Scholarly article on topic 'An Analysis of News Reporting and its Effects, Using IBIL Model: Lee Gardens Plaza and C.S. Pattani Hotels Cases'

An Analysis of News Reporting and its Effects, Using IBIL Model: Lee Gardens Plaza and C.S. Pattani Hotels Cases Academic research paper on "Media and communications"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"news reporting" / "media effects" / "perception of Islam and Muslims" / "south Thailand insurgency" / "southern border provinces"}

Abstract of research paper on Media and communications, author of scientific article — Nuwan Thapthiang

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to look into news reporting of two recent bombings at the two most popular hotels: Lee Gardens Plaza in Hatyai and C. S. Pattani in Pattani, Thailand and its tangible and intangible impacts, using a cause-effect “IBIL Model” with four catalysts: (1) Ideology of Media Organization (I), (2) Bad News Outsells Good One (B), (3) Influential Individuals as Major News Sources (I), and (4) Limitation of Time and Space (L). Content analysis of news reports and observation are used to collect data. The study reveals that as the “IBIL Model” suggests, news coverage on these two car bombings fall into all four factors, causing negative effects on both individuals and society. Four main findings are as follows: (1) regardless of paper classifications, almost all news items can be classified into “War Journalism” (WJ) category, with three WJ indicators of language use: emotive, demonizing and victimizing, (2) all papers place their emphasis on bad news, making sensational headlines to attract audience, (3) mass media rely heavily on influential individuals, high-ranking authorities in particular, as major news sources and therefore interpretations of government discourse to define problems are repeatedly re-produced, and (4) Due to limited time and space, media organizations do tend to give more time and space and pay more attention to more recent and daily events than to investigative news reporting.

Academic research paper on topic "An Analysis of News Reporting and its Effects, Using IBIL Model: Lee Gardens Plaza and C.S. Pattani Hotels Cases"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 91 (2013) 411 - 420

PSU-USM International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences

An Analysis of News Reporting and Its Effects, Using IBIL Model: Lee Gardens Plaza and C.S. Pattani Hotels Cases

Nuwan Thapthiang*

Faculty of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus, Pattani 94000, Thailand

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to look into news reporting of two recent bombings at the two most popular hotels: Lee Gardens Plaza in Hatyai and C. S. Pattani in Pattani, Thailand and its tangible and intangible impacts, using a cause-effect "IBIL Model' with four catalysts: (1) Ideology of Media Organization (I), (2) Bad News Outsells Good One (B), (3) Influential Individuals as Major News Sources (I), and (4) Limitation of Time and Space (L). Content analysis of news reports and observation are used to collect data. The study reveals that as the "IBIL Model' suggests, news coverage on these two car bombings fall into all four factors, causing negative effects on both individuals and society. Four main findings are as follows: (1) regardless of paper classifications, almost all news items can be classified into "War Journalism" (WJ) category, with three WJ indicators of language use: emotive, demonizing and victimizing, (2) all papers place their emphasis on bad news, making sensational headlines to attract audience, (3) mass media rely heavily on influential individuals, high-ranking authorities in particular, as major news sources and therefore interpretations of government discourse to define problems are repeatedly re-produced, and (4) Due to limited time and space, media organizations do tend to give more time and space and pay more attention to more recent and daily events than to investigative news reporting.

©2013 The Authors.Publishedby ElsevierLtd.

Selectionand peer-review under responsibility of Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Keywords: news reporting, media effects, perception of Islam and Muslims, south Thailand insurgency, southern border provinces

1. Introduction

Conflict exists in any society. However, a conflict does not necessarily mean "violence." According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2010), the Asia-Pacific region is considered to have the most conflicts in terms of absolute numbers ranging from high intensity violent conflicts across Afghanistan and Pakistan through to violence and severe rioting in the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and Fiji. Increasingly

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +6-673-349-692; fax: +6-673-349-692. E-mail address: tnuwan@bunga.pn.psu.ac.th

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Universiti Sains Malaysia.

doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.438

intrastate conflicts are seen as a major challenge, with violence in Southern Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Philippines all related to sub-national requests for greater autonomy. Numerous studies were conducted on south Thailand insurgency, especially in the field of Journalism and Political Science. Most studies looked at how mass media reported violent incidents and possible effects while little has shown why media have covered the way they have. Additionally, recommendations from numerous studies have been proposed to all parties involved. However, that has not seemed to help alleviate the violence in the area. In contrast, the situation is getting more "protracted" and "complicated" (Jitpiromsri, 2012).

In the past almost nine years, most violence has involved shootings (government officials and civilians), arson and bombings (of government and civilians' premises and public places such as markets, stores). In short, previous violent incidents may have somehow had impacts at micro-economic level while recent ones purposely aimed to affect macro economy. Two car bomb incidents at Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel and C.S. Pattani Hotel were selected to study. The reasons to choose these two bombings are twofold. Firstly, both incidents occurred in 2012, making them most recent and interesting cases to investigate. Secondly, these two hotels have long represented two major tourist destinations in southern Thailand. What and how media report can and will shape audience's perceptions of people and things, possibly causing both tangible and intangible effects. This paper is hoped to make great contributions to all stakeholders involved: media professionals, government agencies, academics, business sector, and last but not least, general public as media audience.

2. Purpose of Study

The purpose of this paper is to analyze news reporting on two car bombings at two most well-known hotels in Hatyai and Pattani in March and July 2012 respectively and its tangible and intangible effects on both individuals and society. Yet it intends to investigate if the IBIL Model (Thapthiang, 2012) can help explain the phenomena. Most importantly, the paper tries to make contributions to all stakeholders as message senders and receivers.

3. Background

Thailand's southern border provinces include Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat, Satun and Songkla. South Thailand insurgency is an insurgency led by a group of local Muslim insurgents that is taking place in Southern Thailand, mostly in the Malay Pattani region and the three southernmost provinces of Thailand: Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat. Violence has increasingly spilled over into other provinces. Although separatist violence has occurred for decades in the region, the campaign escalated in January 2004 when over 400 riffles and other ammunition were stolen from Narathiwat Ratchanakarin military camp in Cho Airong district, Narathiwat (Bangkok Biz, January 4, 2012). According to the most recent report posted on November 2, 2012, in almost nine years (January 4, 2004 - September 30, 2012), there were 12,377 violent incidents (over 500 in August 2012 alone), claiming 5,377 lives and 9,513 injured (Jitpiromsri, 2012). Overall, the number of incidents has dropped, however, the extent of loss and damage has intensified (ISRA News, June 20, 2012, Jitpiromsri, 2012).

Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel is a 33-storey hotel, located in the heart of downtown Hatyai, only 20-minutes drive from Hatyai International Airport. It puts its guests in the center of Hatyai's exciting shopping, nightlife, culture and dining experiences (Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel's website). The hotel is well-known for and always occupied by Malaysian and Singaporean tourists as hundred of shops are located right beneath their guest rooms. A car bomb attack at Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel occurred in B3 level on Saturday March 31, 2012 at around 13:00, reportedly causing three lives, one of whom was a Malaysian, and over 300 injured. Shops were severely damaged. It took about two months for the hotel to resume its business while it took over six months for the

shops to re-open. Security has extremely been tighter as shop owners are only allowed to enter the building 1015 minutes before opening time and must leave immediately after the closing time. Smoke detectors are now linked to police office in Bangkok. All cars are more strictly checked before entering hotel's parking lot and all guests and their belongings must be scanned before going into the hotel building.

Opened in 1999 and owned by a senator, Anusart Suwanmongkol, C. S. Pattani Hotel, located in Muang district, Pattani, was designed to integrate the charming southern arts and culture along with the warm hospitality of people. It is the answer for all the seminars, meetings including all the banquets in and outside the hotel. C.S. Pattani Hotel offers guests with various types and sizes of rooms and halls which are equipped with modern technology for all levels whether for VIP guests or local and international levels seminars (C.S. Pattani Hotel's website). A powerful car bomb occurred near the back of the hotel on July 31, 2012 at around 18:50. The powerful explosion severely damaged parts of the hotel. A nearby power transformer was destroyed in the blast, causing a blackout which forced the hotel management to evacuate its guests as it was plunged into darkness. The blast also shattered the hotel windows. The hotel kitchen which was facing the car bomb site caught fire, which quickly spread to the upper floors of the hotel. Firefighters took more than an hour to control the blaze. One hotel guest on the seventh floor sustained a minor hand injury and at least three hotel staff members were injured by shattered glass (Bangkok Post, August 1, 2012).

4. Framework of Analysis and Modeling

This paper is an extended exploration of Thapthiang's synthesis research on analysis of news reporting on south Thailand insurgency (2012). The research looked into four different studies: (1) the direction of news reports on the southern border area between 1993 and 2005 (Arttanuchit, 2007), (2) "Peace Journalism" practice in news reporting on the south unrest (Changkamol, 2007), (3) media ideology and discourse on news reports on southern crisis in Thailand (Yaena, 2007) and (4) attitudes toward new reporting on the crisis and impacts of media coverage (Thapthiang, 2007). It is, therefore, important to discuss the findings in details.

The synthesis study reveals the following four main findings. First, during a 12-year period of 1993-2005, newspaper samples produced 1,500 news reports on three southernmost provinces: Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat. The quantity doubled between 2004 and 2005 while the quantity worsened. Violence and conflicted were found to be the most used news selection criteria. In addition, the size of news reports rose and the placement switched from the inside to the front page (Arttanuchit, 2007). Second, regardless of paper classification, all newspaper samples placed emphasis on "war journalism" with three indicators of language use: emotive, demonizing and victimizing. Of 232 selected news articles, 43 (18.53%) used "War Journalism" approach, whereas 169 (72.85%) "Peace Journalism" (PJ) and the rest (8.62%) fell into "neural" category. Among others, conflict and human interests appeared to be the most used news criteria when considering what to report (Changkamol, 2007). Third, an analysis of 3,521 news items, reported between January 2004 and December 2005, revealed that mass media had tendency to frame audience's perceptions by using languages in particular ways to construct discourses on different issues in the area. Use of verbs related to fire such as "flare" and "flame" was also considerably obvious. Additionally, media's growing tendency to "choose" to give precedence to the Government, politicians and government officials with regard to determining the root cause of the southern crisis and other situations in the area was evident. Media have definitely played a crucial role in sending out "ruling ideology" to the society. Therefore, discourses appeared in the texts are not only what is reported but also the "fighting tool" used by the influential and powerful government personnel to make their perceptions of the southern unrest socially accepted. Media have reproduced interpretations of government discourse to define problems. Thus, reflection of reality on the southern situation is presented through the discourse of "ruling class" (Yaena, 2007). Last, most informants agreed that to great extent mass media have failed to report news on southern violence efficiently and professionally, resulting in negative media reflections of Muslims and Islam, affecting both individuals (stereotype, fear and anxiety over one another) and society (religion, international misperception and national

security). The effects on both levels are, however, inevitably related and overlapping. Moreover, participants are in agreement that mass media have long ignored "public interest" and paid little attention to social integration and good tastes. Additionally, due to media professionals' lack of cultural diversity recognition, local Muslims have been treated with less respect (Thapthiang, 2012).

From the key findings discussed above, Nuwan Thapthiang (2012) originally designed and first presented a "Cause and Effect Model' to explain the pattern of news reporting on south Thailand insurgency and its effects. The model was later modified and is now called "IBIL Model" (Figure 1). IBIL Model explains causes and potential impacts on both individual and societal levels. As showed in Figure 1, "I" represents the "Ideology of Media Organization". Thapthiang (2012) puts this component as the first and most important factor as she agrees that news values are particularly important since they demonstrate organization ideology in terms of journalistic practices (Hall et al., 1978). Equally crucial, in addition to professional ideologies, the staffing and structure of the newspaper, and the moment of construction of the news story itself are organizational factors affecting news selection. Moreover, the professional ideology of news helps in easily identifying those qualities that constitute what is newsworthy (Hall et al., 1978, p. 54).

"B" is "Bad News Outsells Good One ", supporting Hall et al's view in that newsworthy items include "events which are concerned with elite persons or nations; events which are dramatic; events which can be personalized so as to point up the essentially human characteristics of humor, sadness, sentimentalism; events which have negative consequences and events which are part of, or can be made to appear part of an existing newsworthy theme" (1978, p. 53).

Another "I" is "Influential Individuals as Major News Sources", explaining what Poole (1999) observed; factors involved in the news production process include the predominance of elite media personnel, the news selections/gathering process, the continued persistence of news values, the privileging of elite news sources that constructs to marginalize alternative voices and the lack of ethnic reporters and understanding as well as processes of integration and constraint on ethic reporters. Additionally, news is a reproduction of the dominant ideology of leading groups in society (Poole, 1999).

Lastly, "L" stands for "Limitation of Time and Space" linking to what Hartmann and Husband's (1981) view; the nature of the news itself, the kind of production it generates, together with physical limitations of time and space, and the need to attract audiences, imposes constraints both on what events make the news and on the kind of treatment they receive. Like air time on electronic media such as television and radio, each newspaper can and only has limited space to cover what its editorial staff regard the most important and attention-catching stories.

Application of IBIL Model to Systematically Study Cause and Effect of Media Coverage

This paper uses IBIL Model to observe if the patterns of how mass media report southern unrest have changed at all since a research project, conducted to analyze news coverage between 1993 and 2005 (Lertpongsombat et al., 2007). The emphasis is particularly laid on two car bombs that occurred at the most famous hotels in Hatyai and Pattani, representing macro economy. News articles from major national newspapers were analyzed, using IBIL Model with its four factors. Additional information from observations and informal conversations with hotel customers and staff were also supplemented.

Four national newspapers were selected for analysis. Thairath and Daily News represent popular and sensation-oriented daily newspapers while Matichon and Siamrath fall in quality paper classification. Thairath and Matichon were chosen because they were samples in the synthesis study (Thapthiang, 2012). Two other papers Daily News and Siamrath were added in this paper, hoping to look into differences in media organization

ideology. Additionally, online news reports were included as a database for hardcopy version was not complete (some issues were not available). To be analyzed are news articles published in two one-week periods; (1) one week from the day each incident occurred and (2) another week after two weeks of the incidents. The intension was to see if and how much, within one month, these papers have done investigative journalism.

Individual A N Societal

Level ( IMPACTS /EFFECTS } Level

Victims

Audience/ Public

• Distress 8 Hatred

• Loss of trust of media

• Feeling of no support from Govt 8 media

■ Emotional

Desensitization

• Fear, Anxiety &

Distress

• Perception of

Unreliable Media

• Misperception of

Muslims & Islam

• One-sided/Biased Info

• Imitation of Action

Misperception of Islam 8 Muslims, Making Them Socially Unwelcome Minority

International Perception of

Incapable Government & National Security

Figure 1 IBIL Model of Cause and Effect of Media Coverage

Below are the periods of news items to be analyzed:

1. March 31, 2012 to April 7, 2012 (all news reports on car bomb at Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel, Hatyai)

2. April 22 - 30, 2012 (all news reports on car bomb at Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel)

3. July 31, 2012 to August 7, 2012 (all news reports on car bomb at C.S. Pattani Hotel)

4. August 22 - 31, 2012 (all news reports on a car bomb at C.S. Pattani Hotel)

5. Analysis Result

This section discusses results from analysis of news stories on two car bombings at Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel, Hatyai and C.S. Pattani Hotel, Thailand, using IBIT Model of causes and impacts of news coverage in four selected newspapers.

IBIL Causes

I - Ideology of Media Organization : When covering conflicts and violent incidents such as these two car explosions, it would be more interesting to classify whether each paper practices "War Journalism" (WJ) or "Peach Journalism" (PJ) as this is, among others, one aspect of how a given media organization practices. Consistent with Walakkamol's (2007) findings, regardless of classification, almost all news items in hardcopy fall in "War Journalism" (WJ) while only three reports can be classified as "Neutral" (N) and none exercised "Peace Journalism" (PJ). Three WJ indicators of language use: emotive, demonizing and victimizing are obviously emphasized. Interestingly, online news reports fall more on "Neutral" than WJ, yet none can be classified as PJ. This could be argued that hardcopy version of news articles have been processed and edited by editorial staff who have more time to edit and select what and how to cover in order to get more readers' attention. This finding supports what Hall et al. (1978) noted; news values are particularly important as they demonstrate organization ideology in terms of journalistic practices. Media houses play a significant role in shaping their audience's perceptions on events (Mhango, 2012).

Both in hardcopy and online forms, use of emotive and sensational words is apparent, particularly in front page headlines and inside leads. Such words include "southern militants", "gangsters", "south fire", "dare", "turmoil", "sabotage", etc. Demonizing labels like "terrorist" is also obvious. Photographs of destructions and the injured are also evidently prevalent. This suggests that these four media houses still use the same pattern to cover the two car bombings as they have used to report insurgency in southern Thailand, leading to second factor of B - "Bad news outsells good one" because media organization use it as their criteria for news value and selection.

B - Bad News Outsells Good One: Regardless of form, any bombing is definitely devastating, most likely causing great damage to either human beings and/or properties. Two car bombs at the most famous hotels are no exception. Undoubtedly, the explosions have negative consequences, making them newsworthy (Hall et al., 1978). Thairath has long held Thailand's biggest circulation and been well-known for soft news to attract readers' interest. Among others, bad and sensational coverage, generally generates public's curiosity, making them to find out more about events. The placement of two car explosions is mostly on the front page and made headlines, making it much easier to catch audience's attention. This supports what Croteau and Hoynes (2000) observed, the front-page story "identifies the editors' selection of the most important event of the day" which then influences "which stories will be the most visible" (p. 126).

Number of deaths and the injured is greatly emphasized both in the headlines, leads and body of news reports. The Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel car bombing caused three lives and more than 300 injured. Out of three deaths, one was Malaysian tourist, making the news more attention-grabbing. Additionally, linking the bombing at Lee Gardens Plaza to another violent in Yala that occurred on the same day not only aggravated the situation but also confused the readers as several papers added up the number of deaths and the inured in the same news reports, clearly shown in headlines and leads.

Exaggeration is another factor to worsen any crisis. Being well-known for both domestic and international tourists, the two hotels were expected to take at least a year for the business to recover, according to certain news reports. The first observation at Lee Gardens Plaza Hotel in September, six months after the bomb, proved otherwise. All tourists, shoppers, shop owners and hotel staff, who are aware of the incident showed no fear of being in the building. A few shop owners appeared very confident about the hotel's much tighter security system.

I - Influential Individuals as Main News Sources: - These two car bombs could be perfect examples in that newspapers rely heavily on influential individuals as news sources. This is more obvious in Lee Gardens Hotel case than in C.S. Pattani bombing. This could be due mainly to the fact that C.S. Pattani hotel owner is a senator himself. Moreover, Pattani has encountered various forms of violence almost daily while Hatyai only faced a few previous aggressive incidents.

Most direct and indirect quotes are from high-ranking military personnel, governors and police chiefs while a few from the hotel owners as victims and very little from those in the incidents. One conversation with a Thai victim of Lee Gardens incident indicates that a high-ranking official either unintentionally or intentionally gave inaccurate information about the cause of incident. Evidently, powerful people speak more loudly than ordinary individuals do although in most cases the latter are victims of violence. This suggests that interpretations of government discourse to define problems are repeatedly re-produced. As a result, reflection of reality on the southern situation is presented through the discourse of "ruling class" (Yaena, 2007).

L - Limitation of Time and Space: Generally, each paper has deadlines to meet. Time limitation in news production inevitably forces newspapers to work quickly. It is the editors and/or the journalists that decide what to leave out or what to include in the news casts and in so doing they champion certain things (Mhango, 2012). For online version, despite less process of news production involved, reporters have less time to verify details of incidents. Interestingly, Daily News electronically reported Lee Gardens bombing at 13:33, only about 33 minutes after the bomb exploded. Thairath posted its first online version at 20:15 and is the only paper to electronically report C.S. Pattani bombing at 23:45, 4.5 hours after the explosion.

Most importantly, there are numerous discrepancies in reported details on bombings. The following are a few examples. Despite in the same issue of Daily News, one news item reported that the car bomb at Lee Gardens Plaza claimed three lives while the other reported five deaths. Next example is that Thairath reported "Honda Civic" while Daily News stated "Honda Jazz" was used as the bombing car. Another example is that the location of Lee Gardens' car bomb was reported being hidden in a car, parked on two different spots. Online news coverage, although reach audience more quickly, is limited to verifying information received.

Table 1

Cause-Effect of News Reporting on Car Bombings in Hatyai and Pattani by IBIL Model

Causes Effects/Impacts

Individual Level Societal Level

Victims Audience/Public Victims Audience/Public

Ideology of media orgz. 1. "War Journalism" oriented reporting (i.e. Muslims as terrorists, southern militants, gangsters, south fire) 2. Unfair treatment (i.e. due to lack of cultural diversity recognition) 3. Reproduction of emotive, demonizing & victimizing messages (as above) • Distress • Loss of trust of media • Hatred • Damage of micro economy • Misperception of local Muslims / southerners and their region • Un/Misinformed public • One-sided / biased information • Lack of sympathy (emotional desensitization) • Possible imitation of action • Distress, fear, anxiety • Damage of macro economy • Loss of trust of media • Socially unwelcome minority • Damage of macro economy • Misperception of local Muslims / southerners and their region • Un/Misinformed public • One-sided / biased information • Lack of sympathy (emotional desensitization) • Possible imitation of action • Distress, fear, anxiety

Bad news outsells good one 4. Sensational headlines / photographs (i.e. fire, sabotage, southern militants, gangsters) 5. Emphasis on number of deaths & injured 6. Exaggerating messages • Distress • Loss of trust of media • Hatred • Damage of micro economy • Misperception of local Muslims / southerners and their region • Perception of incapable govt. • Un/Misinformed public • One-sided / biased information • Distress, fear, anxiety • Damage of macro economy • Loss of trust of media • Socially unwelcome minority • Damage of macro economy • International perception of incapable govt. & national security • Neg. image of community • Un/Misinformed public • Lack of sympathy (emotional desensitization) • Distress, fear, anxiety

Influential individuals as sources of info 7. Direct & indirect quotes of high-ranking authorities, reproducing interpretation of their discourse • Loss of trust of govt. • Distress • Hatred • Un/Misinformed public • One-sided / biased information • Negative perception of media • Loss of trust of govt. • Distress • Hatred • Socially unwelcome minority • Un/Misinformed public • One-sided / biased information • Negative perception of media

Limitation of time & space 8. No further investigative reporting 9. Discrepancies of info (i.e. number of deaths, injured, location) • Distress • Loss of trust of media • Feeling of lack of support from media & Govt. • Damage of micro economy • Misperception of local Muslims / southerners and their region • Un/Misinformed public • One-sided / biased information • Distress, fear, anxiety • Distress • Loss of trust of media • Feeling of lack of support from media & Govt. • Damage of macro economy • Misperception of local Muslims / southerners and their region • Un/Misinformed public • One-sided / biased information • Distress, fear, anxiety • Negative perception of media

In addition, in less than a month, there are no further investigations in the aftermath of the explosions. There appear news reports only on April 22 and August 24, making references to the hotel bomb incidents. The former involves several other violent incidents, taking place on April 20 in Narathiwat and Pattani, particularly extrajudicial killing of five suspects. The former deals with Honda Cars Pattani, owned by the same business man as C.S. Pattani, being seriously attacked on August 22 when fifteen brand new cars were completely set on fire. These news articles do not directly involve the Hadyai and Pattani hotel car bombings, rather they deal with other violent incidents. This suggests that media organizations do tend to give more time and space and pay more attention to more recent and daily events than to investigative news reporting.

Effects/Impacts

As another aspect of the IBIL Model, this part deals directly with effects of news reporting on both individual and societal levels. What and how news organizations portrayed the two bombings has worsened the situation. This paper clearly demonstrates that Muslims are repeatedly portrayed as "terrorists" or "insurgents," working harder and more efficiently against the Government's power. Media reproduction of such perception has long shaped audiences' perceptions of Muslims and Islam as a whole (Mhango, 2012). Mass media exercising "War Journalism" practice inevitably damaged the economy of the two southern capitals at macro level. Media portrayals of incidents also cause international perception of national security.

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

Despite different classifications, how quantity and quality papers have reported the two car bomb incidents does not differ. Over the years, how national newspapers practice their news reporting of violence and conflict in south Thailand remains unchanged while despite the fact that there have been an increasing number of news reporters in such conflict affected region. The analysis of this paper proves that media shape audiences' perception of world events by way of their agenda-setting position, by framing, by priming and by cultivating beliefs. The media, which according to Stuart Hall are vehicles of those in power, take advantage of the fact that audiences trust them to sell the same unsuspecting audiences ideology (Mhango, 2012).

Because this paper is only the first step to replicate analysis of news reporting of violence and conflict in southernmost part of Thailand, using IBIL Model, further exploration is needed using different approaches. Additionally, IBIL Model can and should be used to investigate different circumstances in order to see if it can help explain how mass media exercise their journalistic functions or if it should be modified according to specific situations.

Last but not least, this paper is hoped to make great contributions to major different stakeholders, namely mass media, academics, state agencies and the public. It encourages the media to be more responsible while promoting media literacy to the public. It has been clear that no one organization can and should act alone in restoring peace back to the southernmost region, rather they must work closely together. Academic institutions can provide media professions with proper trainings. As part of educational services, they should organize workshops and seminar and carry out studies in the field with collaborations with media organizations as message senders who can and do shape audience's perceptions. In addition, together they should develop "Conflict News Reporting Guideline" and "Media Literacy Manual". While the public need to learn how to be media literate, the Government should listen to and pay more attention to what the locals, the victims in particular, have to say in order to alleviate the situation.

References

Artthanuchit, J. (2007). News development in the three southernmost provinces. Pattani: Faculty of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University

Changkamol, W. (2007). Peace journalism: Ethics, management and suggestions for development. Pattani: Faculty of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University.

Hall, S; Critcher, C; Jefferson, T; Clarke, J., & Roberts, B. (1978). Policing the

srisis: Mugging, the state, and the law and order. London: Edward Arnold.

Jitpiromsri, S. (2012). The ninth month of the ninth year: A complicated violence, a moving forward of Pattani Peace Process. [Online]. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www.deepsouthwatch.org/node/3670

Lertpongsombat, I., Changkamol, W., Artthanuchit, J., Buaniew, A., Thapthiang, N., Yaena, S., Boonperm, J., Binsaleh, S., Abdulwahub, P., Preechaweerakul, S., & Surutiprom, W. (2007). Information technology and mass communication for national peacefulness. Pattani: Faculty of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University.

McGoldric, A., & Lynch, J. (2000). Peace journalism — How to do it. [Online]. Retrieved June 15, 2006, from Available http://www.mediachannel.org/originals/warandpeace2.shtml

Mhango, B. (2012). How the media shape your perceptions of world affairs: You are what the media says you are. [Online]. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://voices.yahoo.com/how-media-shape-perceptions-world-affairs-10567253.html

Thapthiang, N. (2007). Effect of mass media: Attitudes of people in the three southernmost provinces towards news coverage on violent crises. Pattani: Faculty of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University

Thapthiang, N. (2012). Analysis of news reporting on south Thailand insurgency: What has been "in" and what has been "out"? And what should be next? Research Report. Pattani: Faculty of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University

Yaena, S. (2007). Representation, ideology and discourse of news media on the southern situation of Thailand. Pattani: Faculty of Communication Sciences, Prince of Songkla University

UNDP (2010). Local governance and basic service delivery in conflict affected area. Final draft (February, 2010). Bangkok: Thailand

Acknowledgement

The author would like to sincerely thank Assoc. Prof. Imjit Lertpongsombat for her academic advice as well as moral support throughout the study process.