teenagers who need to satisfy their sexual desires and therefore they resort to masturbation .Men ,in general ,masturbate more than women .Even the persons ,who married, might not give up masturbating completely and might resort to masturbating when they are not sexually satisfied with their sexual partner or when their sexual partner is away.

2. Objectives of the study

A. To find the reason of resorting to masturbating and to specify its signs and symptoms

B.To Show harmful effects of masturbation and its consequent challenges

C.To investigate and to prevent some preventive ways for masturbation

3.Theoretical framework

Sexual issues related to the teenagers

A.Shekareyet al. /Procedía - Socialam! BeSmaioral Sciences 30 (2011) 1641 - 1646

When human being reaches puberty, he shows more tendencies to sexual relations and both sex hormones and social factors influence the growth of the teenager's tendency to Sexual activities. As far as boys are concerned, their first sexual activities rely on the level of their blood , hormones status and social factors have little influence on them. However, as far as girls are concerned, their first sexual activities are more influenced by social factors rather than hormones status .For example, the girls care whether their boyfriends had a sex with a girl or not (Ohadi,2001).Even though the teenagers are mostly subject to inward changes compared to outward changes, they are concerned about the changes which are related to the physiological aspects of their sexual desires.

Since there are some differences between the boys and the girls ,their sexual behaviours are different.Furthermore,women's sense of auditory is better than the men's and men's sense of vision is better than women's. Therefore the boys show more interest in visual stimuli and patterns and the girls show more interest in auditory stimuli and patterns. Men are more sensitive to visual stimuli and it is clearly reflected in their daily actions and behaviours. Some men are , for example, interested in collecting sexy pictures and watching blue movies and are more easily influenced by visual stimuli .However, women are more sensitive to the sense of touch and react better to touching stimuli.

Sexual differences between girls and boys are as follows:

1. The boys want to reach climax more than the girls

2. The boys resort to daydreaming about sexual activities more than the girls

3. The boys are more easily influenced by sexual symbols

4. The boys reach climax mostly during the sleep

5. The boys have more tendencies to having sexual intercourse with more than one girl.

6. The boys give little importance to love and affection for their sexual relation

These sexual behaviours differences between the two opposite sex are mostly determined by the social expectations and cultural limitations. The studies conducted on the required and interested knowledge of the teenagers about sex showed that the girls are more interested to get information about pregnancy. However, the boys are mostly interested to get information about how to have a satisfactory sexual relation. According to Ohadi(2001),with reference to the studies conducted by KSEYIN ,even though the girls reach puberty earlier than the boys, the boys get their maximum potency earlier than the girls. The girls aged between 10 and 13 and the boys aged between 12 and 14 reach puberty(Biyabangard,1999).Therfore,the teenagers reach puberty when they are in the secondary schools and in this period of life they feel some new natural needs resulting from the biological and physiological needs.

Unfortunately, because of the teenagers ' lack of knowledge concerning and the parents' lack of attention to puberty ,teenagers especially the girls are sexually abused and sustain psychological and imparable damages.The studies showed that the girls who reached puberty unawares and didn't have any knowledge about puberty, suffered from affective disorders, have a sense of sin and even burnt themselves and committed suicide(Biyabangard,1999).According to Debs (1956:60),the teenagers' period of life during which they reach puberty consists of five phases:

1. First, the teenager become aware of physical differences between the girls and boys and this awareness arouse his interest in sexual affairs

2. Sexual issues are attracted more attention and the teenager show affection and love for the opposite sex

3. The teenager show more interest in the opposite sex.In this phase,the teenager has affection for several persons

4. Affection for and interest in several persons is changed into the affection for one opposite sex,who may be older than the teenager. In this phase the teenager needs to be affectionately supported

5.the teenager changed his idea and show affection and love for an opposite sex who is as old as him

A. Shekarey etal. SPracedia - S ocidl <md Behavioral Sciences 40(2011) 1641 - 1646

4. Masturbation

Masturbation is an aberrant sexual behaviour which is more common than other socially unacceptable behaviours. In their studies, Kamkar and Jabarian(2007) showed that the youngest persons starting masturbating are aged between 8 and 10.Furhermore,those who referred to psychiatric clinics have a negative approach and sense of sin for masturbating.70 percent of these persons belong to the middle class and 5 percent of them suffer from mental disorders. All teenagers had a negative view on masturbation and reproached themselves. However, they continued masturbating, because of the increase of daily life's tension and they become nervous, depressed and so on.

1-4. Symptoms and signs of masturbation

The person accustomed to masturbating have some sings which include: paleness, dark circles under the eyes ,excessive tiredness and faintness,drowsiness,memory loss,anxiety,depression,anger ,trembling of the parts of body and despair(Kochetkov,1990:114).

2-4.negative effects of masturbation

A. Physical damages

1. Weakness of physical power: a natural consequence of masturbating is tiredness. If a person get used to masturbating, he will always feel tired. This tiredness will result in the weakness of the human's body and so the immunity against diseases is reduced and the person becomes old soon.

2. Poor vision: Those masturbating gradually began to have a poor sight. Studies showed that most persons accustomed to masturbating felt dizzy, felt a pain in their eyes and eventually their eyesight got dim.

3. Damages to the sexual organs and impotence: Masturbating would cause great damages to the sexual organs:

a. Premature ejaculation

b.Impotence , sex hormones disorders and genital disorders

c.sexually transmitted disease and possibility of infertility

d. incomplete sexual satisfaction

B. Mental and psychological damages

1. Lack of memory and forgetfulness: As it is mentioned, one of the consequences of the masturbating is the weakness of physical powers which itself is the consequence of brain disorders. The person addicted to masturbating is absentminded and cannot concentrate well, because his brain is somehow damaged by masturbating.

2. Aggression and anger

The person addicted to masturbating is easily annoyed, is not interested in conversing with others, is bad -tempered, burst into anger, hate others' advice and is not logical.

C. Social damages

The person addicted to masturbating prefers loneliness and doesn't enjoy involving himself in group activities. Therefore, this person's social and human identity is weakened and the society deprived from a young and creative person .Furthermore, this person will have problems in his family and in the society.

3-4. Reasons of masturbating

1. Seclusion and loneliness: Some psychologists consider masturbation a disease caused by loneliness (Debs 1956:62).Loneliness here means that the person doesn't have any social interactions with the members of the society and he is deprived of warm and friendly relationships. If loneliness continues, the person might be deprived of his interests.

2. Premature puberty :Premature puberty would cause problematic situation for the teenager, because there would be a wide gap between the puberty and marriage and so the problem would increase. There are different

A.Shekaohekt tel. /Prosedia - Socialaon! Beehooioral Soiencce 30 (2011( 1641 n (446

reactions to the premature puberty. The girls, for example, consider it unpleasant and hide it. The boys are, however, proud of themselves and speak with others about it (Sharafi,2000:204).

3. Cultural stimuli: some Cultural and social conditions allow the mass media and cultural devices to arouse the teenagers' sexual interests and emotions. If we take a look at some magazines, books, and films, we see that their pictures and even their contents are somehow provocative and make the teenager sexually excited.

4.Unsuitable clothes: The studies conducted by the psychologists and education experts proved that wearing tight clothes, especially a tight pair of jeans may make the teenagers sexually excited and result in masturbating.

4.4. How to prevent from masturbating

1. Sex education

Sex education is a process of acquiring knowledge and forming our awareness, approach and behaviour about gender, sexual identity, sexual awareness, appropriate behaviour and confidence in our relationship with the opposite sex ,so that we are immune from sexual abuses ,inadvertent pregnancy ,sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS and so on. The results of a study (Hassan Zadeh and et al.2005) showed that sex education had an effective role on 1.healthy behaviours 2.sound sexual behaviour 3.mental health and prevention of sex disorders 4.healthy life style and 5.appropriate sex identity. It is also noted in this study that sex education aims at Lincreasing the teenagers' confidence 2.improving the quality of the teenagers' interaction with the others and 3. Decreasing the damages originated from inadvertent or advertent sexual relations such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

2. Physical exercises

Physical exercises have great advantages over health, prevention of diseases, decreasing blood pressure, controlling weight, increase of life expectancy, improvement of confidence and specially reducing sexual desires and preventing from immoral behaviours ( Dimatteo,1999:392).

Furthermore, the studies showed that the athletes are less anxious and depresses than others.

3. Sleep adjustment

According to the psychological standards, sleeping has a great role on tranquillity and prevention from aberrant sexual behaviours. It is recommended that the teenagers go to bed early and wake up early in the morning. In their studies, William Wundt and other scholars showed that sleeping especially the fourth phase of sleeping i.e. sound sleep, is of paramount importance and this phase of sleeping occurs at early night(Paknej ad,1970:152).

4. Quality of sleep

The teenagers should sleep flat on their back and don't sleep in feather and soft beds and don't use soft blankets. Silvanus Stall believed that the teenagers should prevent from feather beds and soft blankets, so that they are less sexually excited and their body become more powerful

5. Healthy and balanced diet

The teenagers should eat foods which don't arouse their sexual desires. Therefore the teenagers should prevent from overeating foods such as egg, date, cinnamon, onion and so on. Furthermore, the teenagers should eat food at appropriate time, because it is one of the reasons that cause sleeping disorders.

6. Programming for leisure time

Activities such as calligraphy ,swimming ,hiking and so on can prevent the teenagers from aberrant sexual behaviours. According to Maurice Rosenberg, one of the factors shaping the teenager's identity is to what extent he is consistent with the society(Biyabangard,1999:121).The teenagers having a job are more confident.Furthermore,Bandura,Mentioned that those praise themselves because of their success are more likely respected and immune against aberrant behaviours(Bandura,1986:66).

A. Shckarcy etal. SProcedla - Social <md Behasiorcl Sciences 40(2011) 1401 - 1646

7. Development of spirituality

The studies showed that there is a positive significant relationship between religion , tranquility and abstention from aberrant behaviours. Witter and et al showed that 20 to 60 percent of the an individual's health is somehow determined by the religious beliefs (Nealman.J,1995).

Also the great western psychologist, Yung, come to the conclusion that religious beliefs can integrate and make meaningful an individual's personality.

8. Taking a cold bath

According to the historians, the ancient Iranians considered taking a cold bath one of their religious tasks and believed that it has great advantages. Taking a cold bath and especially washing the sexual organs by cold water has a positive role in the prevention and decrease of sexual desire. Stall(1909) also believed that one of the procedures to stay calm and prevent sexual desires is to wash our sexual organs with cold water several times in a day.

9. Inculcating:

The teenagers should inculcate themselves with a sense of prevention from masturbating. Paul-Celement Jagot mentioned that when we want to fight with an unpleasant habit, we should first picture its negative consequences in our mind and then picture the advantages and benefits of giving up this habit in our mind. He further noted that we should inculcate ourselves with a sense of responsibility about the health of our body and mind (Jagot).There are some other ways to prevent from masturbating and as space constrains we just mention some of them: Marriage, awareness of parents, hydropathy and abstention from watching blue movies.

Discussion and Conclusion

To satisfy ours sexual desires, there are different ways. Of these ways, some of them are acceptable and some of them are aberrant. It seems that the most common aberrant sexual behaviour among the teenagers is masturbation. Sex education via a comprehensive scientific program which is appropriate to the teenager's age and culture and subculture of the society about sound sexual behaviour is necessary and of paramount importance. Sex therapist both as a counsellor and a therapist can help the teenagers to become aware of physical, mental and social damages of masturbating. This kind of education should be conducted in such a way that teenagers are directed toward healthy and sound sexual behaviours and actions. Therefore, if the teenagers don't suffer from social, mental and physical damages, they may be resourceful and helpful citizens for their societies.Furhermore, reduction of mental and sexual damages can contribute to the reduction of psychological and social damages.

References

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--Hassan Zadeh.R & et al.(2005),The eddect of sex education on prevention from sexual disorders,Second symposium of sexual health,Tehran --Jagot, Paul-Celement(—),Will power,Translated by Emadi.K,Marefat Press.Pp.81-82

--Kamkar.M & Jabarian.Sh (2007),Happiness,Masturbation and Teenagers:Approaches and Religious beliefs,SeXual health Symposium,Tehran --Khosropoor,Y(1974),psychology of puberty and teenager hood,Tehran

--Kochetkov(1990),Psychology and sexual education of children and teenagers,Translated by Taghizadeh.M,Bonyad Press,Tehran -- .Nealman.J.& R.Persud.'Why do Psychiatrisist Neglect Religion,British Journal of medical Psycology.1995,vol68,pp.78-169. --Ohadi,B,(2001),Human being's sexual behaviors and tendencies,Atropat Press,Isfahan --Paknejad,R(1970),The firs university and the last prophet,Eslamie Press,Tehran --Sharafi,M.R.(2000),World of the teenagers, Culture institution of education,Tehran --Stall, Sylvanus(1909),what a young boy ought to know,Translated by Kasemi.N.Tehran Press.P.38