Scholarly article on topic 'CDM Projects of Renewable Energy(Case Study)'

CDM Projects of Renewable Energy(Case Study) Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — A. Ghezloun, S. Chergui, N. Oucher

Abstract Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol the 16 February 2005, the clean development mechanism (CDM) has seen an edifying development internationally allowing developing countries, to participate in the fight against climate change, by the realization of projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GGE). Algeria has installed in July 2, 2006, the Commission of the Designated National Authority (DNA), responsible for the implementation of the CDM. In the context of development of a portfolio of projects eligible for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a Workshop was organized by the Central Directorate HSE (health, Safety and Environment) in June 9, 2008 at the headquarters of the Directorate General of Sonatrach in Algeria. The main objective of this meeting is to present the project MASDAR and identify projects to be eligible for CDM. It should be noted that the Masdar Initiative was launched in April 2006 by the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, which consists to invest in the development of energy future, including clean energy, renewable and alternative. At the institutional level, Tunisia has established its Designated National Authority (DNA) since December 2004 for approval of CDM projects. In addition, the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Small and Medium Enterprises has created in December 2005 a CDM Task Force which aims to promote the realization of CDM projects in the areas of energy and industry. A portfolio of 76 projects including several renewable energy projects potentially eligible under the CDM were launched specifically for the period 2007-2011.

Academic research paper on topic "CDM Projects of Renewable Energy(Case Study)"

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Energy Procedia 18 (2012) 1335 - 1340

CDM Projects of Renewable Energy (Case Study)

A. Ghezlouna, S.Cherguia, N.Oucher1

Division Bio-Energie et Environnement, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, B.P 62, Route de

l'Observatoire, Bouzaréah, Alger, Algeria. e-mail: aghezloun@yahoo.fr

© 20122 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of The TerraGreen Society.

Keywords: Renewable energy; Sustainable development; Energy efficiency; Rural electrification; Central hybrid solar/gas; Wind farm; Solar collectors; Energy balance.

Abstract

Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol the 16 February 2005, the clean development mechanism (CDM) has seen an edifying development internationally allowing developing countries, to participate in the fight against climate change, by the realization of projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GGE).

Algeria has installed in July 2, 2006, the Commission of the Designated National Authority (DNA), responsible for the implementation of the CDM. In the context of development of a portfolio of projects eligible for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a Workshop was organized by the Central Directorate HSE (health, Safety and Environment) in June 9, 2008 at the headquarters of the Directorate General of Sonatrach in Algeria. The main objective of this meeting is to present the project MASDAR and identify projects to be eligible for CDM. It should be noted that the Masdar Initiative was launched in April 2006 by the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, which consists to invest in the development of energy future, including clean energy, renewable and alternative.

At the institutional level, Tunisia has established its Designated National Authority (DNA) since December 2004 for approval of CDM projects. In addition, the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Small and Medium Enterprises has created in December 2005 a CDM Task Force which aims to promote the realization of CDM projects in the areas of energy and industry. A portfolio of 76 projects including several renewable energy projects potentially eligible under the CDM were launched specifically for the period 2007-2011.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 213-21-90-15-03; fax: 213-21-90-15-60. E-mail address: aghezloun@yahoo.fr.

1876-6102 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of The TerraGreen Society. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2012.05.150

In contribution to the effort of the international community to reduce the impact of climate change, Morocco has set up the DNA CDM and created the National Council of the CDM in 2002 in order to provide the necessary support to the DNA and has developed a diversified portfolio of more than fifty projects in various sectors including renewable energy.

Keywords: Renewable energy - Sustainable development, CDM Projects - Rural Electrification - Solar Heating.

1. Introduction

The Kyoto Protocol is derived from the Framework-Convention of United Nations on Climate Change (FCUNCC) adopted at the Earth Summit in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro.

Delegates from 160 countries met in Kyoto in December 1997 to discuss measures to counter global warming. The negotiations were difficult, but participants have agreed to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases by 5.2% between 2008 and 2012, compared to 1990 levels. The three most important gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are measured relative to 1990 levels, against by gases with a longer life (hydrofluocarbures, perfluorocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride) are calculated relative to 1990 levels or 1995. The United States should reduce their emissions by 7%, Canada 6% and the European Union by 8%. China, second polluter in the world, was granted an exemption [1].

Most industrialized countries have then launched during 2002, the ratification process. The absence of the United States, however, made it difficult to collect 55% of emissions required by the protocol. Russia deposited its instrument of ratification on 18 November 2004 and the Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005. Today it is ratified by one hundred and sixty-one states and the European Community, representing 61.6% of emissions.

To achieve these objectives, the protocol offers a variety of means:

- Strengthen or develop national policies to reduce emissions (increasing of energy efficiency, promotion of sustainable agriculture forms, and development of renewable energy sources ...)

- Cooperate with other contracting parties (exchange of experience and information, coordination of national policies in the interests of efficiency through cooperation mechanisms, namely emission permits, joint implementation and clean development mechanism) [2].

Nomenclature

CDM Clean Development Mechanism

GGE Greenhouse Gaz Emissions

DNA Designated National Authority

OKCE Oum el Khelil Cement

JOC Jbel el Ouest Cement

TACWC Tunisian-Andalusian Compny of White Cement

GPC Gafsa Phosphate Company

NSTR National Society of Tunisian Railways

TCRI Tunisian Company of Refining Industries

PINs Information Note of CDM project

PDD Project Design Document

2. The Clean Development Mechanism or CDM

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the three flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol (KP).

The CDM as described in the Protocol aims therefore to "assist Parties not included in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and contribute to the ultimate objective of the Convention, and to help Parties included in Annex I to meet their commitments of limitation and reduction of their emissions" [3].

The CDM is based on projects funded by public and private actors on a bilateral or multilateral basis, but the host part is necessarily a developing country. The state that finances a project activity under the CDM benefits during the term of this, emission credits corresponding to the additional reductions generated by the operation. These credits are added to its national quota and can be used to meet a part of its commitments. In return, the CDM project should assist the host country in achieving a sustainable development and to contribute to the ultimate objective of the Convention on Climate Change [4].

3. Case Study

3.1 Portfolio of CDM projects of renewable energy in Algeria

For countries such as Algeria, the CDM is a new source of funding allowing the transfer of clean technologies and the contribution to sustainable development.

To benefit from this mechanism, Algeria ratified successively the Framework-Convention of United Nations on Climate Change (FCUNCC) and Kyoto Protocol.

In the context of development of a portfolio of projects eligible for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a Workshop was organized by the Central Directorate HSE in June 9, 2008 at the headquarters of the Directorate General of Sonatrach in Algeria with representatives HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) of all activities and subsidiaries of Sonatrach.

The main objective of this meeting is to present the project MASDAR and identify projects to be eligible for CDM. It should be noted that the Masdar Initiative was launched in April 2006 by the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, which is to invest in development of energy future, including clean energy, renewable and alternative. The Masdar Initiative will invest about $ 15 billion over the next 5 years, allocated by the government of the United Arab Emirates UAE to promote sustainable energy projects.

Algeria has installed in July 2, 2006, the commission of the Designated National Authority (DNA), responsible for the application of the CDM, in accordance with the Marrakech Accords by the Minister for Territory Planning and Environment. It is important to note that the creation and implementation of

this National Authority is an institutional prerequisite for any developing country wanting to host CDM projects in its territory. [5]

To date, Algeria has no projects registered at the executive Council or project in the pipeline for registration. The DNA also did not record projects at the stage of PDD except project ideas (PINs) that are submitted for opinion and projects intentions.

3.2 Portfolio of CDM projects of renewable energy in Tunisia

At the institutional level, Tunisia has established its Designated National Authority (DNA) since December 2004 for approval of CDM projects. In addition, the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Small and Medium Enterprises created in December 2005 a Task Force CDM which aims to promote the realization of CDM projects in the areas of energy and industry.

The objective of developing such a portfolio is to evaluate and communicate the mitigation Tunisian potential of greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to sustainable development.

This portfolio includes some CDM projects of renewable energy whose be launched especially For the period 2007-2011, theses are:

- Change of scale of the market of solar hot water in the residential (452 000m2).

- Market development of solar hot water in the tertiary sector (60 000m2).

- Market development of solar hot water in the industry (30 000m2).

- Solar drying of phosphates in the Gafsa Phosphate Company (1.2 million tonnes of phosphate).

- Rural Electrification Project, and water supply by photovoltaic solar energy in Tunisia (1700 photovoltaic systems 170 KWC).

- Setting up a wind farm of 35 MW.

- Setting up a wind farm of 120 MW.

- Installation of a wind farm of 14 MW at the OKCE.

- Installation of a 15 MW wind farm at the cements of Gabes.

- Installation of a wind farm of 14 MW at the JOC.

- Installation of a wind farm of 10 MW at the TACWC.

- Installation of a 5 MW wind farm in El Fouledh.

- Installation of a 2 MW wind farm in the GPC.

- Installation of a 2 MW wind farm at the NSTR.

- Installation of a 2 MW wind farm at the TCRI.

- Independent production of electricity from pomace olive and almond bark waste 40 MWe.

- Production of biofuels from a mixture of oils and vegetable oils (palm, rapeseed, etc.).

- Production of biofuels from a mixture of oils and vegetable oils.

- Installation of wood boilers in the new MDF plant in Bir M'Cherga (6 MWe capacity prod and 24 MWth).

- Establishing a reforestation program by the Jatropha (Project Idea) 1000 ha [6].

3.3 Portfolio of CDM projects of renewable energy in Morocco

In contribution to the effort of the international community to reduce the impact of climate change, Morocco has set up the DNA CDM and created the National Council of the CDM in 2002 to provide the

necessary support to the DNA and has developed a diversified portfolio of more than fifty projects in various sectors including renewable energy theses are:

- Development of bagasse of SURAC.

- Project of electricity production by the photovoltaic kits.

- 10 MW wind farm in Tetouan.

- Wind farm of 60 MW in Essaouira.

- Emission of greenhouse gas emissions in the fish meal industry in Morocco-steam power plant.

- Double extension of the wind farm in the Tetouan cement plant of Lafarge.

- Wind farm in Tangier (140 MW).

- Wind Project for the desalination plant of Tan Tan, Installation of 10 MW.

- 60 MW wind farm Haouma.

- Hydroelectric development project of Tillouguit (32 MW).

- Wind farm in Laayoune (10MW).

- Wind Farm of Taza (100 MW).

- Generation of electricity from renewable energy sources for integrated development of the valley of the Ouneine, Moroccan High Atlas.

- Solar Thermal Central Beni Mathar (472 MW).

- Installation of a cogeneration system to LPG (10 MW) in Union Porcelain).

- wind farm DIMAVERT 10 MW.

- First extension of the wind farm in the Lafarge cement plant in Tetouan (10 MW).

- 50 MW wind farm.

- Solar water heater program Morocco.

- Recovery of waste heat and cogeneration (4 MW) by promoting pyrrhotite.

- Supply power by photovoltaic solar energy of airport platforms.

- Wind Farm of Foum el Wad. [7].

4. Conclusion

In the current architecture of international climate agreements, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only instrument that creates a link between the countries of Annex B, that have made commitments to reduce emissions and developing countries that, by ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, have not made quantified commitments.

The CDM may provide opportunities of innovative actions and contribute to the strengthening of cooperation/solidarity between these states.

Despite the delays diagnosed in the use of CDM to contribute to the development of the three Maghreb countries, we can expect that the attractiveness of these Maghreb countries increases for CDM projects.

References

[1] Bernard Jouve, Et si le Protocole dr Kyoto avait aussi drs impacts sur la gouvernance dr oos sociétés ?, Energie-Francophonie, numéro 58- premier trimestre 2003.

[2] Décision 2002/358/CE du Conseil, du 25 avril 2002, relative à l'approbation, au nom de la Communauté européenne, du protocole de Kyoto à la convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques et l'exécution conjointe des engagements qui en découlent in

http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/tackling_climat...

[3] Sandrine MATHY, Le Mécanisme de développement propre : à la recherche d'une synergie entre environnement et développement, Energie-Francophonie Numéros 66-67- premier et deuxième trimestre 2005.

[4] Marianne MOLINER-DUBOST, Le Mécanisme pour un développement propre : Une nouvelle voie de coopération et de transferts Nord / Sud ? , Revue générale de droit international public, RGDIP 2004 - 4.

[5] Bulletin HSE ( Santé, Sécurité et Environnement), SONATRACH, N° 11, juin 2008.

[6] Portefeuille de projets MDP dans les secteurs de l'énergie et de l'industrie en Tunisie in http://www.mdptunisie.tn/pdf/file/portefeuille_projets_mdp_ANME.pdf

[7] Portefeuille de projets MDP Maroc in http://www.cdmmorocco.ma/fr/portfeuil_mdpma.php