Scholarly article on topic 'Analyzing teachers’ perceptions on learning organizations in terms of different variables'

Analyzing teachers’ perceptions on learning organizations in terms of different variables Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Ergün Recepoğlu

Abstract The aim of this research is to analyze primary school teacher's perceptions on learning organizations in terms of different variables. This is a descriptive research in the survey model. The population of the study is teachers who work in primary schools in Kastamonu. The sample of this study was 157 primary school teachers. Learning Organization Assessment Scale developed by Celep, Konaklı and Recepoğlu (2011) was used as a data collection instrument. According to findings of the study, teachers’ perceptions on organizational learning don’t change according to gender, tenure of office and principals’ use of position power while teachers’ perceptions change according to their ages.

Academic research paper on topic "Analyzing teachers’ perceptions on learning organizations in terms of different variables"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 93 (2013) 618 - 623 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

3rd World Conference on Learning, Teaching and Educational Leadership (WCLTA-2012)

Analyzing teachers' perceptions on learning organizations in terms

of different variables

Ergun Recepoglu*

Assist. Prof., Kastamonu University, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Sciences, Kastamonu-Turkey

Abstract

The aim of this research is to analyze primary school teacher's perceptions on learning organizations in terms of different variables. This is a descriptive research in the survey model. The population of the study is teachers who work in primary schools in Kastamonu. The sample of this study was 157 primary school teachers. Learning Organization Assessment Scale developed by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011) was used as a data collection instrument. According to findings of the study, teachers' perceptions on organizational learning don't change according to gender, tenure of office and principals' use of position power while teachers' perceptions change according to their ages.

© 2013 TheAuthors. Publishedby ElsevierLtd.

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Ferhan Odaba§i Keywords: Learning organization, primary school, teacher

1. Introduction

Technological and scientific progress in 21st century leads to transformations in organizations. The necessity of transformation of organizations to learning organizations is inevitable in rapidly changing and developing world. Organizations are now obliged to become learning organizations for adaptation to rapid changes in every field.

Organizations have learning capacity like living organisms. Organizations change their behavior types according to the changing conditions like other living organisms, that is organizations develop their learning capacity (Gü9lü, 1999). We can mention about learning organization only if we stop thinking organizations like a machine.

Learning organization approach which has been on the agenda and has been gaining more and more importance since the last quarter of the twentieth century was mentioned for the first time in the studies of Chris Argryis and Donald Schön (cited from 1978 by Bayraktaroglu & Kutanis, 2002) and this approach was analyzed in detail and systematically in Peter Senge's book of "Fifth Discipline" which was published in 1990. Learning organization notion is based on the system thinking. The system thinking which was characterized as a fifth discipline evaluates management as a whole which differentiated pieces that influence each other constantly and which includes more than the total of these pieces (Senge, 2003). The keystone of the learning organization is a learning individual. The one who will create learning teams and finally learning organization is the learning individual (Bozkurt, 2000). Senge (2003) states that learning organizations learn by means of learning individuals and defines learning

* Ergün Recepoglu Tel.: +90-505-767-3576 E-mail address: erecepoglu@kastamonu.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Ferhan Odaba§i

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.249

organizations as dynamic structure which continuously changes, evolves and renews itself. Calvert, Mobley and Marshall (1994) also defines learning organization as

"living organisms which renew themselves, which aim to enable organization-group consistency and individual's accommodation to the changes, which prepare every kind of environment for the learning that supports necessary individual experiences and which motivate individuals. The shortest definition is that learning organization is an organization which expands its capacity continuously (Tuz, 1996, p.: 36).

Social and political developments, technological innovations, continual and rapid changes in environment and developing possibilities of access to information also force educational organizations to change. The number of researches on educational organizations in Turkey is insufficient. Therefore, it is of great importance to search organizational learning potential of schools and their needs to become learning organizations.

The aim of this research is to analyze primary school teacher's perceptions on learning organizations in terms of different variables. In order to realize this aim, educational practices, supportive leadership, communication and education technology, information sharing and cooperation dimensions of organizational learning are analyzed in terms of teachers' perceptions. In this context, answers were sought to these following questions.

1. Do teachers' perceptions on learning organizations show a meaningful difference in terms of teachers' gender, age and tenure of office?

2. Do teachers' perceptions on learning organizations show a meaningful difference in terms of school principals' use of position power?

2. Methodology

This is a descriptive research in the survey model. The population of the study is teachers who work in primary schools in Kastamonu. The study sample of this study was 157 primary school teachers working in central province of Kastamonu. Teachers were selected randomly from 16 primary schools.

2.1. Participants

250 questionnaires were delivered to the teachers and 157 questionnaires were used in data analysis. 33,1% of the teachers were 22-30 years old, 37,6% of the teachers were 31-40, 26,1% of the teachers were 41-50 and 3,2% were 51-60. The split between genders was in favor of female with 57,3 % female and 42,7% male. In terms of tenure, almost 40% of the participants had more than 5 years of experience as an educator and almost 60% of the participants had 0-5 years of teaching experience.

2.2. Data collection and data analysis

"Learning Organization Assessment Scale" developed by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011) was used as a data collection instrument. In the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011), Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Sample Efficiency Test and Barlett Test were carried out and KMO value was above 0,50 and Barlett test was meaningful (0,05 importance degree). Data set was found suitable to the factor analysis (KMO=0,922, yl Barlett test (528)= 4854,09 , p=0,000). Five-point Likert type survey ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) has been used for the purpose of measuring teachers' perceptions regarding organizational learning. According to the result of the factor analysis of this survey, it was seen that Eigen value of 33 items was classified under 4 factors which are bigger than 1. It was determined that the first of the these factors explains 25,3% of the variance, the second factor explains 17,2% of the variance, the third factor explains 10,3% and the fourth explains 9,2% of the variance. It was determined that four factors explain 62% of the variance. Considering the contents of the questions in factors, dimensions were entitled as educational practices, supportive leadership, communication and educational technologies, information sharing and cooperation. In instructional practices dimension, factor loadings change between ,66 and ,76; Cronbach's Alpha value is ,83. In supportive leadership dimension, factor loadings change between ,42 and ,78; Cronbach's Alpha value is ,80. In communication and educational technologies dimension, factor loadings change between ,49 and ,78; Cronbach's Alpha value is ,93. In information sharing and cooperation dimension, factor loadings change between ,46 and ,67; Cronbach's Alpha value is ,88. The general reliability of the scale is ,89. and for this study it is ,94

The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) 16 program was used for statistical analysis of the data collected by the surveys filled in correctly and fully according to the explanations in the frame of the general aims of the study. The frequency, percentage, arithmetical mean and standard deviation of the answers were calculated. Independent t-Test and One-Way ANOVA were performed to analyze the data.

3. Findings, discussion and conclusion

T-test was done in order to determine whether teachers' perceptions about organizational learning in their schools show a meaningful difference or not according to teachers' gender. T-test results according to participants' gender are shown in Table 1 in terms of Organizational Learning Assessment Scale dimensions.

Table 1. T-test results for teachers' perceptions on organizational learning according to gender

Dimensions Gender N X s sd T p

Instructional Female 90 4,08 ,99 155 1,13 ,25

practices Male 67 3,92 ,69

Supportive Female 90 3,75 1,02 153 ,94 ,34

leadership Male 67 3,89 ,84

Communication and Female 90 3,80 ,77 155 ,55 ,57

educational technologies Male 67 3,72 ,85

Information sharing and Female 90 3,91 ,84 155 ,34 ,72

cooperation Male 67 3,87 ,75

According to the results of the analysis, teachers' perceptions about organizational learning in their schools do not show a meaningful difference according to gender. In other words, male and female teachers have same perceptions in all dimensions of organizational learning in their schools. The findings are similar with that of Bal (2011), Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011) and Co^kun (2008).

ANOVA results according to participants' tenure of office in their schools are shown in Table 2 in terms of Organizational Learning Assessment Scale dimensions.

Table 2 ANOVA results for organizational learning according to participants' tenure of office

Dimensions Tenure of office N X s sd F p Mean. Difference

1. 1-5 years 113 3,98 ,68

Instructional 2. 6-10 years 23 4,26 1,46 3

practices 3. 11-15 years 12 3,62 ,75 153 1,90 ,131

4. 16 year and over 9 4,33 1,15

1. 1-5 years 113 3,76 ,91

Supportive 2. 6-10 years 23 4,20 ,61 3 2,01 ,114

leadership 3. 11-15 years 12 3,46 1,22 153

4. 16 year and over 9 3,86 1,40

1. 1-5 years 113 3,74 ,83

Communication 2. 6-10 years 23 3,91 ,65 3

and educational 3. 11-15 years 12 3,77 ,64 153 ,31 ,817

technologies 4. 16 year and over 9 3,69 1,03

1. 1-5 years 113 3,86 ,84

Information 2. 6-10 years 23 4,10 ,60 3

sharing and 3. 11-15 years 12 3,79 ,65 153 ,65 ,581

cooperation 4. 16 year and over 9 3,92 ,93

According to the results of the analysis, teachers' perceptions about organizational learning in their schools do not show a meaningful difference according to participants' tenure of office. In other words, teachers' tenure of office does not affect their perceptions in all dimensions of organizational learning in their schools. The findings are similar with that of Uysal (2005).The findings are similar with that of Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011) except

supportive leadership dimension of organizational learning. According to the results of the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011), teachers' perceptions about supportive leadership dimension show a meaningful difference according to participants' tenure of office. Teacher perceptions about whether principals show supportive leadership behavior or not and principals support organizational learning in their schools or not change according to their tenure of office. The mean of teachers who have 6-10 years of tenure of office ( X = 4.3) is higher than the mean of teachers who have 1-5 years of tenure of office ( X = 3.68).

ANOVA results according to participants' ages in their schools are shown in Table 3 in terms of Organizational Learning Assessment Scale dimensions.

Table 3. ANOVA results for organizational learning according to participants' ages

Dimensions Age N X s sd F p Mean. Difference

1. 22-30 52 3,96 ,65

Instructional 2. 31-40 59 4,21 1,03 3

practices 3. 41-50 41 3,75 ,82 153 2,73 ,046 2-3*

4. 51 and over 5 4,42 ,51

1. 22-30 52 3,73 ,88

Supportive 2. 3 1 -40 5 9 4, 00 , 92 3

leadership 3. 41-50 41 3,59 1,03 153 1,74 ,160

4. 51 and over 5 4,00 1,00

Communication 1. 22-30 52 3,65 ,76

and educational 2. 31-40 59 3,80 ,81 3

technologies 3. 41-50 41 3,86 ,85 153 ,56 ,642

4. 51 and over 5 3,77 ,79

Information 1. 22-30 52 3,71 ,78

sharing and 2. 31-40 59 4,12 ,73 3

cooperation 3. 41-50 41 3,74 ,85 153 3,68 ,013 1-2*

4. 51 and over 5 4,40 ,63

According to the results of the analysis, teachers' perceptions about supportive leadership dimension of organizational learning [F (3-153)= 1,74, p>.01] do not show a meaningful difference according to their ages. The findings are similar with that in the research done by Bal (2011) and Banoglu (2009).The findings aren't similar to that of Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011). According to the results of the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011), teachers' perceptions about supportive leadership dimension show a meaningful difference according to their ages.

According to the results of the analysis, teachers' perceptions about communication and educational technologies dimension of organizational learning [F (3-153)= ,56, p>.01] do not show a meaningful difference according to their ages. The findings are similar with that of Bal (2011), Banoglu (2009) and Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011).

According to the results of the analysis, teachers' perceptions about instructional practices dimension of organizational learning show a meaningful difference according to their ages [F (3-153)= 2,73, p<.01]. This finding shows that the teachers' perceptions about instructional practices change according to teachers' ages. Tukey HSD test was done in order to determine the groups which have a meaningful difference between them. There is a meaningful difference between teachers in the age of 31-40 and teachers who are 41-50 years old. According to Tukey HSD test, it is determined that the teachers of 31-40 ( X =4,21) stated more positive opinion than the teachers of 41-50 ( X =3,75). While the teachers at 41-50 ages stated most negative opinion ( X =3.75), the teachers in the age of 51 and over ( X =4.42) stated most positive opinion about organizational learning in instructional practices dimension. The results of this research have similar with the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011). According to the results of the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011), teachers' perceptions about instructional practices dimension show a meaningful difference according to their ages. It is determined that the teachers in the age of 31-40 ( X =4.19) and 51-60 ages ( X =4.4) stated more positive opinion than the teachers in the age of 20-30 ( X =3.74).

According to the results of the analysis, teachers' perceptions about information sharing and cooperation dimension of organizational learning show a meaningful difference according to their ages [F (3-153)= 3,68, p<.01]. In other words; teacher opinions about whether information sharing and cooperation exist in organizational learning

environment in their schools change according to their ages. Tukey HSD test was done in order to determine the groups which have a meaningful difference between them. There is a meaningful difference between teachers of 2230 and teachers of 31-40. According to Tukey HSD test, it is determined that the teachers of 31-40 ( X =4,12) stated more positive opinion than the teachers of 22-30 (X =3,71). While the teachers of 20-30 stated most negative opinion ( X =3.71), the teachers who were 51 and over ( X =4.40) stated most positive opinion about organizational learning in instructional practices dimension. Findings are similar to that of Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011). According to the results of the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011), teachers' perceptions about information sharing and cooperation dimension show a meaningful difference according to their ages. It is determined that the teachers of 51-60 (X =4,38) stated more positive opinion about information sharing and cooperation dimension of organizational learning than the teachers of 20-30 ( X =3,77).

Finally, it can be asserted that teachers' perceptions about organizational learning in their schools show a meaningful difference according to their ages and the older they get, the more they state a positive opinion about organizational learning environment. But it mustn't be disregarded that this finding may stem from the fact that young teachers' expectations are higher than the others.

T-test was done in order to determine whether teachers' perceptions about organizational learning in their schools show a meaningful difference or not according to principals' use of their position power. T-test results according to principals' use of their position power are shown in Table 4 in terms of Organizational Learning Assessment Scale dimensions.

Table 4. T-test results about teachers' perceptions on organizational learning according to principals' use of their position power.

Dimensions Use of position power N X s sd T p

Instructional Yes 98 3,91 ,76 155 1,96 ,052

practices No 59 4,19 1,02

Supportive Yes 98 3,70 ,97 155 1,88 ,061

leadership No 59 3,99 ,88

Communication and Yes 98 3,78 ,85 155 ,19 ,84

educational technologies No 59 3,75 ,73

Information sharing and Yes 98 3,83 ,83 155 1,25 ,21

cooperation No 59 4,00 ,74

According to the results of the analysis, teachers' perceptions about organizational learning in their schools do not show a meaningful difference according to principals' use of their position power. In other words; analysis shows that teachers' perceptions about organizational learning do not change according to principals' use of their position power in all dimensions of organizational learning. The results of this research are similar with the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011) except supportive leadership dimension of organizational learning. According to the results of the research done by Celep, Konakli and Recepoglu (2011), teachers' perceptions about supportive leadership dimension show a meaningful difference according to principals' use of their position power.

As a conclusion, teachers' perceptions on organizational learning don't change according to gender, tenure of office and principals' use of position power while teachers' perceptions change according to their ages. Teachers' perceptions on organizational learning can be analyzed with new and different data collection instruments.

References

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