Scholarly article on topic 'The relationship among predictors of child, family, school, society and the government and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria'

The relationship among predictors of child, family, school, society and the government and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Adesehinwa Olayinka Adenike, Aremu Amos Oyesoji

Abstract The study investigated the relationship among predictors of child, family, school, society and the government and academic achievement of 200 Senior Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria. The participants were randomly sampled from four secondary schools (two privately and two government owned schools). They ranged in age between 14 and 18 years (Mean=16.5, SD=1.7). Data were collected using Academic Performance Five-Factor Inventory (AP5-FI). Two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 margin of error through multiple regression analysis and t-test statistic. Results showed that over the years, the investigations of the factors that influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest and concern of teachers, counsellors, psychologists, researchers and school administrators in Nigeria. Results showed that society could predict academic achievement. However there were no significant relationship among family, child and government factors and academic achievement.

Academic research paper on topic "The relationship among predictors of child, family, school, society and the government and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria"

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Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 842-849

WCPCG-2010

The relationship among predictors of child, family, school, society and the government and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria

Adesehinwa Olayinka Adenikea*, Aremu Amos Oyesojia

aDepartment of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Received January 13, 2010; revised February 3, 2010; accepted March 25, 2010

Abstract

The study investigated the relationship among predictors of child, family, school, society and the government and academic achievement of 200 Senior Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria. The participants were randomly sampled from four secondary schools (two privately and two government owned schools). They ranged in age between 14 and 18 years (Mean=16.5, SD=1.7). Data were collected using Academic Performance Five-Factor Inventory (AP5-FI). Two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 margin of error through multiple regression analysis and t-test statistic. Results showed that over the years, the investigations of the factors that influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest and concern of teachers, counsellors, psychologists, researchers and school administrators in Nigeria. Results showed that society could predict academic achievement. However there were no significant relationship among family, child and government factors and academic achievement. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords;, Child, home, school, society, government and academic achievement.

1. Introduction

Nigeria like any other developing nations has witnessed prolong military rule and aborted civilian administrations, which necessitated the promulgation of decrees, edicts and laws concerning educational practices at federal, state and local government levels. The inconsistent continuation of governments' policies on education, have not only eroded confidence in education and water down education standard, they have also made stake holders (parents, guardians, educationists) to begin to fault government sincerity on education. This gradually laid the foundation of falling standard in education at the primary and secondary school levels. Most Nigerians have continued to express concerns about the falling standard of education among the younger generation of Nigerians. Recent developments in the education sector should be of grave concern to the government and the larger society. The incessant strikes by teachers at all levels of education, the declining role of public schools in the Nigerian education system in the midst of a seemingly booming but poorly regulated and monitored private schools as well as declining public expenditure per capita on education in Nigeria are unfortunate indicators of a system in a deep crisis.

1877-0428 © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.196

In the quest of finding survival, the nation has evolved series of socio-economic and educational measures and policies such as Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP), austerity measures, Universal Primary Education (UPE), Universal Basic Education (UBE) and devaluation of the Naira. These measures have not improved the social-economic and educational status of families in the country. They have rather increased their sufferings and widened the socio-economic gap between families.

High level of illiteracy, poverty and low socio-economic status coupled with high rate of paternal and maternal deprivation of student academic needs, which was necessitated by poor socio-economic situation of the country has thrown many parents into untold financial problems such as poverty, lack of money to purchase necessary textbooks and working materials for their kids. These ugly situations have made young school students to drop out of school to engage in street hawking and become housemaids or engage in other menial jobs to support their academic pursuit. Hence, many students have since taken schooling as a secondary assignment and school attendance on rotational basis. The resultant problem posed by this, is poor academic achievement in school examination like National Examination Council (NECO) and West African Examination Council (WAEC). These are two bodies that conduct examinations for secondary schools in Nigeria. This trend is therefore, posing huge problems to parents, governments, political parties and stakeholders in education.

Thus, the poor performance of Nigerian students in the recently released examination results of the May/June, 2009 Senior Secondary School Certificate by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and the National Examinations Council (NECO) is both a reflection of the gory state of Nigeria's education system. This calls for an urgent attention. According to the details of the results released by WAEC on Friday, September 18, 2009, 75 per cent of candidates that sat for the examinations, recorded failure in English language and Mathematics, the results showed that out of a total of 1,373,009 candidates who wrote the examination, only 356,981, representing 25.99 per cent, obtained credit and above in English language and Mathematics and at least three other subjects and are, therefore, qualified for university admission without combining results. A further breakdown of the results shows that less than 33 per cent of the 356,981 students were science oriented, while the remaining 67 per cent were social science and art based. One then wonders what happens to the 60:40 Science: Arts ratio contained in the National Policy on Education.

Academic achievement is undoubtedly a research after the heart of educational psychologists. In their attempt to investigate what determines academic outcomes of learners, researchers have come with more questions than answers. In recent time, literature has shown that learning outcomes, academic achievement and academic performance could be determined by such variables as: family, school, society, and motivation (Aremu & Oluwole, 2001; Ozcinar, 2006). Much of the previous studies have focused on the impact of demographic and socio-psychological variables on academic achievement. More recently, another emerging dimension to the determinant of academic achievement is government factor.

In spite of the seeming exhaustiveness of literature on the determinants of academic achievement of learners, there seems to be more areas of interest to be investigated. Most students in secondary schools in Nigeria are daily confronted with challenges of coping with their academics under serious emotional strains occasioned by long walk to school, poor school environment, and been taught by unmotivated teachers. Couple with this, is the attitude of parents who more often than not, are been tossed by the wind of economic incapacitation of adequate provision for the family .This, most often keep them away from the children and thereby unable to monitor their academic progress.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

In many parts of the developing countries, secondary school education is in the midst of crises. These schools originally are regarded as central to national capacity to connect with the new international knowledge system. Yet, the capacity for these schools to continue to play this role and other roles has been reduced drastically. For example, secondary schools in the Western part of Nigeria remain the cornerstones for national development because they are the foundation for the preparation of the country's citizens towards entering institution of higher education. As a result, governments from the West part of Nigeria do not undermine the school system, thus, the need for greater information attribution, Creamers, (1994) .However, Nigerian secondary schools exist in the shadow of their glorious past because of their inability to ensure quality schooling and employing the right caliber of teachers and

putting them at the right place at the right time. Presently, unqualified teachers are still employed to handle instructional processes in secondary schools. Governments' lackadaisical attitude to education, influence of the society that gives credence to wealth without hard work, the socio-economic situation affected by global melt down forcing parents to stay away from home and fundamental responsibilities to their wards and other reasons have hampered secondary school effectiveness and quality improvement in academic achievement in the country

1.2 Review of Literature

Development of a society is closely tied to its level of educational development. In Nigeria, for instance the belief is that the higher the level of educational attainment, the better the condition of living and the overall development of the citizens. Hence education has been adopted as an instrument for effecting national development Moreover; problems facing Nigerians such as poverty, political instability, poor agricultural products and poor transportation are being attributed to lack of a type of education that is relevant and adequate for the need of the nation. Thus, it is believed that a solution to such problems lies in acquisition of the right type of skills knowledge and competencies through education. As a result of the belief in education as a potent solution to emerging or existing societal problems, a lot of human and material resources are being invested on regular basis into the nation's educational institutions. At secondary school level, like the other two levels (primary and tertiary) of education, the investments in the past years have been very enormous.

Incidentally, there are many problems which are emanating within the secondary educational institutions. Studies have found that differences in students' socioeconomic background explain some of the variations in student academic achievement ,Fraster, 1987; Ajila, C. & Olutola, A. (2000) while other studies, such as Wiseman, (1973) believe that class size is the most important determinant of student academic achievement others believe it is teachers' ability and teachers' experience which are variables for teachers' characteristics. These variables include average teacher salary, the percentage of teachers who are fully credentialed, and the percentage of teachers with less than two years of experience. One would expect that schools with a higher percentage of fully credentialed teachers would have higher student academic achievement, as these teachers should be better trained to teach students. In addition, one could also expect that schools with a higher percentage of new teachers could have lower student academic achievement as the teachers do not have experience teaching students. However, one could also argue that this could lead to higher student academic achievement as these teachers bring new teaching techniques and excitement to the job.

The home occupies the first and the most significant place for the development of the individual. Fraster (1987) concluded that early home environment is a significant prediction of mental development and at the same time the home is of extraordinary importance in the development of social intelligence. It does not only provide the hereditary transmission of basic potential for his development but also provides environmental conditions and personal relationships The foremost duty of the parents is to provide their child with need satisfaction by creating a home, a climate conducive for their healthy social adjustment. If the overall home environment favours the development of good social attitudes, the chances over those children will become socially more intelligent. Children from favourable home environment are found to be warm-hearted, outgoing and socially more intelligent than children from unfavourable homes (Adelani, 1998).

Parent involvement is important to the educational success of a young adolescent and yet generally declines when a child enters the middle grades (Epstein, 2005; Jackson & Andrews, 2004). Parent involvement is defined as having an awareness of and involvement in schoolwork, understanding of the interaction between parenting skills and student success in schooling, and a commitment to consistent communication with educators about student progress. The research on parent involvement in the education of young adolescents addresses parents' activities in support of learning at home, in school, and in the community. Adeyemo, (2005) stressed that there is a need to foster home school partnership. Since the general belief in the society is that parents are children's first teachers who play a critical role in their children's education experiences, more and more researchers and educators are turning to the families in search for solutions to the "problem"

The process of teaching and learning is rooted in student, teacher, and curriculum. Discussions about education are mostly focused on the level of attainment of the desired learning objectives. When student achievement is low, then some critical factors related to teaching and learning should be closely examined, such as qualities of teachers

and school curricula, appropriateness of teaching strategies to students' developmental levels, and atmosphere and climate of schools related to students learning. However, the perceptions of teachers as one of the main parts of the teaching and learning system are not well documented in literature. The effect the classroom teacher can have on student achievement is clear because student achievement begins and ends with the quality of the teacher, the instructional programme, and his/her leadership. After conducting a meta-analysis study, Marzano (2003) concluded that the most effective teachers produced a gain of about 53 percentage points in student achievement over one year, whereas the least effective teachers produced achievement gains of about 14 percentage points over one year.) McEwin, and Smith, (2005), put qualities of effective teachers into five categories: the teacher as a person, classroom manager and organizer, organizing for instruction, implementing instruction, and monitoring student progress and potential. The study found a significant relationship between resource availability, resources utilization and students' academic achievement in public and private secondary schools; this finding revealed that the low level students' academic achievement is related to the decline in the availability of teaching resources.

Nigeria like any other developing nations has witnessed series of political instability, with obvious effects on educational policies at federal, state and local government levels. This gradually laid the foundation of falling standard in education at the primary and secondary school levels, which caused differential academic achievement of students. In the quest of finding survival, the nation has evolved series of socio-economic and educational measures but these have not improved the social-economic status of families in the country. The environment in which the learner acquires knowledge should be reinforcing and learner-friendly Bakare (1994) mentioned the following: social class difference, anti-intellectual values, inequitable distribution of resources, and ethnic warfare as some of the factors that could hinder the following causative factors in government that could affect academic achievement of underfunding of education, instability of educational policy, leadership and job losses. From the above, it is revealed that the quality of parents and home background of a student goes a long way to predict the quality and regularity of the satisfaction and provision of a child's functional survival and academic needs. Poor parental care with gross deprivation of societal and government provision of needs of a child, usually yield poor academic achievement of the child, Similarly, good parenting supported by strong economic home background could enhance strong academic achievement of the child. This further predicts academic achievement where the child is properly counselled in the choice of his/her courses and vocation that matches his mental ability, interest and capability whereas the children to the care of the illiterate mothers will find themselves roaming about the street labouring to make ends meet. This paper thus examines the impact of the government, society, family, school and the child as predictor to academic achievement of secondary school students in Ibadan Oyo State capital in Nigeria

1.2.1. Purpose of this Study

This study examines the influence of five causal variables child, home, school, society and government as predictors in the academic achievement of Nigerian secondary school students, and to evaluate if there is a significant difference in term of different variables.

1.2.2 Sub-cases

The following sub-cases will be used to achieve the purpose defined above.

1.1 Is there any difference in the level of combined factors of child, family, school society, and the government as predictor to male and female students to promote high academic achievement?

1. 2 Is there any difference in the level of each independent variable as a predictor to promote high academic achievement?

2. Method

Survey research method was applied in the study which was carried out in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The target population for the study was the secondary school students in four selected secondary schools in the area comprising two governments and two privately owned schools. They were made up of 100 male students and 100 female students. Regression analysis was used as analytical tool. Data was collected using Aremu's (2002) Academic Achievement 5-Factor Inventory (AP5-FI). Participants were randomly selected from some secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Their ages ranged between 14 and 18 years (M=16.5, SD. = 1.7). Two hypotheses were tested for significance at .05 margin of error, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression Statistics.

2.1. Instrumentation

This study used, Academic Performance Five Factor Inventory, (AP5-FI) (Aremu 2002).This is a self-report paper pencil inventory. The inventory simply worded to meet the response of learners assists respondents to respond without physical and psychological Inhibitions. The AP5-FI has 5 major sections namely: Section A-Causation Residents in the child. Section: B-Causation Resident in the family. Section: C- Causation Resident in the school. Section: D Causation Resident in the Society. Section: E Causation Resident in the Government. Each of the section above has 20 structured likert statement with estimated co-efficient values r=0.79(Aremu and Sokan, 2002). The section contains statement structured as follows:5, if it much like you, 4, if it is like you,3,if it you are not sure 2,if it is unlike you 1, if it is very much like you, for section A,B,C, e.g. I see education as a means to an end, while section D structured on 5 negative items statements such as 1)strongly disagree 2) Disagree 3) Not sure, 4) Agree and 5) strongly disagree .e.g. I have cordial personal relationship with my teachers. These variables served as independent variables. In addition the questionnaire requested for demographic information such as age, gender, tribe level of parent's educational background. The study's dependent variable which is academic achievement was measured by analyses of students' scores in English language and Mathematics for the term preceding the administration of the questionnaire from the school.

3. Findings

Research question one:

1) Is there any difference in the level of combined factors of child, family, school society, and the government as predictor to male and female students to promote high academic achievement?

Table 1 : Showing combined factors of child, family, school society, and the government as predictor to male and female students to promote high

academic achievement.

Model Summary

17.1Model R RSquare Adjusted R Std.Error of

2. Square

the Estimate

17.3 1 .407 .166 .144 11.03511

aPredictors: (constant) E, C, B, A, D In table 1, the regression analysis yielded a co-efficient multiple regression ® of .407 and a multiple R-Square (R2) of .166 and the R2 values translated into 16.6% of the observed variance. In the same table, the result of the one way analysis of variance performed in the multiple regressions yielded an F-ratio value of 7.711 at the 0.05level of significance.

Adesehinwa Olayinka Adenike and Aremu Amos Oyesoji / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 5 (2010) 842-849 847 Table1:A NOVAb showing combined factors of child, family, school society, and the government as predictor to male and female students to promote

high academic achievement

Model Sum of Square Df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 4694.949 5 938.990 7.711 .000 "

Residual 2364.106 194 121.774

Total 28319.055 199

a. Predictors: (Constant) E, C, B, A, D B.Dependent Variable: Academic achievement

From the above table there is a significant difference in the combined factors of the independent variables and academic achievement as the dependable variable.

Tables Research questions two:

2) Is there any difference in the level of each independent variable a predictor to promote high academic achievement?

Table 2: Showing coefficients'1 of each independent variable as predictor to promote high academic achievement

Model summary

Model Unstandardized Standardized

Coefficients

B Std.Error coefficients

Beta t Sig.

1 (constant) 39.844 3.225 12.354 .000

8. D 4.719 .000 .259 .259 .318

a. DependantVariable: academic achievement

Table 2: Showing coefficientsa of each independent variable as predictor to promote high academic achievement

Model Beta T Sig

Partial correlation Collinearity Statistics Tolerant

1A -0.73a .285 -.076 .993

B 1.621 .107 .115 .990

C -1.410 .160 -.100 .950

E -1.481 140 -.105 .692

a. Predictors in the model: (Constant D)

b. Dependent Variable(academic achievement)

In table 2, the Betas of the casual variables to predict academic achievement are presented. Beta is the standard regression coefficient which is used to determine the relative impact or contributions of the independent in the determinating future. At 0.05 significance t <,7.027 the casual factors residence in the society is said to significantly at 17% predict the academic achievement of the Nigerian secondary school SS11 students, while casual variables of child, home, school and the government negatively predict the achievement of these children academically.

4. Discussion

The findings of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between combined effects of child, (A), Home, (B), School, (C), Society, (D), and Government, (E).as independent variables affecting high academic achievement, dependent variable of the Nigerian senior secondary school, (SS11) students. However, when the contribution influence of each independent variable was analyzed other variables except society did not significantly influence their academic achievement. This finding is in consistence with the evidence Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, &Iyamu, (2005). The environment in which the learner acquires knowledge should be reinforcing and learner friendly according to Adelani,( 1998), societal demands like political economy could determine the learners readiness to meet his environment's expectations, Aremu (2001) and Bakare (1994) mention the following social class difference, anti-intellectual values, inequitable distribution of resources, ethnic warfare,. as some of the factors that could hinder the following causative factors in the society and government that could affect academic achievement of underfunding of education instability of educational policy, leadership and job losses.

4.1 Conclusion and Recommendations

As evidenced by the positive correlations between the combined independent variables of, child home school, society and government and academic achievement of the secondary school students it is recommended that these variables has a lot to contribute to high academic achievement of the Nigerian students, hence each variables is expected to rise to its responsibilities in ensuring good educational policy ,funding to procure teaching aids and ensure prompt payment of salaries to boost the performance of teachers and ensuring that professionally qualified teachers are engaged by the government. Also a strong standing monitoring panel should be inaugurated to monitor the activity of the rampage upspring of private schools so as to ensure qualitative educational attainment of the Nigerian student.. Thus, researchers have suggested that multiple predictors of specific variables should be included in comprehensive studies in order to determine the relative and potentially cumulative contributions of these variables.

The study concludes with a discussion that further research is needed to examine other specific variables that directly influence students' academic achievement such as the level of parental involvement, child's emotional intelligence, motivation, teachers' attitude among other variables.

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