Scholarly article on topic 'Synthesis of Biodiesel from Second-Used Cooking Oil'

Synthesis of Biodiesel from Second-Used Cooking Oil Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Wanodya Asri Kawentar, Arief Budiman

Abstract These days, many used cooking oils from restaurants were re-used by street sellers to fry their food. Those waste oils commonly just throw away. Whereas waste oils which have not any treatment first, will pollute the environment. One of the ways to treat the waste oil is by converting to biodiesel. This research aimed to study the kinetic reaction of second-used cooking oil transesterification into biodiesel and find the optimum condition of its process. This research was done by transesterification reaction in batch reactor. The feedstock was collected from the street sellers in Yogyakarta. Methanol was used as a reactant and KOH was used as a base catalyst. The study parameters were temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, and catalyst concentration. Several types of analysis used were free glycerol analysis, total glycerol analysis, free fatty acid (FFA) analysis, and saponification analysis. These analyses were used to calculate the yield of conversion and ester content of biodiesel sample. From this research, it is found that the kinetic reaction of second-used cooking oil transesterification can be expressed by k = 0.0251exp (-15.29/RT) dm3/(mol.min). The optimum condition (the ester content 92.76%) of biodiesel production were obtained at temperature 66.5oC, molar ratio of methanol to oil 6.18:1, and 1 wt.% KOH.

Academic research paper on topic "Synthesis of Biodiesel from Second-Used Cooking Oil"

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Energy Procedia 32 (2013) 190- 199

International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application

[ICSEEA 2012]

Synthesis of biodiesel from second-used cooking oil

Wanodya Asri Kawentara and Arief Budimanb*

a Master Program of System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia _bChemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia_

Abstract

These days, many used cooking oils from restaurants were re-used by street sellers to fry their food. Those waste oils commonly just throw away. Whereas waste oils which have not any treatment first, will pollute the environment. One of the ways to treat the waste oil is by converting to biodiesel. This research aimed to study the kinetic reaction of second-used cooking oil transesterification into biodiesel and find the optimum condition of its process. This research was done by transesterification reaction in batch reactor. The feedstock was collected from the street sellers in Yogyakarta. Methanol was used as a reactant and KOH was used as a base catalyst. The study parameters were temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, and catalyst concentration. Several types of analysis used were free glycerol analysis, total glycerol analysis, free fatty acid (FFA) analysis, and saponification analysis. These analyses were used to calculate the yield of conversion and ester content of biodiesel sample. From this research, it is found that the kinetic reaction of second-used cooking oil transesterification can be expressed by k = 0.0251exp (-15.29/RT) dm3/(mol.min). The optimum condition (the ester content 92.76 %) of biodiesel production were obtained at temperature 66.5oC, molar ratio of methanol to oil 6.18:1, and 1 wt.% KOH.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by EEl sevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Research Centre for Ele utrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonnsian Institute of Sciences.

Keywords: Biodiesel; second-used cooking oil; transesterification; reaction kinetic.

1. Introduction

Yogyakarta has many potential of waste or used cooking oil. There are two types of used cooking that are produced and used in Yogyakarta, i.e., first- and second-used cooking oils. First-used cooking oil

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62-274-902171; fax: +62-274-902170. E-mail address: abudiman@chemeng.ugm.ac.id

1876-6102 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. doi: 10.1016/j .egypro .2013.05.025

refers to waste oil from fresh vegetable oil and commonly produced by fast food restaurants. Whereas, second-used cooking oil is waste oil from first-used cooking oil and commonly produced by food street sellers. Nowadays, this oil usually just throws away without any treatment. So, it will pollute the environment if we just ignore it.

One of alternatives to treat this second-used cooking oil is by converting into biodiesel. This alternative will not environmentally benefit but also economically. Waste cooking oil is a promising alternative for producing biodiesel because it is a cheaper raw material that also avoids the cost of waste product disposal and treatment [1]. Besides, it reduces the need to use land for biodiesel-producing crops. But, these used frying oils have different properties from those of refined and crude vegetable oils. The presence of heat and water accelerates the hydrolysis of triglycerides and increases the content of free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil [2]. Biodiesel from waste cooking oils (WCO) or used frying oils (UFO) has been recently investigated. The optimum conditions for biodiesel production (methanol/oils ratio and concentration of catalyst) are inconsistent. They strongly depend on the properties of WCO [3]. The most common way to produce biodiesel is by transesterification which refers to a catalyzed chemical reaction involving vegetable oil and an alcohol to yield fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerol, it can be seen in reaction (1) [4].

Many researches had been done to convert WCO into biodiesel, but all of those researches were only focus on first-used cooking oil feedstock. The potential of second-used cooking oil had never been studied. So, it is important to study the synthesis of biodiesel from this type of oil.

1.1. Transesterification of waste cooking oil

It has been reported that, transesterification process depends on several parameters which are reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time, rate of agitation, type of alcohol used and molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type and concentration of catalyst used and concentration of moisture and FFA in the feed oil. The optimal values of these parameters for attaining highest conversion largely depend on the physical and chemical properties of the feedstock oil [5].

Currently, biodiesel is commonly produced using homogeneous base catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. These catalysts are commonly used in the industries due to several reasons: (i) able to catalyze reaction at low reaction temperature and atmospheric pressure; (ii) high conversion can be achieved in a minimal time, (iii) widely available and economical. However, the use of this catalyst is limited only for refined vegetable oil with less than 0.5 wt.% FFA or acid value less than 1 mg KOH/g [6]. Some researchers reported that base catalyst can tolerate higher content of FFA as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Level of FFA recommended for homogeneous base catalyst transesterification*

References FFA (wt.%)

Ma and Hanna (1999) < 1

Ramadhas et al (2005) < 2

Zhang et al (2003) < 0,5

Freedman et al (1984) < 1

Kumar Tiwari et al (2007) < 1

Sahoo et al (2007) < 2

*Source: [6]

The rate of transesterification is strongly influenced by the reaction temperature. It is already established that in most of the cases, the reaction temperature is kept close to the boiling point of methanol, if methanol is used as the alcohol at atmospheric pressure. In the transesterification of UFO [7] using NaOH/MeOH solution the reaction temperature maintained was 65oC. In another investigation, Zang et al [8] carried out transesterification of waste cooking oil successfully using methanol at 60oC under elevated pressure of 400 kPa. Srivastava and Prasad [9] mentioned that the maximum yield of esters occurs at temperatures ranging between 60 and 80oC at a molar ratio of alcohol to oil 6:1.

Another important parameter which has tremendous influence on the yield of ester is the molar ratio of alcohol to oil. In most of the industrial processes of biodiesel synthesis a molar ratio of alcohol to oil used is 6:1 [5]. Encinar et al [10] reported that alkali catalysts used in transesterification can be potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide or alkali methoxides. However, potassium hydroxide was considered as a best catalyst for transesterification of used frying oils.

Tomasevic and Siler-Marinkovic [11] reported the result of transesterification of used sunflower oil (acid value 4) with methanol, using KOH and NaOH as catalysts at 4.5:1, 6:1 and 9:1 molar ratios of methanol to oil. Transesterification reaction conditions that affect yield and purity of the product esters such as oil quality, molar ratio of methanol to oil, type and concentration of alkaline catalyst, temperature and reaction time were examined. It was observed that biodiesel of good quality could be obtained from used frying oil in reaction conditions: molar ratio of methanol to oil 6:1, with 1% KOH, temperature at 25oC and reaction time of 30 min. It was concluded that increase in the quality of a catalyst as well as in molar ratio did not change the yield and the quality of the esters.

Rao et al [12] prepared fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by alkali-catalyzed transesterification from used sunflower with low FFA. The transesterification process was carried out with methanol in the presence of KOH catalyst. The reaction temperature was 55oC for duration of 2 h. The process parameters were experimentally optimized but with no details were given in the report.

Recently, Reefat et al [13] reported the results of their studies on the variables affecting the yield and characteristics of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil. The transesterification process was carried out with KOH and NaOH as catalysts at two concentrations (0.5% and 1.0% w/w), two reaction temperatures (25 and 65oC) and three methanol/oil molar ratios (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1). Higher yields of biodiesel were reported with KOH. The results showed that the best yield percentage was obtained using methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, KOH as catalyst (1% concentration) and temperature of 65oC.

Dorado et al [14] compared the catalytic activities of NaOH and KOH for the transesterification of waste cooking oil with FFA content of 2.76 and concluded that the KOH transesterification proceeds faster than NaOH-catalyzed reaction. KOH has been considered as a best catalyst for transesterification of used cooking oils. Hence, many researchers have used it for the transesterification of waste cooking oil.

1. Reactor

2. Magnetic hot plate

stirrer

3. Erlenmeyer

4. Condenser

5. Thermometer

6. Heater

7. Sampling equipment

8. Static

lli.®

Fig. 1. Transesterification batch reactor

Many researches had been done to study the kinetic reaction of vegetable oil transesterification. Darnoko and Cheryan [15] have developed the mathematic model for kinetic reaction of transesterification. The model is called pseudo second-order model. The research was done in batch reactor with palm oil as a feedstock, methanol, and KOH as a catalyst. For triglyceride reaction, the mathematic equation is:

2. Research methodology

2.1. Materials and equipments

Second-used cooking oil used in the research was obtained from street sellers in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia. Prior using the oil for biodiesel production, it was filtered and precipitated. The characteristic of second-used cooking oil is summarized in Table 2. Methanol was used as alcohol for the transesterification reaction. KOH was used as base catalyst.

Transesterification reactions were performed in a batch reactor, as shown in fig. 1. The reaction set-up included a 500 ml glass vessel equipped with thermometer and water cooled condenser. A magnetic hot plate stirrer provides the heat and mixing requirement. The reaction were varied from temperature 50 to 66.5on, volume ratio of oil to methanol 220:30 to 170:80 and catalyst concentration 1 - 4 wt.% KOH. After 60 minute reaction, the mixture was cooled at the room temperature. The reaction time of 60 minute was selected based on the preliminary study result. It was found that 60 minute is enough to reach the optimum yield. The two layers were separated by sedimentation and the upper layer was analyzed.

2.2. Transesterification methods

Procedures for making biodiesel with direct transesterification in batch reactor were: put the oil into the glass flask accordance with the molar ratio that would be used. Scale the KOH catalyst accordance with the catalyst concentration that would be used. Put the methanol into the erlenmeyer 250 ml accordance

-d[TG]/dt = kTG [TG]

with the molar ratio that would be used. Put the KOH into the erlenmeyer filled with methanol and stirred until perfectly dissolved. Move this solution into the erlenmeyer that was attached to the batch reactor. Start to heat the oil and catalyzed-methanol solution. The heating of the oil followed with stirring with magnetic stirrer. After the oil and the methanol reach the temperature that would be analyzed, mix the catalyzed-methanol solution into the glass flask filled with the waste oil. Control the temperature in order to keep it constant during the reaction. After t minute of reaction, turn off the stirrer and the heat. Move the mixture into the separator funnel, leave it for a day so the mixture would perfectly separated and form 2 layers. The upper layer was biodiesel (methyl ester), and the bottom layer was glycerin. Separate the biodiesel from the glycerin and then analyzed the sample of the biodiesel product.

2.3. The method of analysis product and raw material

There were used some methods for analyzing the product and raw material, which is FFA analysis, saponification analysis, free glycerol analysis and total glycerol analysis. Those types of analyses were done by titration method. The FFA analysis for the raw material was done to investigate whether it can be used direct transesterification to convert the oil into biodiesel. In preliminary study, the free glycerol and total glycerol analyses were used to calculate the conversion of biodiesel. The calculation can be done by equation (3), where bound glycerol = total glycerol - free glycerol.

Biodiesel Conversion = (Initial bound glycerol-final bound glycerol)/(initial bound glycerol)

In the main research, the FFA analysis, saponification analysis, and total glycerol analysis were used to calculate the ester content for all the sample product, by using equation (4). As is saponification value (mg KOH/g biodiesel), Aa is FFA value (mg KOH/g biodiesel), and Gtti is total glycerol in biodiesel (wt.%).

^ /n/ x 100(A-A- 18,29Gttl)

Estercontent(%- w) =--s a ttu

As (4)

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Analyses of raw material

Based on the analyses that have been done, the characteristics of raw material can be seen in Tables 2. Because of FFA less than 1%, the feedstock can be transesterified with an alkali catalyst without any pre-treatment step.

Table 2. The characteristics of second-used cooking oil

Type of Analyses Value Unit Method

Density 0.9000 g/ml measurement

Free fatty acid (FFA) 0.8200 % titration

Saponification value 192.1425 mg KOH/g oil titration

Free glycerol 0.0054 %-b titration

Total glycerol 0.9057 %-b titration

Bound glycerol 0.9002 %-b titration

o 20 40 60 ao ioo

time (minute)

Fig. 2. The effect of reaction time to the biodiesel conversion

3.2. Preliminary study

This preliminary study was done to find the optimum reaction time, with the characteristics of oil to methanol volume ratio 170:80, catalyst concentration 1 wt.% KOH, and temperature range between 64-67oC. It was a little difficult to keep the temperature constant because electrical regulator was used as a temperature controller which had a heat source from magnetic hot plat stirrer. Samples were taken as much as 5 times at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90 minute. Then, all the samples were analyzed with the free glycerol and total glycerol analyses to calculate the biodiesel conversion. The calculations can be done by equation (3). The graphic of analysis can be seen in fig.2. It was seen that in 60 minute, the biodiesel conversion started constant so the optimum reaction time that would be used in this research was 60 minute.

3.3. The effect of temperature

This research was done in oil to methanol volume ratio 170:80, catalyst concentration 1 wt.% KOH, and reaction time 60 minute. The research was done with temperature variation in 50, 60, and 66.5oC as the maximum temperature that can be reaching in the reaction. Then, all the samples were analyzed with FFA analysis, saponification analysis, and total glycerol analysis to calculate the value of ester content. The calculation can be done by equation (4). The graphic of relation between temperature and the ester content can be seen in Fig.3. From fig.3, we can see that the increase in temperature will make a little increase in the ester content of product. The effect of temperature (x) to the ester content (y) can be described in mathematic equation by:

y = 0.036x + 90.19

91.0 J-1-,-,-1-1-1

40 45 50 55 60 65 70

Temperature ("C)

Fig. 3. The effect of temperature to the ester content of product

Table 3. Reaction rate constant (k) at different temperatures

Temp (oC) TGo (mol/dm3) x TG (mol/dm3) kTG (wt%.min)-1 ln k 1/T (K-1)

50 0.6800 0.9200 0.3763 0.0198 -3.9228 0.0031

60 0.6800 0.9230 0.3754 0.0199 -3.9180 0.0030

66.5 0.6800 0.9270 0.3742 0.0200 -3.9108 0.0029

with the relative error range between 0.054 - 0.078 %. From the result of ester content, we can calculate the kinetic reaction with the reaction rate constant as follow:

kTG .t = 1/ [TG]-1/ [TG0] kro= -M [TG]-1/ [TG0]}

where, TG = TG0 - 0.33 x. The result of calculation for the reaction rate constant (kTG) can be seen in Table 3.

The reaction rate constant (k) is expressed by Arrhenius equation:

k = Ae~Ea/RT

where A (Arrhenius factor) and Ea (activation energy) is calculated by making a plot between ln k and 1/T.

From fig. 4, we can get the linier equation:

y = —77.65 x-3.68

By substituting the linear equation from graphic plot into the logarithmic equation of (7), we can calculate A and Ea. Finally, we can get the reaction rate equation for the transesterification of second-used cooking oil as follow:

k = 0.025exp(—154.29/ RT) dm3/(mol.min)

Fig. 4. Arrhenms graphic

Fig. 5. The effect of molar ratio to the ester content

3.4. The effect of molar ratio

This experiment was done in temperature 65oC, catalyst concentration 1 wt.% KOH, and reaction time 60 minute. The research was done not in an optimal temperature in order to make it easier to control the stability of temperature. The research was done in oil to methanol volume ratio 220:30, 210:40, 200:50, 190:60, 180:70, and 170:80. All the samples were analyzed with FFA analysis, saponification analysis, and total glycerol analysis to calculate the value of ester content. The calculation can be done by equation (4). The graphic of relation between molar ratio and the ester content can be seen in fig.5. In this graphic, the variations of valume ratio were converted into molar ratio, so it can be easier to compare with other research.

The highest ester content is in molar ratio 1:6.18. This result is similar with the experiment that has been done by [11] and [13]. The effect of molar ratio to the ester content is almost constant. The effect of molar ratio (x) to the ester content (y) can be described in mathematic equation by:

y = -0.02x2 +0.25x + 91.91

with the relative error range between 0.02 - 0.10 %.

3.5. The effect of catalyst concentration

This experiment was done at temperature 65oC, oil to methanol volume ratio 200:50 (molar ratio 1: 6.18) and reaction time 60 minute. The research was done in catalyst concentration 1, 2, 3, and 4%. The graphic of relation between catalyst concentration and the ester content can be seen in fig. 6.

Fig. 6. The effect of catalyst concentration to the ester content

Table 4. ASTM analyses for biodiesel product from second-used cooking oil

No. Type of Analyses Unit Result SNI Biodiesel

1 Specific Gravity at 60/60 oF kg/m3 877 850 - 890

2 Viscosity Kinematic at 40oC mm2/s 4,971 2,3 - 6

3 Flash Point PM.cc. oC 180,5 min. 100

4 Pour Point oC 3 maks. 18

From fig. 6, we can see that the graphic plot is almost constant with a little decrease. The effect of catalyst concentration (x) to the ester content (y) can be expressed in mathematic equation by:

y = -0.031x + 92.74

with the relative error range between 0.01 - 0.15 %.

The graphic plot that almost constant in molar ratio and catalyst concentration is also similar to the experiment that has been done by Tomasevic and Siler-Marinkovic [11]. They said that there was no effect in molar ratio and catalyst concentration difference to the yield of biodiesel production.

3.6. Product analyses

After we get the product of biodiesel from various parameter condition, the product should be washed first before analyzed. The product was analyzed with the ASTM methods, with only four types of analyses which are specific gravity, viscosity kinematic, flash point, and pour point, as shown in Table 4. These analyses were done at Petroleum, Gas, and Coal Technologies Laboratory in Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia

From Table 4, we can see that the biodiesel product is appropriate with the Indonesian Standard of Biodiesel (SNI 04-7182-2006).

4. Conclusions

The conclusions of this study are:

• The kinetic reaction of second-used cooking oil transesterification can be expressed by: k = 0.0251exp (-15.29/RT) dm3/(mol.min)

• The optimum condition (the ester content 92.76%) of biodiesel production were obtained at temperature 66.5oC, molar ratio of methanol to oil 6.18:1, and 1 wt.% of catalyst concentration.

• The biodiesel product from second-used cooking oil is appropriate with the Indonesian Standard of Biodiesel, with Specific Gravity 877 kg/m3, Viscosity Kinematic 4.971 mm2/s, Flash Point 180.5oC, and Pour Point 3oC.

Acknowledgements

We thank to Tya Indah Arifta, Dyah Retno Sawitri, and Mr. Sutaryo in Process System Engineering (PSE) research group, Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University for their help during the experiment.

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